Essay to Analyse Organisations in Practice and Theory

Studies related to management and organisations have changed through many stages over the years. Since the first break-through into the efficient operation of the organisations the management literature has changed considerably but the aspiration always has been to find or create something which ensures the soft and efficient operating of the organisations so that they can achieve their focuses on. According to the management terminology, the organisations of today are known as post fordist or post bureaucratic organisations and are said to be rational, with contract on decisions, empowerment, team working and individual identification. Organisational theory described in the management texts is elaborated and backed by many renowned and illustrious authors of management. The aim of this article is to check into the conventional image of the so called perfect or ideal organisation portrayed in the management texts by remember the truth in workplaces supported by the items mentioned in the seminars and critically analysing these organisations in order to portray the image of real organisations of today and show how the situation portrayed in the text messages is merely a myth.

The trip of events resulting in the conception of post bureaucratic or post modern organisations of today has been long and complicated one. To extensively understand the conventional image of the organisations of today it's important for one to look back again at these series of events. If analyzed carefully the timeline can be considered to have started from the period of Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915), the begetter of medical management and Weber's (1864-1920) theory of bureaucratic management. (Boddy, 2005) Their aim was to contrive an organisation which follows set of rules to be able to realize maximum efficiency and where money was the main motivational factor for the employees. Henry Ford was one of the first entrepreneurs to acquire applied these theories in his organisation by introducing assembly line creation. Along with assembly line mass creation, section of labour and specialisation were the salient features of bureaucratic management. (Pugh & Hickson, 2007) Scientific and bureaucratic management was accompanied by the Human Relationship theories which were based on the Hawthorne studies. The idea which was set out in the Individual relation ideas was that the workers should get a social position in the company environment rather than treating them as "cogs in a machine". (Knight & Willmott, 2007) The Hawthorne studies that have been going by Elton Mayo in reality tried to offer an environment to the workers in the company in order to perform better. Then came the contingency theory which attempted to carve up organisations into formal structure again seeking to ensure that the organisation can perform proficiently and proficiently. (Boddy, 2005) The long and complex journey has reached to the organisations known as post fordist. These organisations of today believe that bureaucratic management is becoming outdated and respect it as deceased and they themselves are completely other to it, but the reality appears to be different from the conventional image these organisations portray.

It is important to learn why people really work before the actuality of work can be reviewed. Noon and Blyton (2002) after researching concluded that people do not only benefit financial reason and states this in their publication, "The majority of men and women say that they would continue to work even if there was no financial compulsion to do so, which suggests that work may also be rewarding other needs. " There exists a feeling of accomplishment which only comes from working gleam moral obligation to work. Another question which develops here is that are people in the right line of work? Relating to a research completed in UK 41% of the working inhabitants in UK is currently in the "wrong job" and is not satisfied by it. (BBC, 2008) So if organisations of today are trying to ensure the higher level of drive and empowerment of employees in case people are willing to work for other than economic reasons and yet it has been claimed that the majority of the people are not satisfied with their line of work then there is something that's not right. There might be many reasons that may be resulting in this issue, yet somehow it cannot be denied that there is space existing between reality and the traditional images portrayed in the management texts.

An in-depth view in to the bureaucratic and post bureaucratic constructions and the management theory reviewed above bring out that none of these organisational frameworks have been contrived to gain the employees. These management ideas are authored by people whose aim is to ensure that organisations run without any kind of hindrances. The conventional image maybe stated to encourage and enable the employees, but there's always a string attached to efficient running of the company which is mainly the core objective for organisations. So it can be said that pursuits of the employees will always be superseded by the pursuits of the organisation and employees are just provided with a better image of bureaucracy. The post modern set ups are as Grey (2009) state governments "All of this talk of a fresh time and new company varieties conceals or forgets just how that such statements are recurring such that it is possible to find out, throughout organisation theory, almost indistinguishable types of future. " This affirmation also identifies the change management which is being discussed by the new structure and which will be discussed later. In simple words, employees are being decived into working. Organisations of today are just deciving the employees to work indirectly to be able to accomplish thier objectives, nor value the suffering personnel proceed through in acheving them.

Referring back to the traditional image, post bureaucratic organisations are known to be rational. Matching to Gray (2009) there are two types of rationality known as instrumental rationality and substantive rationality. Substantive rationality is approximately doing the right things while instrumental rationality is about doing the items right way. It could be said that the post bureaucratic organisations are not morally logical but instrumentally rational. Grey (2009) in his publication says that organisations today only consider instrumental rationality and also calls it "organisational rationality". Organisations use instrumental rationality as veil of disguise so that they can change the employees into obtaining its focuses on. Work holism is considered a virtue. Employees receive blackberries in many organisations about the world these days as a fringe profit but the employees do not understand that this is in fact a way to stay static in touch following the office hours. In simple words employees are created to work at any hour by making these to bring work at home for which they are really even not paid. Morgan (2006) in his publication 'Images of Business' identifies the metaphor "psychic jail" where the employees are imprisoned unconsciously. Organisations today are doing the same thing, therefore we are created to work hard, admit things because they are, work hard to earn living considering it normal and the way it ought to be. But in reality the situation is different as Grey (2009) says we live imprisoned in an "iron cage of rationality". To question these concepts or enquiring about them is known as blasphemy; whereas no person questions about the procedures of organisations that not include value judgement in their concept of rationality. Hence the lining difference may easily be looked at and identified if we position the orthodox organisational behavior alongside the reality.

Moreover, the traditional image of the current organisations as mentioned by Knights and Willmott (2007) is that they are, predicated on empowerment, distributed responsibility, trust and personal treatment. However the reality appears to be quite different if looked at from a radical perspective. The existence of sweat retailers nowadays where even the family pets rihts are so meticulously supervised uncovers the shocking truth of how current organisations operate. Organisations are paying very low salary to the workers and in exchange making them be employed by shifts which are occasionally even lasting more than a day. But the truth which is even more shocking then this is that these organisations are employing their power to even control and dominate the governments of today. Pilger (2002) in his documentary and reserve "The brand new rulers of the world" plainly present the type of filthy politics that organisations can play to be able to gain their interests. Setting up sweat retailers in Indonesia after over throwing the government obviously exemplified organisations as an 'instrument of domination' as referenced by Morgan (2006). Furthermore Perkins (2004) in his book 'Confessions of the economical Hitman' also elaborates the techniques large organisations use which can permit these to even take over a whole country. This might sometimes cause employee stress which may also lead to employees committing suicides, as this is what happened in the case of Renault, a respected auto-mobile company.

Another important statement which post modern organisations make is the fact bureaucracy is currently lifeless, it was the thing of past which is irrelevant in the the modern world. However the fact check brings about something different. Bureaucracies are still as relevant as these were before. Du Gay (2000) also discuss about the relevance of bureaucracies in his publication. Corresponding to Du Gay (2000) the initial form of bureaucracy that was unveiled by Weber is different from how bureaucracy is portrayed these days as he seems that bureaucracies have been interpreted wrongly. Du Gay (2000) elaborates that Weber unveiled the bureaucracy which really is a substantially ethical organisation and in its purest form it guarantees efficiency, however in the organisational world of today bureaucratic organisations remain. Moreover, call centres providing customer service across the world remain not presenting importance to the inspiration and satisfaction level of employees which should be the focal point for how organizations of today should work. People working in the call centres are facing sexual harassment and abuses from callers, being threatened to be fired unless they found their quota and are paid low salaries. Among the employees employed in a call centre confessed that, "The bottom line is, this is a crap job. From the phone factory and unless we found quota, we go through. " (http://www. weblab. org)

So to summarize, this essay tried out to analyse the top features of the organisations of today as presented in the management content material literature. Organisational theory was compared with the truth of what really continues on in an organisation in order showing that the so called perfect organisations aren't better than the previous models that are disregarded today and organisations of today are just the extensions in disguise of the prior models. An understanding was given the assistance a radical view about how the organisations of today are actually operating to benefit themselves. Quarrels were shown portraying how a huge quantity of employees employed in these organisations are unmotivated and unsatisfied which are based on the philosophy of providing empowerment and staff motivation. The truth also unveils that employees are in fact suffering from unwell treatment and stress in the organisations of today that are pretending to demonstrate the image of the perfect company. The essay also established that the organisations are being used as 'instrument of domination' and 'psychic prisons' inside the 'iron cage of rationality'. Circumstance of Renault suicides, working diaries of employees and the life of sweat retailers in Indonesia exemplified that the main matter for the organisations is not to gratify its employees but to make them work as successfully as you possibly can.

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