Evaluating THE USE OF Theories Of Open Systems Thinking

In what ways can the organisational certainty defined by Farjoun (2001) be up to date by a knowledge of wide open systems thinking detailed by Katz and Kahn (1978)? Also the way the ten characterisitics articulted by Karz and Kahn (1978) could be realized by management in the search for long-term performance.


Understanding of the Start Systems Thinking

Introduction to Farjoun

What can be an organisation? What exactly are its constituents? In its most elementary form an organisation consists of a group of folks working along towards some common objectives. These goals define company goals. Key question that arises is "What is the need of any company"? Why do they is present? Reasons are not difficult. An individuals functionality are limited in nature. An organisation is the fact that (Farjoun, 2001) kind of your platform which provides individuals to golf club in their functions and make an effort to achieve something which is beyond the capacities ofa an individual individual but as a team possible. A business organization is made primarily for the purpose of making money in liu of good (Farjoun, 2002) or services sold by the firm.

Now there have been various theoris that tried to clarify the patterns of the organisations by aiming to model the various characterisitics that explain an organization. One popular school of thought say that that organizations are fundamentally information producing systems. Hence it is extremely critical for a sucessfull company to undertand a nd distinguish between relevat information rather than so relevant information. Other college of thoughts focusses on ethnicities (Bartlett, 1998), vitality and effeciency etc. The dominating school of thought among all is the wide open system theory (Karz and Kahn, 1978). Before this theory had become, all the ideas regarding organisational habit considere organisations as closed down entity, slash of from the world. In reality many environmental (Lawrence, 1967) factors do play a substantial role in shaping the way organisations work and hence came on view systems theory.

Open Systems Theory

"Wide open systems" theory is based on the notion that organizatins are unique in themselves and therefore should be organised (Robbins, 1983) uniquelly to match their particular needs. Research conducted in 1960's confirmed that those organisations generally are unsuccessful which follow traditional beaurocratic way of functioning. Also critical aspect is local cultural affects in motivating employees.

Environmental Factors



Environmental factors can be labeled under two mind i. e. Specific and Basic. Network of suppliers, distributors, organizations both governement and otherwise and ofcourse competetors include what's all specific to a specific company. An orgnisation is merely one of the entity of the complete system, to make it through and succed in the system (Farjoun, 2002) it has to connect to other components of the company.

Organisations also practice section of labor, both horizontally and vertically. Verticall divion includes the hierachy of the organisation i. e. top management, middle management and bottom. Horizontal department of (Saporta and Farjoun, 2003) work includes creation of task forces assigned for specific careers. The tasks ans responsibility of the labor coming in the different mind will vary.

Katz and Kahn

Open systems theory developed by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn (Katz and Kahn, 1978) contains a construction that includes

passionate and dynamic inputs to the organisation

the procedure for tansforming these inputs within the organisation

outputs in tune with the energy of the inuts; and


Dynamic inputs include employees of the organisation, raw materials employed by the organisation and ofourse capital. Oer and top of it are ofcorse intangible factors such as position, importance, satisfaction (Thompson, 2001) and other personal acknowledgement in terms of rewards etc.

The source energirs are ued in the change phase in what leads to products or services. That is what we recommended here by the term outputs. Reforming or recycling identifies the actual fact that outcome are recycled back to the company either straight or indirectly.

Environment Inputs





Environment (allows) Outputs






Organisation (transform)

Organisation Transformation Syatem

Over and above these said four factors Katz and Kahn (Katz, 1978) identified several other organisational properties that are in line with available systems theory. These factors have their own implications on the look (Burton, 1998) of an efficient organisation. Just an example can be that they ientified laws of entropy apllies to eeven a organistion also, the repecusrrions of which means that all organisations move towrds a state of disorganisation and eventually death. With that said, an open up system can constantly gain energy from its source environment it thrives in. To provide a practical application of this theory is the situation where a falling orgnisations (Morgan, 1996) appoints a new CEO and the company survives the fatality stage and rebounds.

Another vital attribute of organisations is the ability to achieve balance between subsystems. Practical implications than it is say an extremely strong sales force and a not fast production team. Result of which will be shortage of the merchandise in comparison to demand on the market that sales team has generated. So proper synergies should be there within different functions of the organisations.

Also an important attribute of available system is "equifiniality". Therefore that regardless of the several ways in (Daft, 1997) which the organisation proceed, it'll reach the same final state.


Understanding of the linkages between organisational performance and wide open systems thinking

Organisations are Start Syatems

Organisations of today have to fiercley contend with the competetors for almost everything including manpower, resurces and even technology. Organisations do develop characterisitcs that help them manage up better with (Nadler and Tushman, 1997) their threats and and constaints. But between type and outputs associated with an organisation, there are through sets. The goal of this throughput is to align people to achieve common goals. Students of wide open systems approch will thus be enthusiastic about examining an company from the following heads

the subsystems as well as the entire composition of the company.

the match of every subsystem with others.

aliging the diverse subsystems tgether under one goal

What it may end up in

redrawing of varied boundaries.

more pathways of communication

conflict (Mullett, 1998) image resolution strategies generation.

Conflict resolution plus more roads to communication is where the "Anatomist" side of the systems theory touches the individuals (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967) aspect. Since its in the end the human source of information of the business that must live with the changes induced by the theory.

Use of Open up System Concept to accomplish Quality

Every organisation has a preferred talk about of existence. To achieve this preffered state firms reorganizes themselves into smaller subdivisions or industries. These industries in themselves then try to achieve their preffered status of lifestyle. So in all we have to package with two important issues

How to attain the preffered talk about of lifestyle? What all factors add towards it?

How can the preffered point out of different secotrs produced be co related to align (Northcraft and Margaret, 1990) with the objectives of the preffered point out of the whole organisation?

This funtion is resolved by the prominent sector of the organisation known as Senior Management. It's the responsibility of the (Roberts and Kleiner, 1999) mature management of the company to provide for the fact that the preffered talk about of the organisation is come to and at the same time the various minds involved in the subsectors of the organisation are also synched.

Always be sure you focus on those aspects that are thought to be important from organisations point of view. Second identify the constraints of the system to create the analysis of any problem in hand. Segregate the variables involved into two heads. First concern should be given to those parameters who have a direct bearing with the condition identified. Also identify those factors which may benefit the machine. After identifying both the categories of varibales, the machine limitations may be forced to be redrawn. Identify the top linkages between the various sectors involved in the organisation.

Having done each one of these evaluation, it is vital to determine the future projections. To arrive at any figure related to future projections, it is advisable to anylze all the tendencies prevelant as well as the implications of these trends. Only by considering all these possiblities one can come up with alternate solutions and thereby improve the quality.


Open Systems theory is basically modelling the main element variables, both inside and exterior to the organistion. We consider, one of the most breakthough strategy in organisational habit is Open Systems Theory. Now a pile of sand is not really a system. A pile of sand it's still clled the same even if e remove some of the sand contaminants from it. Organnisations aren't like this, they work in close sync with the subsystems that they are constituted of. On the other hand of the Start Systems, there is a criticism that there is a tendency to believe by analogy. Now this can create mistakes of myths and knowledge of the problem. Some times it also becomes too abstract, just striving to put in new vocabulary.

Having said that, without doubt open systems theory will help in quicly knowledge of the variables mixed up in company. By regularly looking at the initail work placed into the model, and also frequent revision than it as so when required will surely help in organisations becoming better and successful.

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