Rational organisational designs, suggested by Potential Weber, rely on logic, order and authority, paying particular focus on the section of labour, advertising by merit and hierarchal control; with the belief that this provides excellence in organisations (France et al, 2009). Organisations use this design with the optimism of increased efficiency; however, have dismissed interpersonal company and the impacts this may have. In this essay, rationalisation will be discussed, focusing on the consequences it is wearing an organisation and its own employees; concluding with the debate of whether a rational organisational design is attractive for Junction Hotel.
Scientific management, established by Frederick Taylor, is designed to simplify work by following set principles. These principles routinize work; organising it into repetitive tasks to be able to attain maximum efficiency, supplying professionals responsibility and a period of control, (Morgan, 2006).
Rational organisational designs develop with respect to the size of the business enterprise they are used with in. The 'simple design' is often used within organisations with few staff, such as small retail stores. This sort of design often has one member of staff, usually the manager, in charge of nearly all other employees; the hierarchy design resembling a pyramid, demonstrating the director has a sizable period of control. This span of control "shifts all responsibility for the organisation of work from the worker to the administrator" corresponding to Morgan (2006), meaning employees only have to implement the task which is designated to them by the manager.
As a company grows a more complex logical organisational design has to be enforced to ensure that efficiency continues to be maximised. The greater intricate design is recognized as 'bureaucracy'. The bureaucracy design uses the same rule of the easy design, although has a more substantial range of managerial staff and specific working departments, developing the string of command line. Bureaucracy design uses more regulations than the easy design, due to the increased quantity of employees which have expert over other employees. This is so that there surely is a clear path of discipline, resulting in all employees knowing who's in charge. This route is the scalar string; showing the line of authority because of the unity of command word. And yes it makes clear what each employee must achieve, scheduled to it being founded by the specific departments. This does mean that training because of this specific job can be completed by staff, making them better. This is of importance to logical organisations; for case, the McDonaldization theory set up by Ritzer (2008) declares that "efficient staff can perform their tasks more rapidly and easily. " This is also achieved in bureaucracies by working like "clockwork"; having staff "execute a predetermined group of activities, slumber at appointed time, and then job application their responsibilities until work is over", as referred to by Morgan (2006). That is a typical example of how bureaucracies are made to function.
Businesses that have these design characteristics are identified by Morgan (2006) as "organisations that are designed and operated as if they were machines".
It is argued that logical organisational designs help to cut costs and increase control for a small business, overall maximising efficiency and possessing a positive effect on the business; evidenced by various real-life organisations.
A typical exemplory case of a business today which includes used a logical organisational design to do this is McDonalds. Ritzer (2008) helps to highlight the potency of the organisational design McDonalds has implemented by quoting Ray Kroc's thoughts on the layout; "I got fascinated by the simplicity and efficiency of the system Each step in producing the limited menu was stripped right down to its fact and accomplished with the very least effort" This affirmation from Kroc recognizes that McDonalds streamlined procedures and company has maximised efficiency. By producing limited volume of menu choices the business enterprise can assign set tasks to given departments, to be completed at a set in place time; routinizing work. This increases control as the higher authority personnel can over-see that the departments are completing their set tasks to ensure the food is made quickly and proficiently for customers to get 'fast food' from McDonalds. Also, by offering a limited menu, McDonalds slashes costs and since suggested by Ritzer (2008) "the limited amount of menu items also permits highly efficient buying of food and products"; the business will not use cash buying items which will be lost due to fall season popular from customers and there is absolutely no extension of the streamlined process meaning the career of further staff or purchase of equipment or supplies.
Hotels like the Travelodge have used rationalisation, in terms of value executive. Davis (2007) expresses that businesses, including the Travelodge, participate in an exercise "called value management to optimise their process, cut costs and improve quality". Value executive is a result of this activity; where businesses cut costs by taking out the 'frills' which not all customers want. For example Davis (2007) focuses how Travelodge's "don't have shampoo in the toilet". By following this constituent of rationalisation, the organisation slices costs, however will not always reduce value for the customer as the business enterprise, like Travelodge, will have already weighed up "cost versus benefit".
The above good examples show how logical organisational design exists in businesses today. However, it was initially derived in the 1700's by Frederick the Great. Morgan (2006) talks about how exactly Frederick developed logical organisation to increase control among his military services. Frederick reduced "troops to automatons" by producing "rates and outfitsregulations, increased expertise of jobscommand terms and organized training" By producing these to the military, the men were "taught to dread their officials"; increasing the control that the higher rates of the hierarchy had over the lower ranks. This flipped the "unruly mob" into machines as they now completed instructions set by Frederick. This is an example of how rationalisation has increased control, even in the initial organisations.
Despite logical organisational designs evidentially displaying positives for businesses, there are in the same way negative effects on both organisation and staff.
If a business implements a rational company design then limitations do happen. These are resolved by Morgan (2006); you can find "great difficulty in adapting to changing circumstances", "
Ritzer (2008) claims that although "efficiency is generally a good thing" it does cause "dehumanization of individuals" as businesses "drive for increased efficiency". This is evidenced an Private BBC article (2010) saying that "Bureaucracy 'hampers social workers'", with a fifth of 4, 141 public employees agreeing that that they had "sufficient time to work effectively with the young people on their case insert" and 50% of those who disagreed said that their "workload was simply too large". That is related to the bureaucracy that the organisation has. Staff find it "harderto spend some time face-to-face with children and young families" due to the organisational design. This makes the workers feel dehumanized because they may have too much paperwork, and not enough time to concentrate on the cases they must be dealing with. That is also supported by Morgan (2006) who says that "mechanistic strategiescan have dehumanizing results after employees, especially those at the lower degrees of the organizational hierarchy" and also that "assembly-line work is simplyalienating. " Mechanistic work, which is due to rational company also makes personnel "adopt mindless, unquestioning attitudes", which subsequently results in a few staff refusing job change, or a new responsibility because they have already a definite idea what's to be done by them because of the management and delegation rationalisation. Looking as of this impact in the long run, chances are that an organisation will find it difficult to improve the bureaucracy it has recently developed, triggering changes in goals for the business enterprise also hard to achieve. This is another limitation of rational designs, which is recommended by Morgan (2006) when declaring "those working in the organization take precedence over the goals the organization was made to achieve".
The theories and studies behind public company also show some negative impacts that rationalisation has.
POSTIVE AND NEGATIVES ON BUSINESS/EMPLOYEES - Discussion USING Public DESIGNS
IS IT DESIRABLE FOR JUNCTION HOTEL - HOW? WHY? ENFORCING IT?
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