Kotter and lewins change and positive models

Change management handles adapting and managing change. For a business, change management is "defining and utilizing procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes available environment and profit from changing opportunities". (searchcio-midmarket. techtarget. com/explanation)

There is actually a need for the change to happen as the globe is changing. Therefore, some models can help a business to use change successfully.

Kotter's Change Model

John Kotter is a big change expert who is a teacher at Harvard Business School. Kotter presented a famous change process that involves eight steps in his 1995 e book, "Leading Change".

Step One: Create Urgency

For an organization to let the change happen, this step is female motivation for the items to occur. Therefore, the first task is to build up a feeling of urgency. (mindtools. com/webpages/article/newPPM)

Step Two: Form a Guiding Coalition

For the change to happen, the change needs to be supervised as well as led. Hence, there is a requirement for strong control as well as the support from important employees of the business. (Strategies-for-managing-change. com/john-kotter)

Step Three: Creating a Change Vision

Developing a clear vision can help out to simplify the decisions, motivates employees to look for the change even it is hard for these people, and really helps to organize the activities in a hasty and well-organized way. (kotterinternational. com/KotterPrinciples/Change Steps/Step3)

Step Four: Connecting the Vision for Buy-in

It is not about creating a clear vision, however the vision must reach all the employees of the business. For this to happen, the perspective should be communicated in hour-by-hour activities. Communication may also be done through conferences, e-mail, and presentations. It should be communicated everywhere and everywhere in order to let the employee have a specific idea about the change to happen. While connecting the change be genuine and focus on the emotional sizing of the people's doubts and concerns. (kotterinternational. com/KotterPrinciples/ChangeSteps/Step5, strategies-for-managing-change. com/john-kotter)

Step Five: Empowering People and Removing Barriers

Removing barriers can help the visitors to do their best work and empowers those to execute vision. This will likely cause change to happen. (mindtools. com/web pages/article/newPPM, kotterinternational. com/KotterPrinciples/ChangeSteps/Step5)

Step Six: Generating Short-term wins

Generating short-term wins will definitely encourage the employees. The employee confidence increase and will adapt to the change as well as will be happy with his work. Arranging a change without looking at short-term performance is often risky. One cannot know where they stand and what lengths is the destination. (kotterinternational. com/KotterPrinciples/ChangeSteps/Step6)

Step Seven: Don't Let Up!

There is actually a opportunity for the resistance to occur even success occurs in the first stages. There may be fear of change with everyone. Enabling up will create problems and the momentum can be lost. Therefore, the organization has to combine gains and produce more change. (kotterinternational. com/KotterPrinciples/ChangeSteps/Step7)

Step Eight: Make it stick

Culture is deeply rooted within an organization and is the hardest thing to improve. Every associate of the business indoctrinates into the culture of the business without noticing it. Therefore, new strategies have to be anchored and should be deeply rooted in order to stay strongly in the culture. (kotterinternational. com/KotterPrinciples/ChangeSteps/Step8)

Strengths and Weaknesses

The strength of this model is that it concentrates on all aspects for the change to happen in an group. Therefore, by concentrating on all aspects such as conversing the vision, making a guiding coalition, producing short-term wins, and not permitting up will definitely makes the change to occur. Culture is the hardest thing to improve in any organization and by making use of this model, the social change can happen.

On the other part, the first rung on the ladder speaks about the urgency but it does not concentrate on the reason for change. Purpose with urgency can only play an effective role together for the change to happen. To implement this model the leaders should be experienced and associates of the business should support the change.

Lewin's 3-Stage Model

Kurt Lewin is a psychologist who recognized three levels of change. They are Unfreeze, Change, and Refreeze.

Stage 1: Unfreeze

This stage is an important the one that involves reaching to a posture of understanding that change is essential. In this level, creating ideal environment is an important thing for the change to occur. Generally, people get used to just how they will work and they try to avoid the change even the change is effective one, as it'll initially cause irritation. Therefore, the main theme of this level is to transfer people from this 'iced' state to a 'unfrozen' status. (Change-management-coach. com/kurt_lewin, London Management Centre, 2008)

Stage 2: Change - or Transition

This stage is central to Lewin's model and it is a misunderstandings period at the internal level. Within the transition level, the changes are made that are crucial. Employees will be unfrozen and you will be heading in the direction of new way of being. Therefore, people are not clear about new ways that will replace the more aged ways. This plainly shows that this is actually the hardest stage as employees are not sure or fearful. The primary goal of this transition level is to go employees to the unfrozen state and keep them there. (change-management-coach. com/kurt_lewin, London Management Centre, 2008)

Stage 3: Refreeze

This phase specializes in elevating the comfort levels and taking back the steadiness. It brings people to a stable and productive express from a low productive express. Refreeze is to establish stability after the changes occur. Finally people form new relationships learn to become comfortable with new changes. (Change-management-coach. com/kurt_lewin, London Management Centre, 2008)

Strengths and Weaknesses

The power of Lewin's model is that it's easy and simple to comprehend. This model specializes in the fear of employees who oppose the change to happen. This is the key factor, which should be exercised by every firm to bring out change.

However, on the other side, this model will not concentrate on each aspect. For the change to happen all the aspects should be considered such like the aspects covered in Kotters change model.

The Positive Model

The Positive model includes five phases. They are simply

Phase 1: Start the Inquiry

Initiate the inquiry is to learn the subject of change. It issues up the associate participation to recognize the organizational concern they have the most energy to handle. (Cummings & Worley, 2009)

Phase 2: Inquire into best practices

Inquire into best practises is assembling data that is the best in the organization. If the topic is organizational invention, then associates of the business helps to build up an interview standard protocol which contains the information about the new ideas that were developed and completed in the business. The customers of the business carry out the interviews: they interview the other person and let them know the information or tales about the improvements in which the members are personally involved. These testimonies are gathered to form a group of information, which identifies the organization as an progressive system. (Cummings & Worley, 2009)

Phase 3: Uncover the themes

Discovering themes is about the participants of the organization who go through the experiences that are collected previously which may include both small and large, to recognize a couple of themes that happen to be demonstrating the normal scope of people's activities. For example, the testimonies of advancement that are accumulated may contain topics about how much freedom each individual gets from the managers in exploring a new idea, how much support the coworkers provided to the business participants, or how to contact with customers sparked clever ideas. No theme is small in case there is representation; it is very important to describe all the core mechanisms that help to generate and support the topics. The designs symbolises the basis for moving from "what is" to "what could be". (Cummings & Worley, 2009)

Phase 4: Envision a preferred future

Members that scan the discovered themes, test the status quo, and summarize a compelling future. Predicated on the organizations successful history, people collectively picture the organizations future and develop "possibility proportions"- statements that bridge the organizations current guidelines with ideal options for future organizing. These proportions should present a really enjoyable, provocative, and possible picture of the future. Predicated on these possibilities, customers uncover the relevant stakeholders and critical corporation processes that must definitely be aligned to support emergences of the envisioned future. The vision becomes a statement of "what should be". (Cummings & Worley, 2009)

Phase 5: Design and Deliver Methods to Create the Future

This period illustrates the actions and the plans necessary to bring eyesight. It progresses to both action and assessment phase comparable to action research identified earlier. Customers of the organization make modifications, weigh up the results and make necessary changes, to move the organization towards the vision and nourish "exactly what will be". The plan of action is prolonged by repairing the discussion in what the best is. (Cummings & Worley, 2009)

Strengths and Weaknesses

The strength of this model is the fact it concentrates on the main issue and tries to resolve the problem by using the best practises of the business. The weakness of the model is that there surely is no urgency, which is essential for the change as sometimes the organizations might go out of time. If the change will not happen prior to the time dies then your work created by the organization goes in vain.


The three change models Kotter's change model, Lewin's 3-stage model, and the positive model are different from one another. These three models can be employed by any business for the change to occur.

Kotter's change model is a brief model that specializes in every small aspect. The only problem with the Kotter's change model is that it targets urgency but not on purpose. Without knowing purpose of change, the urgency will have no reason and everyone will be doing things quickly without goal. By considering the purpose, this model can be most preferable for a business to apply change. This model makes certain that the change need to occur is communicated to everyone and concentrates on building the momentum with short-term wins. The culture of the business can be evolved that is deeply rooted.

Lewis 3-level model is a straightforward model it concentrates on moving people from their old style of working. People will have a fear of change, which is the biggest opposition of the change to happen. This model concentrates on moving people from a level of freezing to refreeze level. This model does not concentrate on all the tiny aspects.

The positive model is different from Kotter's and Lewin's model. It enquires about the problem and uses the best practices of the business to solve the problem. This can help the change to occur. However, there is no sense of urgency that is a major problem. In comparison with Kotter's model it isn't as complete as that model.

Every model has some durability. Therefore, it will always be easier to go for the three models, opt for the best things from the models, and put into practice them for the change to happen. Talking about best of the three models, my choice is Kotter's change model as it concentrates on all the aspects for the change to occur.

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