The aim of this project is to highlight what management is all about. Management is a vague term which many theorists have different interpretation. It is becoming an important part of our own society and also in our daily activities. Based on my research, management is the process to getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through people. In this essay, I am comparing and contrasting the views of management with two profound theorists, Fayol and Mintzberg. But before I do so I would like to give you a historical background on these theorists and also the approach each theorist takes to spell it out on the theory. However, both of these theorists are like two sides of your coin. The aim of this essay is to show the similarities and dissimilarities between Fayol's and Mintzberg's views of management to be able to enrich the reader's knowledge in advance.
Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925) was the first father of management and was a managing director for a French mining company. He was regarded as a critical contributor to classical school of management theory. His French management theorist believed that management can be an acquired skill that can be taught where human skills is connect with system, not systems apply to people. He describes management as functions based on his personal observation and experience in the work force, while Henry Mintzberg has different opinion.
Henry Mintzberg can be an internationally renowned academic and author on business and management with over 140 articles and thirteen books written. He believes that management is things that manager encounter face to face. That's how he came up with the roles of management.
Fayol has five functions of management; planning, commanding, coordinating and controlling. These functions are to predict the near future, plan for the future, developing different technique structure, managing activities, send information to workers and make sure that things go according to what plan and also get feedback in order to correct inappropriate activities.
According to Mintzberg, he say that management is more than simply planning, commanding, coordinating and controlling, it is having an interpersonal relationship and talk to employees and customers. He describes management as the roles of management. It split into three broad groups, Informational, Interpersonal and decisional roles which comprises of monitor, disseminator, spokesperson, figurehead, leader, laision, entrepreneur, resource allocation and disturbance handler.
Fayol's approach is quite very much like Mintzberg role of management. Based upon Fayol traditional method of management, planning is the first function of management process. Therefore manager must plan in order to fulfill their objectives. Mintzberg agrees with Fayol's function that without planning for a manager can't be successful at what they do. However, planning helps organization to look to the near future, predict the issue, and choose actions to steer clear of the difficult problem and respond to them quickly.
In order to attain the purpose of the business, managers must arrange work so that organization's goal can accomplish. Organizing is the structural part of management. Without organizing there is no need for a manager. With the original approach, Fayol's functions of management are organizing while Mintzberg say that organizing play a crucial part of management. Therefore without organizing then you will see no dependence on a manager.
Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling are the steps that manager takes to achieve their goal of the organization. It is similar to Mintzberg management of roles, where he says that managers should be able to lead and communicate well. Fayol's and Mintzberg's views of management explained that manager must have good leadership skills. Without a good leadership, management will fail. Both employees and manager can communicate better and job completed effectively.
All theorists based their foundation thoughts of management from the classical approach. It is the framework from what management is all about. Fayol and Mintzberg view management differently base through to their own observation. Fayol's five functions of management uniquely describe the managers' job not the type of managerial are Mintzberg has stated in his roles of management. Mintzberg (1973) says the "Managerial work is enormously complex than the traditional approach of Fayol's functions
Mintzberg role of management is something approach than that of the original approach. His research demonstrates management is far more than planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling; it is having an interpersonal relationship and communicate with employees and their customer, and attend meeting so that specific task can be fulfill.
According to Mintzberg role of management, a manager should not simply spend time planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling, they must be able to interact with the public, attend meeting and build relationship with their employees.
Both Fayol and Mintzberg describe management in their own term. Although management is a vague term, Fayol and Mintzberg use their own observation to describe how management works. They take different approaches to highlight how manager operation in an organization.
Fayol saw the business as closed system where he focuses on the inner factor of an organization. Mintzberg says that management is more of any open system where his concern is approximately the internal factors and the external influences of the business. Thus, Fayol and Mintzberg theories of management are important in an organization based on the organization culture of the organization anyone of the theory or both can succeed.
The starting place of Maslow's hierarchy theory is that a lot of folks are motivated by the required to satisfy specific sets of needs while McGregor formulated his Theory X and Theory Y describing the key assumptions about human nature. Compare these views.
In this essay, the aim is to compare two theorists' view on what motivate a person in an organization and to uncover what it is the fact that trigger and sustains of human behaviour towards their theory. Motivation is to give incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a particular action or certain behaviour at work. It is present in our daily life. For instance, eating motivated by hunger, education motivated by knowledge. According to Maslow and McGregor, people are motivated if their desires are met. Each theorist has different theories that shows how human performed when they are motivated by another or by specific needs. This essay provides historical background of Maslow and McGregor and their theory. The aim of this essay is to observe how these theories motivate people in an organization.
Abraham Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, formulated a theory predicated on hierarchy of needs. This theory was published in 1954. He believed that human motivation and behaviour is drive by each particular needs being satisfy. He assumed that human being have inner core based on the individual's feeling, emotions, desires, needs, and wants. He classified the Hierarchy of Needs into five categories; Physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualizing needs.
Douglas McGregor's, an American social psychologist, developed two theories, Theory X and Theory Y. However, he based his studies on leadership style. These theories are assumptions about the human behaviour within an organization. Thus, it is a robust tool to comprehend how human are motivated.
With Hierarchy of needs, people have a tendency to fulfill their needs systematically. They focus on the basic need which is the physiological. It is the first need on the pyramid which covers a big area that must definitely be fulfill before they can progress the hierarchy. These needs include food, sleep and water. When each needs are fulfill then you move up the hierarchy. While you fulfill your physiological needs then you are motivate to go the pyramid, which is safety needs. This need is concern about individual's shelter and security. Once that need is fulfill then individual will focus on the social needs. This need is where individual search for companionship, love and affection. When social needs are achieved then you will proceed to next need which is the esteem. You are able to either have a higher or low self-esteem; this is where people get their feedback from others people. After you fulfill esteem needs then the move on the final need which is the self-actualization, that's where individual reaches their potential based on their personal expectation. Thus a hungry person will never be motivated by safety or affection if the physiological need is not fulfill.
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y predicated on assumptions about behaviour and what human motivation in an organization. THEORETICALLY X, he assumes that employees are inherently lazy and dislike work creating those to avoid work if indeed they can will. Because of this employees have to be closely supervised and constantly be developed by a system control. Theory Y employees are opposite, employees are work addict, plus they exercise self-motivation and have self-control. This theory is where employees are ambitious and revel in their mental and physical work duties.
McGregor based his theories on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He says that Theory X is the low order of Maslow Hierarchy of needs and Theory Y is the higher order. According to McGregor, management uses the hierarchy of must motivate employees. For example, based on hierarchy of needs people won't operate work if various needs aren't met, manager will say they are lazy and have no interest in the task but once the manager understand the employee then they will know how to dealt with that situation and an appropriate ways to motivate them.
Maslow's theory provided an early on useful framework for discussion about the variety of needs that people may experience at work, and how their motivation can be met by the manager. Theory X and Theory Y have made a great impact in the managerial world than the academic world and it help identify management style. Both Theory X and Theory Y donate to an effective management.
How do job satisfaction and organizational commitment affect a person's behavior at the job?
To what extent can these attitudes be changed by effective managers?
Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are the two of the prominent work attitudes that observed in the task environment. The aim of this essay is to convey how job satisfaction and organizational commitment affect an individual's behaviour at the job. According to my research, job satisfaction can be an emotional respond to a job situation while organizational commitment is the strong feeling of responsibility an employee has for the mission of the organization. This essay will further explain how effective manager can transform these attitudes in the work environment.
Job satisfaction is merely how people experience their jobs and various areas of their job. People can either like (satisfaction) and dislike (dissatisfaction) their job. According to Frederick Herzberg, he believed that employees can like their job because various contributions it offers. These contribution involves the task itself, pay, promotions, job achievement, co-worker, supervision and benefits contribute to employees satisfy using their job. He called it motivators. If employees aren't satisfied with their job then the productions of the organization with not grow. Manager will dsicover their employees as lazy and they will assume that they don't want to work. This he called the Hygiene factors because employees aren't being motivated face to face.
Organizational commitment is highly valuable part of a business. It influences individual's behaviour toward their work. Studies implies that commitment in an organization has great impact on success organization. It's the consequence of job satisfaction. Organizational commitment is very critical in an organization since it help strength the workforce. You will find three types of commitment; affective, continuous and normative commitment. Affective commitment is where employees are emotional mounted on the organization; continuance commitment is when individual commits to the business because she or he perceives high cost of leaving of the business and normative is when employees are obligated to the organization. Therefore, manager can create a comfortable environment in order for employees to invest in their job.
Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are like "two side of an coin". They are really critical factors within an organization. Once employees are comfortable and stable then productivity will increase. Based on the business culture, manager needs to understand the organization before they could be effective manger. Each organization has different culture, for example a bank cannot operate the same manner a cloth store do due to different culture.
In a business, a manager should be able to forecast and plan for an organization to go forward, however they need to communicate and also have interpersonal relationship with employees in order to handle problem that arise. According to Elton Mayo, manager needs to know under which condition individual can succeed. Every individual will vary and preform differently under supervision.
According to Maslow Hierarchy of needs, employee will not be motivated on their job if the basic needs aren't met. Managers believes that individual won't perform effectively because there no motivation. I am assuming a highly effective manager should know which theoretical approach to take base on the organization culture. If employees aren't satisfy using their job and not focused on their work, then the manager must be able analyze the challenge so that they can make relevant decision in an innovative way.
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