Critical Examination of Leadership Ideas and Assessing Links

An company is comprised of a large set of individuals, working collectively to achieve a given common goal. The concrete organisational platform is based upon specified principles and positive culture escorted by charismatic leaders that are required to comprehend their roles and tasks towards both the employees and the company. A positive work place is made up of intellectual and enigmatic leaders that have confidence in empowering employees and appreciate their lively participation in the development of the business (Balain, and Sparrow 2009, p. 227). The idea of leadership is generated to monitor the behavioural habits of employees including and inspire them to enhance their loyalty on the organisation. The behavioural habits of employees greatly change depending after their specific circumstances and therefore, it is extremely critical for the leaders to develop an empathetic approach towards resolving the problems of employees and to motivate them for effective contribution to attain the organisational objectives. It's the responsibility of the organisational leaders to build up challenging but possible goals and boost the team spirit among the employees to accomplish maximum organisational efficiency (Knight, Durham and Locke 2001, p. 329). There could be diverse selection of motivational factors that may influence an individual's conviction and the effective leaders be capable of select those factors to persuade the employees to enhance organisational growth and maximise its efficiency (Choi 2006, p. 26). This paper is intended to analyse the role of management and employee determination in long-term organisational success by critical analysis of the theoretical underpinnings of the subject. The theory is to represent the behavioural habits of both the leaders and employees by knowing the need for employee desire and understanding the role of market leaders to optimistically incite the employees in the best interest of the company (Knight, Durham and Locke 2001, p. 335). The main objective of this newspaper is to explicate the functional top features of an organisation in which the role of leadership becomes extremely significant in order to develop smart staff motivational ways of ensure their satisfaction and in so doing, producing constructive employee's attitudes to preserve long term organisational success.


Routine official work place has several issues and issues which are required to be sorted with utter intelligence and persistence. Organisational structure is extremely sophisticated including diverse dynamics of employees and therefore, the role of leader becomes extremely significant to keep up a good and constructive work area (Hamlin 2002). Essentially the most integral aspect of a leader's personality is the understanding towards responsibilities and willingness to battle with challenges and challenges. Not all managers may become effective market leaders (Knight, Durham and Locke 2001, p. 335) as the complex organisational framework and diversity of employees helps it be difficult to realize the dynamics of key motivating factors that help in enhanced organisational productivity. The globalised work place of today is made up of organisations having employees coming from different backgrounds, speaking diversified languages and experienced in varying selection of skills and therefore, leaders today, are not only required to focus on task fulfillment but must also treat the employee's goals by participating them as effectively contributing person in the organisation. Employees look upon their organisational leaders as a trainer who allows them to comprehend and perform their job in appropriate manner (Hamlin 2002). Employees expect their market leaders to effectively connect and escort them to prevail over the work-related issues and obstructions by motivational skills. The idea of leadership is based upon the combination of personality, ideologies, intellect, inspiration and trust (Balain, and Sparrow 2009, p. 228). Organisations endeavour fiscal progress and productivity that can be achieved by progressive employees followed by a charismatic innovator. It really is significant for the organisational market leaders to recruit maximum quantity of followers as well as for that, leaders through their personal allure, ideologies and intellect gain trust of employees and stimulate them to perform organisational goals (Kaplan and Norton 2004, p. 37). Lasting organisational success is highly centered upon leadership and employee drive. It's been studied that, to be able to achieve long-term organisational success, market leaders must gain trust of employees and stimulate them (Baldoni, 2005, p. 175). The unique qualities encompassing brilliance in performance and management skills ascertain the organisational market leaders. The ability to envision, empathise, and empower will be the three key components that determine the charismatic attribute of a leader. Envisioning behaviour of any leader affects other organisational customers by stimulating a need to accomplish and the empathic behaviour facilitate the enthusiasts to gel with their leader predicated on ideological affiliations (Choi, 2006, p. 41).


Leaders will be the symbol of ideologies that are accompanied by others and organisations acquire remarkable expansion and success by integrating charismatic authority within their work place. Interaction of market leaders with the fans tends to develop a positive and highly determined work place which eventually results in the organisational success (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 27). The six most essential leadership ideas have been critically analysed to understand the reason why behind advanced performance levels which improves the monetary and organisational power.

Great Man Theory

The theoretical model of Great Man theory was based on a opinion that the authority is confine and then the aristocratic people that are destined to escort the rest. Formerly the people owned by upper-class were cared for in another way and were viewed upon by others anticipated to specific attributes they posses or the exceptional standard of living they enjoyed. It had been presumed that only a restricted number of men and women were distinctively gifted with certain capabilities and characteristics that managed to get possible for them to be leaders and the others are meant to follow them (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 32). The most critical element of the Great Man theory was the blind conviction in the leadership of aristocratic people and tightly believing that the features of leadership can never be inherited, developed, learnt, or acquired (Baldoni, 2005, p. 179), which limited the scope of leadership. The word 'Great Man' itself has a restricted opportunity as the theoretical model is mostly male, military and west focused. While analysing the trend of intrinsic supremacy of the fantastic Man theory, it is indeed true that there are certain men having some congenital capacity to influence over their contemporaries, substantiating their right to leadership however, the concept of restricting the headship to a group of aristocratic is inequitable (Choi 2006, p. 42). If the Great Man model is applied to the modern day organisational structure, it might produce unconstructive results as the diversification of employee's track record, languages, skills and specific circumstance has given climb to a much perplexed work place where aristocratic aspect of Great Man theory would develop pessimism amongst employees. The globalised characteristics of work place has developed a variety of employees that are a lot more aware, educated, skilful and capable (Hamlin 2002). Employees today do not necessarily be quite happy with handsome remuneration bundle instead they anticipate professional growth and improved opportunities. THE FANTASTIC Man theoretical model will not address the leads and goals of existing organisational labor force as it is limited to offer command opportunities to aristocratic group of people only. Accompanied by the Great Man theoretical model which advocates the innate superiority, the exceptional attributes, qualities and capabilities of the market leaders were explored and because of this of which Trait Theory originated.

Trait Theories

The Trait Theories were developed with an objective of determining the key characteristics of market leaders that added towards organisational success. The theory was submit with intent to help in the organisations in the recognition of key attributes, qualities and capabilities of leaders so the correct set of people can be recruited and installed into authority positions of the company. There are a variety of leadership qualities determined by several studies including adaptability, decisiveness, co-operation, dependability, assertiveness, perseverance, self-confidence (Wheatley 2001, p. 92) however, it has been observed that there surely is no quantifiable means to identify management characteristics and there are no constant set of characteristics that may support the concept of a true head (Baldoni, 2005, p. 212). Humans have numerous negative and positive attributes that are sensible in shaping up the entire personality of an individual. All market leaders posses the common quality to influence others however, the set of fundamental traits that allows them to dominate over their contemporaries might substantially differ (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 37). It has been studied that the universal qualities of an leader such as charismatic personality, sociability and intellect are not limited by themselves only instead the most commonly held qualities of leaders may also be distributed by diverse group of men and women which do definitely not become leaders. On the other hand, generic features of the leaders might be similar however, the lack of some of these generic characteristics do not make them any less innovator. There's been somewhat uniformity in the generic traits of market leaders that may include administrative skills, decisiveness, responsiveness and astuteness which enables these to ensure enhanced organisational productivity. It has been argued that there surely is the likelihood of prominent leaders being gifted by few common attributes nevertheless; it is practically impracticable that leaders present a collective group of characteristics (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 39) and therefore, the Characteristic Theory didn't preserve its momentum. It really is significant to note that, neither the authoritative qualities corroborate the position of a innovator and nor the position of leadership can be had by the discovered authoritative characteristics (Gosling and Mintzberg 2003).

Behavioural Theories

The contradictory dynamics of the Trait Theories, lead the researchers to concentrate on the behavioural aspect of organisational leaders and therefore which the Behavioural Ideas were designed that are mainly based on learning the varying authority styles. The McGregor's X & Y Managers Theory has been greatly publicised saying that the leader's assumptions about human being nature greatly influences the overall organisational control stratagem. Relative to McGregor's theoretical model, the theory X managers consider that there surely is an intrinsic aversion amongst humans towards responsibilities and obligations which circumvents their need to work unless persuaded. Theory X professionals must consistently direct and control their labor force to accomplish organisational objectives. Alternatively, theory Y managers believe that right work atmosphere coupled with employee's commitment facilitates people in training self-direction and self-control that finally aid in accomplishing the pre-set organisational goals. By analysing the McGregor's theoretical model, it could be observed that the theory X mangers support the domineering style whereas; theory Y managers support a participative approach of authority. The domineering market leaders have tight control over their workers characterised by their decisiveness conversely, the participative leaders are a lot more considerate and are found to respond sympathetically into the employees and in doing so, develop a sense of affiliation and trust (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 40). While contrasting both the leadership behaviours it can be constituted that the autocratic leaders are strict but disciplined which results in obtaining greater results in conditions of improved fiscal expansion conversely, the participative leaders are the preferred selection of the employees however the performance margin is significantly reduced because of the considerate behavior. The Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid is another behavioural theory targets organisational production and worker orientations by analysing the combos of concerns between your two extremes. Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid actions the leader's concerns for production on horizontal and concerns for people on the vertical axis by determining the five key management styles. By analysing the Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid, it has been observed that the most crucial aspect of authority behaviour is to value the collaborative procedure and teamwork that eventually ends in long-term organisational success.

Situational & Contingency Theories

Depending after the consistently innovating work environment and inconsistent circumstances, it could be constituted that the authority styles has to be considerably versatile and adaptive in order to address the primary organisational issues. After determining the behavioural areas of leadership it was unavoidable to use them in differing situations to evaluate their practicability. Fiedler's Contingency Model was submit with intent to address workplace conditions that are highly reliant upon the impinged situational factors explicating that mechanistic organisational environment may progress well with autocratic authority style whereas a participative methodology is suitable for a dynamic work environment having a flexible procedure (Heslin, VandeWalle, Latham 2006, p. 882). Fiedler Contingency Model categorised managers in two distinctive organizations i. e. activity and relationship oriented and environment as favourable or unfavourable. This model allows the leaders to control the environmental variables to match their management styles. In accordance with the contingency model the relationship and power placement of a innovator with its team members greatly influences the task composition (Baum and Locke 2004, p. 587) and it has been detected that the favourable work environment characterised by constructive leader-member marriage tends to produce a high activity structure in which a leader has the power to appreciate or penalize its employees with absolute specialist and vice versa. Both task motivated and relationship stimulated leadership styles includes their relative set of benefits and drawbacks as the task-motivated market leaders can gain fiscal progress by outperforming the main element competitors (Kaplan and Norton 2004, p. 42) whereas, the partnership motivated market leaders gain customer satisfaction which establishes the positive image of the organisation which pretty contributes in attaining long-term organisational success. The theoretical grounds of Hersey-Blanchard Model of Leadership derive from evaluating the developmental capacity of employees which will determine the suitability of a leadership style in a particular situation. The idea is dependant on the blend of task behavior and relationship behaviour of a leader depending upon the maturity of its subordinates inside a workplace setting. With regards to the situational factors of subordinate's maturity levels, the leadership style have been categorised into four types out which two major leadership styles including directive behavior and supportive behaviours are deemed as the utmost significant (Perren and Burgoyne 2001). In directive behaviour category the market leaders adopt a one-way communication strategy where market leaders decide, communicate, immediate and closely keep an eye on the performance of the subordinates to achieve the core organisational aims (Balain, and Sparrow 2009, p. 229). Alternatively, the supportive behaviour of a leader is two-way communication process in which leaders take up a flexible methodology by participating the subordinates in the decision making process, pay attention to their views, offer support and encourage their efforts in job performance. The most important aspect of Hersey-Blanchard Model is that, it offers a multi-purpose methodology by allowing the market leaders to examine the maturity degree of their subordinates and in that way, modify their behaviours appropriately. The theory emphasises on improving the maturity level of subordinates by effective training techniques, increased support and motivational techniques so that the burden on authority can be fine-tuned as per the developmental capacity of the employees which not only benefits the leaders but is similarly favourable to the organisation in longer run. The Tannenbaum & Schmidt's Continuum model is an expansion of contingency ideas suggesting that we now have four main control behaviours varies along a continuum including autocratic or showing style, persuasive or retailing style, consultative or talking to style and democratic or joining style. The continuum model has distinguished the control styles and applied those to specified situations as for example showing style is best suited to mature team in an disaster situation, the selling style does apply to an aggressive work setting where leader is decisive nevertheless the enthusiastic contribution of the subordinates is evenly valued. The consulting and joining management is complimentary to relatively similar situation where collective decision making by both market leaders and subordinates bring about enhanced production of the company (Heslin, VandeWalle, Latham 2006, p. 886). Another significant situational or contingency model is the Adair's Action-Centred command which is characterised by the three circle diagram. The situational and contingent elements determine the responsiveness of leader to handle the organisational issues and achieve the required goals.

Leaders and Followers

Previously the concept of leadership was limited to idealise the single frontal information that contributes in attaining organisational objectives. The theories of Market leaders and Followers are intended to emphasize the interdependency of market leaders and their subordinates and echo the importance of collaborative work place. The idea of Servant Authority determines the average person perception to provide first and then lead by encouraging teamwork, prescience and trust within the organisational framework by empowering all and treating them with fairness. Team Management is another theoretical way that is put forward by Meredith Belbin emphasising on the well balanced team work by proposing a network of people working along for a common organisational goal having both individual advantages and weaknesses. Team work is most suited to the complex framework of globalised work environment as the leaders are less interfering and believe in engaging their subordinates as actively participating associates of the organisation (Goleman, McKee and Boyatzis 2002, p. 22). The volatile organisational framework of today requires concerted working human relationships because of its diverse character and the management style that helps bring about employees development offers a alternative procedure where problem solving and decisiveness of your leader is complimented and recognized by the whole team. Furthermore, James MacGregor Uses up developed the Transactional and Transformational Leadership Model which is which enables to develop a knowledge of economic and moral needs of company accompanied by a head. The transactional control is dependant on business point of view by relying on short-term fiscal benefits to maximise organisational efficiency. The transactional authority focuses on tactical issues and it is hard data orientation by assisting the entrenched framework and systems and it is predominantly occupied by ability, politics and perks (Baum and Locke 2004, p. 589). Alternatively, the building blocks of transformational leadership is has high moral and honest grounds predicated on pre-defined purposes. The significance of transformational command is the diffusion of duties and responsibilities between the team to acquire important and challenging job tasks for the subordinates in order to develop a sense of self-worth by acknowledging the human being probable (Drach-Zahavy and Erez 2002, p. 668). Transformational leaders work towards acquiring long-term organisational success by prudently aligning the internal composition and systems without comprising the core values and rules.

Dispersed Leadership

It can be an informal leadership style that is significantly dissociated with the organisational hierarchal model. The Dispersed Leadership model is the most modern theoretical model which stimulates the all individuals within an organisation to contribute their management skills without any limitations of hierarchy and favorably influence their acquaintances to increase organisational productivity. It's been researched that, by producing 'leaderful' culture and work place by the help of synchronized, cooperative and empathetic command model (Raelin 2003, p. 62), the organisations can become more progressive as the duty and commitment of any leader can be extensively entrenched throughout the complete organisation minus the limitations imposed by formal string of commands. The partnership and social behavior of a person determines its control attributes and the intrinsic characteristics and characteristics of a leader have the power to influence other by producing followers (Adam and Burgoyne 2001). Hence, the phenomenon of dispersed authority i. e. stimulating the introduction of leaders amongst the small groups of same ideologies could also benefit the company by the prelude of a modern work environment having shared group of responsibilities.


Leaders are anticipated to generate enthusiasm of their subordinates to increase their efficiencies and are far-sighted to develop effectual strategies to overcome the obstacles that may prevent in smooth progression of the organisation. Probably the most highly equipped organisational leaders utilise useful tools of communication, problem fixing, people management, decision making and determination to develop a solid bond with the team members and gain their trust to extort maximum output of these organisational shows (James and Burgoyne 2001). Suitable for the diverse range of situations and contexts, the organisations submit effective leadership styles to be able to develop affiliations with their employees by exhibiting outstanding drive and enthusiasm in order to attain the desired goals. To obtain the required results by the enhanced efficiency of the subordinates, leaders are required to stimulate them with the aid of numerous motivational tools including bonuses, progress opportunities and rewards (Rodgers, Frearson, Holden and Platinum 2003). Leadership ideas combined with right motivational strategies tends to deliver increased organisational productivity. Market leaders are therefore expected to understand the human being psychology as the organisational performances are greatly inspired by the psychosocial aims of an individual (Heslin, VandeWalle, Latham 2006, p. 882). It is rather significant to recognize the compound of individual needs while producing organisational targets as the labour drive of the company is predominantly humans that are involved in specific job assignments to fulfil their basic needs. Aside from monetary benefits, a person may also have varying psycho-social needs that evolves an individual personality predicated on a personal opinion system (Raelin 2003, p. 65). An organisation can successfully develop a high-performing workforce by handling the psycho-social needs of its employees through monetary and symbolic rewards that will enhance a sense of self-worth and therefore add in acquiring the required organisational goals (Renn 2003, p. 572). Taking into consideration the primary human needs and psychosocial necessitates, smart leaders develop effectual strategies to inspire their subordinates by unswervingly stimulating the correct individual motives (Wegge and Haslam 2005, p. 404). The employees of today have enormously grown in conditions of educational certification and prosper on knowledge founded work environments where they expect to receive the due respect to their ideologies and acknowledgement of these contributions and efforts benefiting the organisation. Leaders will be the principal and the most vital connecting point of the labor force with the company that enables the workforce expressing their views with complete freedom and recognise their organisational contributions Goleman, McKee and Boyatzis 2002, p. 22). The prior methods of taking care of subordinates through market leaders have been replaced by the modern day techniques of using personnel-centric strategies within the organisation to be able to exceedingly motivate employees to gain competitive advantage on the market. Managers must inspire the employees and attain their utmost commitment and devotion by motivating them through effective command styles.

The democratic nature of contemporary company supports the idea of empowering their employees and the market leaders are now anticipated to produce their supporters by implementing a flexible way and greatly accepted command style. Today, the products and services proposed by the organisations are not the only methods to compete in the market but the power of an company to retain an extremely competitive, faithful and productive labor force determine their market supremacy (Drach-Zahavy and Erez 2002, p. 669). The linkage between true command and motivational strategies has been greatly emphasised by the organisations and it's been observed that market leaders with the motivational stratagem play an integral role in maximising organisational output. The autocratic authority styles followed by totally hierarchal organisational structures have been subsided in the contemporary globalised work place where employees like a democratic leadership that is intended to respect their psycho-social goals and is fair towards acknowledging their specific contributions in the entire organisational success. It has been identified that the modern-day workforce appreciates market leaders that are persuasive and not coercive. Employees have finally become more inclined towards professional pragmatism and challenging job roles alternatively than restricting their progress opportunities to short-term benefits like status and position (Goleman, McKee and Boyatzis 2002, p. 39). Therefore, organisations also have recognised the strong connection between effective leadership and motivational strategies and also have put forward their enigmatic market leaders that are willing to acclimatize their authority skills in order to address the psycho-social needs of today's labor force. The long-term organisational success is highly reliant after its progressive and devoted labor force (Hamlin 2002) that can be attained by integrating the right set of motivational strategies through the most appropriate management styles. Organisations prudently choose the appropriate leaders that have sufficient proclivity of analysing the main psycho-social needs of the employees and right understanding of the organisational environment (Wegge and Haslam 2005, p. 401). The strength of leader's receptiveness to correctly retort on the consistently growing situations as well as their ability to handle the unprecedented targets of employees, ascertains the long-term organisational success.


People's behaviour towards their occupation have been considerably altered credited to a shift from manual to knowledge based mostly work environment in the contemporary globalised organisational structure. The fast-paced work place combined with highly reactive employee's behaviour has increased living expectations and employee's objectives and for that reason, effectual and built-in leadership has become indispensible to stimulate the organisational labor force of today. Depending after differing situations, organisations position their finest leaders that must inspire their subordinates through the most suitable leadership techniques in order to protect the commitment and commitment of the employees towards obtaining maximum organisational production. To conclude, there's a strong romantic relationship between effective management and staff motivational strategies that not only generate fiscal benefits by enhanced organisational output but also add in achieving long-term organisational success.

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