Altered strategies are being used by company to be decided on the market place. Alternatively the primary effective and competitive profit is the business's human learning resource because no any business can work without successful, skilful and creative employees. That is why, there is a necessity for a corporation to protect the employees' rights as well as assurance clear interior system and plans to be able to recompense for the space accepted in the effective regulations or rules.
The vital tips of the work focus on the following six key points.
In basic, Rwanda labour legislations does not differentiate between the numerous kinds of deal of employment with regards to termination of work. But UK labour rules, a deal of employment refers to a agreement of service or apprenticeship. It can be express or implied, and if it is express, it can be oral. Furthermore to contracts of indefinite duration, there are set, short-term, and probationary, and apprenticeship contracts.
It is with regard, good thing about the proposed changes above are performed and executed, and then the employers will take advantage of the pursuing: Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees, increased worker motivation. Greater assurance and determination leads staff to be less reliant on management and supervision.
Trained and encouraged staff will give the business enterprise the competitive edge by: increasing productivity and requirements in creation, therefore boosting the business reputation
Organisational structure represents framework of the individual reference and the obligations for different functions and techniques to be clearly allocated in different departments and employees. It really is proposed that organisational buildings should be aiming at maximising the efficiency and success of the organisation. An effective structure will facilitate working relationships between various sections of the organisation. It will maintain order and command line while promoting flexibility and creativeness within the organisation.
TQM is the procedure of exchanging the essential culture of an organization and redirecting it to words superior product or service quality (Garther 1996).
TQM can be explained as a general management philosoph asset of tools which allow an institution to pursue classification of quality being continuous with the assistance they have received (Michael 1997). Great things about TQM include heightened staff morale, better team work among departments. Concept of the TQM philosophy is the focus on ongoing improvement. Traditional systems run on the assumption that once a company achieved a certain level of quality, it was successful and needed no further improvements.
The Network Management Centre (NMC) is an operations centre employed to deal with network resources like the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC), bottom part stations and location registers. The Network Management Centres function is to offer the regular inspection and manage activities had a need to keep up with the network at its best level of performance.
The Procedure and maintenance Centre (OMC) prepared for the maintenance and procedure management of operator telecommunication systems, showing at least effort and shows communication resources for an operator or other external surfaces control application tools to exam information related with telecommunication network basic principles under the management capacity to create command routine to regulate said network elements also to converse said performance to the network essentials
Human Source of information Management is the organisational function that handles issues related to people such as reimbursement, hiring, performance management, organisation development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee drive, communication, supervision and Training
Human resources tasks are normally divided into three main elements of management: recruitment, making work and employee settlement. Fundamentally, the function of HRM is to exploit the development of an organisation by optimising the worthiness of its employees. This authorisation is not likely to vary in any basic way, regardless of the increasing speed of transform in the development world.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) function carries a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to make use of independent contractors or employ the service of employees to complete these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, making sure they can be high performers, interacting with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management techniques conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to worker benefits and compensation, employee data and personnel insurance policies.
1: COMPARISON OF EMPLOYEE Privileges RWANDA VS UK
Rwanda labour law is known as Rules N 51/2001 OF 30/12/2001 building the labour code in Rwanda. It is the February 28 1967 revised labour legislation.
The labour law is constructed of a complete of 199 Articles. In Rwanda the legislation supplying specific protection in relation to termination of job has been enacted by means of the Labour Code of 30 Dec 2001 (as referred to as LAW N 51/2001).
For General public Services in Rwanda, laws and laws and regulations are defined in the overall Statutes for Rwanda General public Service Rules N22/2002 of 09 July 2002.
In the next paragraphs we will summarize the main evaluation points between the UK and Rwanda labour laws.
Contract of employment
In general, Rwanda labour law does not identify between the various types of contract of employment with regards to termination of career.
In the united kingdom labour legislations, a deal of employment refers to a agreement of service or apprenticeship. It could be express or implied, and if it's express, it could be oral. In addition to contracts of indefinite duration, there are set, short-term, and probationary, and apprenticeship deals. http://www. ilo. org/public/english/dialogue/ifpdial/info/termination/countries/uk. htm
The age discrimination is thought as the act to prevent any work candidate or salary repayment based on his time. This happens in a few corporation that specifies the kind of job and the age required to do the job or low repayment to young and more mature personnel. But this is right sometimes to avoid child's work maltreatment and force labour as well as avoid retirement living for aged personnel.
Like competition and gender discrimination, age group discrimination, at least when it affects younger employees, can bring about unequal purchase similar work. Unlike competition and gender discrimination, age group discrimination in pay is often enshrined in rules. http://citizendia. org/Ageism
According to the current Rwanda Labour Regulation (Article 11), it is prohibited to employ for labour a child under age sixteen. However, where the child has reached the age of fourteen, to value the provisions of articles 64, 65, 66 and 67 of this rules, he/she may be employed with special authorisation from whoever has parental authority on him/her.
In its Article 89 the Rwanda Labour Legislation states that an underage worker validly acknowledges receipt from his/her workplace except in the case of explicit and justified opposition by the family agent.
The current Rwanda labour laws will not contain any article about the pension and pension fund. That is mainly monitored by the cultural security fund from its inner regulations. The staff will never be able to make an idea for retirement
The UK Labour Legislation includes a clause that helps to protect people who are 40 years or more aged. While older personnel reap the benefits of higher income than younger workers, they face barriers in campaigns and hiring. Employers may also encourage early pension or lay down off disproportionately aged/more experienced employees. To be able to protect those sets of employees the Age Discrimination in Job Act of 1967 was proven which is being used by the UK legislation.
- Claims or specifications in job notices or adverts of age desire and constraints. An get older limit may only be specified in the unusual circumstance where age has been proven to be always a real occupational certification (BFOQ);
- Discrimination based on time by apprenticeship programs, including joint labour-management apprenticeship programs; and
- Denial of advantages to old employees. An employer may reduce benefits predicated on age only when the price tag on providing the reduced benefits to older workers is the same as the cost of providing advantages to younger workers
Termination of employment
The expiry of any fixed-term deal; and
The conclusion of the task for which a contract was concluded.
Employment romance may be terminated by shared contract of the celebrations concerned in the UK labour legislation. The employee is entitled to terminate an employment deal at will (by the provision of due notice), unless usually arranged in the agreement. The employee must typically give one week notice if she or he selects to terminate the agreement (section. 86(2), Time).
Severance and Redundancy Pay
The Rwanda Labour Laws does not define legislation about the redundancy and severance repayments. An employer is not required to pay severance on termination of career if the worker has completed longer durations of constant service with an workplace and the employer terminates the occupation. http://www. ilo. org/public/english/dialogue/ifpdial/info/termination/countries
According to the united kingdom legislation, no severance repayment emerges if an employee was terminated because of misconduct or personal features. However, a worker whose agreement has been terminated on the grounds of redundancy is entitled to get a redundancy payment in accordance with sec. 135 of the ERA.
The Rwanda Labour Laws (Article 182) declares the following about how exactly to redress specific or collective career disputes.
When there are individual or collective labour disputes and prior with their submission before court, the concerned person requests, on paper or verbally, the employees' staff to attempt to settle these disputes out of courts.
Where the employees' rep fails to settle the disputes, the any concerned person forwards the case to Labour Inspector for reasonable settlement.
Settlement of the claim is postponed by that question from its receipt night out until the affirmation of an effort to the pay out is disputes on the employee and employer.
Payment when the company is insolvent
The Rwanda Labour Legislations does not determine measures to be taken by employees when the employer becomes insolvent. This means that when the workplace is insolvent it is up to both people to acknowledge the payment terms; otherwise no promise should be produced by employees.
In UK, if your workplace becomes insolvent you have lots of options accessible to you. When an company does not have any money to pay individuals they owe in full and they have to make special preparations to try to meet these debt. As defined in the UK labour law, in case there is an insolvent employer the employees may get paid by the next organisations: http://www. desktoplawyer. co. uk
Wages (including protective awards)
Basic award for unfair dismissal
Unpaid pension contributions
Statutory suffering pay
There is not any promise in insolvency that all the obligations can be met in full. That's the reason there are special arrangements to make sure that you get a basic minimum of the debt owed from the National Insurance Finance.
The Article 21 or the Rwanda Labour Legislation says that any dismissal of an employee bound by way of a contract of occupation for a non-determined length of time is dependant on authentic grounds and following the employee has already established the possibility to defend him/her against allegations mentioned against him/her. In the case of protest before the authorised administrative or legal situations, proof for the lifestyle of such reliable grounds is incumbent upon the employer.
According to Rwanda Labour Rules, termination of job is unfair if the workplace fails to demonstrate that the explanation for the termination is valid, that associated with good and that the job was terminated relative to fair treatment. A 'reasonable' reason is the one which relates to the employee's do, capacity or compatibility; or is dependant on the operational requirements of the workplace. http://usep-ic. forumsmotions. com/hrm
In the united kingdom law, Coverage against unfair dismissal requires that a person be employed for at least twelve months (sec. 108, Age). Everyone, however, is guarded against dismissal based on the exercise of statutory and workplace privileges, personal reasons, union regular membership, civic duty, making love and racial discrimination. However, the Contest Relations Act does not cover work in private homes, unless the discrimination is by way of victimization.
Notice and previous procedure safeguard
In the Rwanda Labour Rules, the probation job agreements may be terminated without notice and without the of both functions being to claim settlement allowances, unless stated otherwise in regular provisions.
In the truth of termination before its term for a contract subject to the provisions of article 7 of this Law, the workplace must inform about any of it the jurisdiction's Government Labour Inspector within fifteen days and nights.
The deal of work for a non- established duration can always be terminated by the will of either of the functions but also for justifiable reasons. This termination is at the mercy of a preceding notice distributed by the party taking effort of termination.
Where no collective convention can be acquired, the notice's period is fixed by a decree from the Minister having labour in his/her attributions, taking into account notably the length of time of the agreement and professional categories.
The notice must get in writing to the interested get together. The notice cannot be at the mercy of any suspensive condition. Regarding breach of deal at the employer's effort, the dismissal's grounds are mentioned in the letter of notice.
According UK Labour Regulation, if the employee has been constantly useful for at least one month, an employer must give notice before termination. The length of notice relates to the length of continuous uninterrupted service, according to the provisions of section 86 of the ERA. In regards to dismissals on disciplinary grounds, since 2004 employers have been necessary to follow a three-step disciplinary method, this includes
sending the worker a written affirmation alleging carry out or circumstances which lead the employer
The employer is required to inform the staff of his/her decision and of the right to appeal against it.
Meeting between your employer and staff in case if the latter wished to appeal.
If more than 10 employees are terminated due to a redundancy, the workplace must notify the Secretary of Point out in writing (section 193, TULRCA).
Employee Minimum amount Wage
The UK labour legislations has defined the very least level of pay, called the National Minimum Wage. The particular level is set by the federal government each year based on the tips of the 3rd party Low Pay Commission rate (LPC). With a few exceptions, all staff in the united kingdom aged 16 or over are legally eligible for be paid the very least amount per hour (In 2008 the Country wide Minimum amount Wage is 5. 75 per hour). This is regardless of the type of work they do or the size and kind of company. The minimum wage is examined yearly.
The Rwanda Labour Legislations does not include any insurance policy about the minimum amount wage. The employer has to discuss with worker about the salary to be paid and then for how often. This leads to the problem where many employees are paid a low salary (as explained in their specific deals), which is under the real cost of life in the country. Other consequences will be the low purchase electricity in the marketplaces.
2. BENEFITS OF THE PROPOSED CHANGES
2. 1. BENEFITS OF EMPLOYER.
Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
Increased employee determination. Greater self-confidence and motivation leads staff to become less reliant on management and guidance.
Increased efficiencies in operations, resulting in financial gain
Increased capacity to adopt new systems and methods
Increased advancement in strategies and products
Trained and enthusiastic personnel who understand the details of business businesses.
increasing productivity and criteria in creation, therefore boosting the business reputation
being in a position to undertake a larger variety of work and therefore permit the business to grow or open up new markets
allowing the business to bid to get more specialised, quality value contracts
Assisting the business enterprise to meet business targets faster.
2. 2. BENEFITS TO CUSTOMERS.
Benefits of a customer depend on the nice service provided and quality of work, service given. When the workplace respects the international labour laws and regulations and present all employees privileges stated by regulations, like good pay, medical health insurance and communal security fund. Motivated employees will see it easy do his/her work successfully and effectively without the problem in supplying the best service to its customers, hence benefiting the clients/ customers.
The organisations employees depending on how there are treated or motivated will be the ones determining the amount of clients for the company. Therefore that, get together customer demands or needs is critical to success of any company's expansion, by giving the shoppers the products and service they want or deserve.
2. 3. GREAT THINGS ABOUT SHAREHOLDER.
High labour production increases business end result and can start a greater talk about of the marketplace or broaden it by improving products, services and reputations.
Accuracy and efficiency
Good work security practices
Better customer service.
Increase in staff retention which is a significant cost keeping, as the increased loss of one qualified person could possibly be the exact carbon copy of one year's pay and benefits.
- Workplace accidents, leading to lower insurance premiums as a result of upholding medical and safe practices policy
- Recruitment costs through the internal advertising of skilled staff
- Absenteeism consequently of applying the absentee policy
Ensure that the businesses stay competitive in a worldwide market by regularly hanger their work tactics and infrastructure.
3. PROPOSED COMPANY STRUCTURE.
Organisations are organized in many ways, with respect to the company's goals and culture. The structure of an company will determine the manner in which it operates and its performance. Organisational framework represents framework of the real human reference and the obligations for different functions and processes to be evidently allocated in different departments and employees.
Organisational structures should be aiming at maximising the efficiency and success of the organisation. An effective framework will assist in working interactions between various sections of the organisation. It'll maintain order and demand while promoting versatility and imagination within the organisation.
3. 1 ORGANISATION CHART
Chief Human Capital Officer
Chief Complex Officer
Chief Operating Officer
Chief Financial Officer
Board of Directors
Chief Executive Officer
Sales and marketing
Figure 1: Company Chart
3. 2 Tasks AND ITS ROLES.
Shareholder is somebody who buys shares/ some of a open public or private company's capital. By doing so that person becomes a shareholder for the reason that company's daily business control.
Board of Directors:
Board of Directors is appointed to act with respect to the shareholders to perform day to day affairs of the company businesses.
Board of directors determines the company's eyesight and mission to steer and established the pace because of its current businesses and future development, beliefs to be marketed throughout and review goals and guidelines of the company.
Chief Executive Official (CEO)
In an organization that has a mother board of directors, the "ceo" is (usually) the singular organizational position that is mostly responsible to carry out the strategic programs and plans as set up by the table of directors. In this case, the chief executive information to the mother board of directors. The CEO also supports determination of employees in corporation products/programs and operations
Director Corporate Affairs and Regulation
This director will be responsible for;
Corporate Social Responsibility
Legal and regulatory issues
Chief People Capital Official.
CHCO is responsible for Department-wide coverage and oversight in every areas of human capital management and civil privileges, including occupation and staffing, payment, benefits, executive resources, succession planning, labour and staff relations, workforce development, performance management, variety management, equal work opportunity and external civil protection under the law enforcement. The Office also offers the full selection of human reference services to aid procedures of Departmental Offices and executes Treasury's duties for certain old age benefits for Area of Columbia cops, fire-fighters, teachers and judges.
The CHCO is in charge of setting the stage and giving course for the competency requirements of employees at various levels and thus provides a bottom for recruitment guidelines and procedures. This should result in building up the recruitment policies and procedures.
Roles of Main Human Capital Official.
Establish and keep maintaining policies, methods, and approaches for executing the armed forces partner intern program relative to legislation and merit system ideas.
Liaison with DoD and offer oversight for the program.
Provide advice and strategic route to departmental elements for conformity with legislations and legislation.
Provide training for HR experts and hiring professionals in the application of military spouse hiring authorities.
Develop training system for staff. This involves discovering training needs and utilization of training inputs and learning for company progress and development.
Hiring the right people to take the business where it wants to go that could involve getting a methodical procedure for selecting people regarding to what an organization needs.
Chief Financial Official.
Responsible for Financial/Regulatory/Secretarial Functions.
Establish and keep an eye on corporate financial policies.
Responsible for strategic business likely to facilitate fiscal willpower.
Budgeting, Financing Planning, Handling Taxes matters, Planning annuals business strategies and finances.
Responsible for strategic business planning to facilitate fiscal discipline.
Analysis and monitoring of regular, annual commercial and statutory accounts.
Drafting of resolutions for the meetings of Table of Directors / Shareholders affecting joint venture agreements, loaning / borrowing arrangement from Finance institutions / Financial Institution & mutual Fund agencies, dominate, merger, absorption proposals and / or sales / purchase of undertaking / undertakings.
Chief Operating Official (COO)
A Key Operating Officer can be one of the highest-ranking executives in an company and includes part of the "C-Suite". The COO is responsible for the daily operation of the business. The COO routinely reports to the best ranking executive, usually the CEO and could also bring the name of President, particularly if the highest ranking executive is the Chairman and CEO. In some cases, the obligations of COO may be carried out by a sub-C-Suite executive such as a "Director of Operations" or "Vice-President of Operations"
The role of the COO differs from industry to industry and from company to group. Some organizations function without a COO, such as CIBC (see below). Others may have several COOs each assigned to oversee several business lines or divisions, such as Lehman Brothers from 2002-04 when Bradley Jack and Joseph M. Gregory were the co-COO. . http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chief_operating_officer
Chief Technical Officer (CTO)
A Chief Technical Officer is an executive-level position in an organization or other entity whose occupant is targeted on medical and scientific issues within an firm. It typically will involve overseeing Research and Development (R&D) activities, and formulating long-term visions and strategies at the official level. Essentially, a CTO is accountable for the change of capital - whether it be monetary, intellectual, or political - into technology in furtherance of the business's objectives. They need to typically combine a solid technical or methodical track record with business development skills. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chief_technical_officer
The role became dominant with the ascent of the info technology (IT) industry, but has since become widespread in technology-based establishments of most types (e. g. biotechnology, energy, etc. ). To be a corporate official position, the CTO typically reports directly to the CEO which is primarily concerned with long-term and "big picture" issues (while still having deep technical understanding of the relevant field). Based on company composition and hierarchy, there can also be positions such as Director of R&D and VP of Anatomist whom the CTO interacts with and/or oversees. The CTO also requires a working familiarity with Intellectual Property (IP) issues (e. g. patents, trade secrets, license deals), and an capability to interface with legal counsel to include those considerations into proper planning and inter-company negotiations.
4. Reason OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
TQM is the procedure of exchanging the fundamental culture of a business and redirecting it to words superior product or service quality (Garther 1996).
TQM can be defined as an over-all management philosoph asset of tools which allow an establishment to pursue description of quality being ongoing with the assistance they have obtained (Michael 1997)
Benefits of TQM include heightened staff morale, better team work among departments.
4. 1. The Beliefs of TQM
The first, and overriding, feature of TQM is the business's focus on its customers.
Quality is defined as reaching or exceeding customer prospects. The goal is to first identify and then meet customer needs. TQM identifies that a flawlessly produced product has little value if it is not what the customer wishes. Therefore, we can say that quality is customer driven. However, it isn't always easy to determine what the customer would like, because likes and preferences change. Also, customer goals often change from one customer to the next. For example, in the automobile industry trends change relatively quickly, from small automobiles to sports electricity vehicles and back again to small automobiles. Companies need to continuously gather information through focus groups, market surveys, and customer interviews in order in which to stay tune with what customers want.
They must always remember that they might not be in business if it were not for his or her customers.
Another concept of the TQM viewpoint is the focus on ongoing improvement.
Traditional systems controlled on the assumption that once a company achieved a certain level of quality, it was successful and needed no more improvements. We tend to think of improvement in conditions of plateaus that are to be achieved, such as passing a documentation test or minimizing the number of defects to a certain level.
Table 1 - Ideas of the TQM Philosophy
The plan-do-study-act (PDSA) routine describes the activities a company must perform in order to incorporate ongoing improvement in its procedure.
Another way companies implement ongoing improvement is by studying business routines of companies considered "best in class. " That is called benchmarking. The ability to learn and examine how others do things can be an important part of constant improvement.
Part of the TQM idea is to enable all employees to search out quality problems and appropriate them. Employees are rewarded for uncovering quality problems, not punished.
Workers are empowered to make decisions in accordance with quality in the creation process. They are considered a vital component of your time and effort to accomplish high quality. Their efforts are highly respected, and their ideas are implemented. In order to perform this function, employees are given continual and considerable trained in quality way of measuring tools.
To further stress the role of employees in quality, TQM differentiates between external and inner customers. External customers are those that choose the company's goods and services. Interior customers are employees of the organization who obtain goods or services from others in the business.
5. PROPOSED CUSTOMISED Systems MANAGEMENT CENTRE.
Advanced come back on network capital investment
Improved customer service
To guarantee similar access
Supporting in nationwide security and emergency awareness
Providing extra completed calls
The NMC has the capability to alter the turning network over a near real-time groundwork. That is able through Network Control performance in the switching equipments. The taking care of messages from the NMC are being completed by the transitioning machines to increase capacity by using idle tools and rates or to limit the network by hindering usage of traffic. Which has a poor probability of completion, therefore liberating trunks and gadgets for traffic that has high-quality options of completion.
The Network management system includes four essential level surfaces of operation. Each level has a couple of tasks separate to present, understanding, or accumulates data necessary to control things.
Usually implementations of standard and large network management systems centre on a Network Management Centre of some sort. Starting this place, all data is delivered and routed. As consistent Aspect Management Systems (EMS's) are engaged to control their particular parts, the whole of the data move towards back again to the director of Professionals demand. Major error detection, parting and troubleshooting are done in the Network Management Centre and technicians distribute when the situation has been evaluated as far as possible. If the Network Management Centre is troubled, all of the machines absent from the end of respite are down.
As a total problem occurs, in these circumstances, the information is strong-minded and productive by the Network Demand Centre. Also an outage can black colored absent supervision of an geographic location by becoming a member of the management belongings.
The amount below shows how this occurs as stated by Douglas W. Stevenson (1995),
Figure 2: Network Order Centre managing the network (1995)
6. EXPLANATION OF ANY PROPRIETARY OMC TO Keep an eye on THE COMPONENTS Demanding MAINTENANCE:
The Procedure and maintenance Centre (OMC) planned for the maintenance and operation management of the operator telecommunication sites, showing at least effort and shows communication resources for an operator or other external surfaces control request tools to exam information related to telecommunication network fundamentals under the management ability to create command routine to regulate said network elements and to converse said performance to the network basics or admit important information from them, categorised for the reason that it tenders ways for the operator or the surface control program tools. Procedures and maintenance centre (OMC) is associated with all equipment in the switching arrangement also to the Base Place Controller.
6. 1. Functions of Procedure and Maintenance Centre (OMC)
1. Construction Management: match the health of the configuration concerns of the network features, as well as the complete centralised management of the program adaptations of Platform Place Controller.
2. The Security Management: information can be distinctive at OMC part with the direct of each forced report management system joint to be able to control the performing employee's performance.
3. The Performance Management: information variety can be forced from the counterbalance guidelines stated in the handling network elements.
4. The Fault Management: OMC is in charge of supervision of the alarms and the importance of the network features.
6. 2. Components of Procedure and Maintenance Centre (OMC)
1. Operation and Maintenance Centre-Switching: is developed to move, set up and maintain the wireless internet network properties and in charge of call dispensation and client related purposes.
2. Procedure and Maintenance Centre-Radio: It does daily repairing responsibilities and network operation by showing event or alarm control, tedious management, settings management, software jogging functions and security management. While mobile system stays on increasing and proceeds to modern technology principles, thus attains the quantity of data shared between network basics. It gives a well balanced platform, though is competent enough to keep up increased capability and improved upon performance.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In conclusion, Human being resource in virtually any organisation is the key pillar to its development and progress if handled well. Employees' right must reputed, in so doing by training company employees, increasing their wages and initiating bonuses for the best performers.
Rwanda like a great many other African countries there are still behind in respecting the employees rights, where employers is the one to adopt decision in dismissing a worker without respecting the labour, they must follow good example of united Kingdom for its good methods in respecting its employees protection under the law.
It's recommended that federal government of Rwanda, for taking the lead in streamlining its real human resource personnel following what developed countries like United Kingdom are doing in respecting the labour regulation and employees' right, either by mailing the human source of information professionals for training.
1. Organisation Professionals should put more work in minimizing carbon emissions.
2. Telecommunication operator should have a well planned procedure and maintenance management of the networks.
3. Different measures should maintain place to deal with Total Quality Management in their organisations.
4. Organisations should put more effort in human tool management.
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