Leadership and Culture as observed in Technology Mahindra Limited

A human being right from beginning is associated to various people including parents, relatives, and so forth. As he/she grows up old, the pool of associations become more robust and complicated as his/her needs have a tendency to increase such as: The necessity of friends, education, and other sociocultural areas of human life. The child thus becomes part of many organisations providing to needs of one another in the company. Organisation, as described by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is "A group of men and women who form a small business, club, etc. mutually in order to accomplish a specific aim". All the organisations regardless of their dynamics are headed by the Leader. Head is often regarded as a person who courses the organisation to attain a goal by establishing practices and building a positive environment with the company. As said by Fullan (1992) in his notes, that "the only thing of real importance that leaders do is to create and take care of culture. The authority of a business has the principal responsibility for determining the need for, and fostering, ethnic change and for sustaining a sensible safeness culture once it is made. "

In the following essay, I've attempted elaborating some control skills and organisational culture taking into consideration Mr Vineet Nayyar who minds (Vice Chairman, MD & CEO) Technology Mahindra Small, a joint venture between Mahindra & Mahindra Group and Uk Telecommunications PLC.

About Technology Mahindra

Introduction

Tech Mahindra is an integral part of US $7. 1 Billion Mahindra Group, in partnership with British Telecommunications plc (BT), which is one of the greatest communication providers on the globe. The company was incorporated in 1986 under the name of 'Mahindra English Telecom', that was later modified to 'Technology Mahindra' to indicate diversification and expansion of client base. Technology Mahindra has majorly focussed the telecommunications industry which is a leading global systems integrator and business change consulting group.

Tech Mahindra performs globally with more than 15 Greenfield Functions and has over 124 lively customer engagements generally in Telecom sector. A few of its largest clients are BT, AT&T, O2 and Alcatel-Lucent. The business has footprints in more than 25 countries and has been evaluated as SEI CMMI Level 5 Company. The company is supported by around 35, 000 pros who provide distinctive mixture of domain expertise, in depth technology skill packages and culture.

Tech Mahindra Perspective

To be the most respected solution specialist in the marketing communications ecosystem

Anticipating and enabling change

Admired for technology, agility, development, business models and the grade of its talent

Tech Mahindra Values

"Technology Mahindra is targeted on creating lasting value growth through innovative alternatives and unique partnerships. Our worth are at the heart of the business reputation and are crucial to our extended success. We foster an environment to instil these principles in every facet of our company. "

Customer first

Good commercial citizenship

Professionalism

Commitment to quality

Dignity of the individual

Some of the Industry Recognitions

In the Leaders Category in 'The 2009 Global Outsourcing 100' (IAOP's Total annual Report on the World's Best Outsourcing Service Providers)

Ranked 2nd in Telecom Software providers of India by Voice & Data, 2008 (V&D 100 Rank)

Business Week Prize for Asia's Best Performing Companies, 2008

"Growth Excellence Honor" by Frost & Sullivan, 2008

Ranked 6th largest software exporter from India (NASSCOM, 2008)

Leadership

Introduction to command

There are numerous organisations prevailing in the today's world. Every single member of an organisation aspires to get an ideal innovator who are able to create an environment of trust, ownership among employees and can steer the organisation in a well-balanced way both in good as well as hard times of the company. As said by Admiral Burke, US Navy-"Leadership is understanding people and regarding these to help you do a job. That can take all of the good characteristics, like integrity, devotion of purpose, selflessness, knowledge, skill, implacability, as well as dedication not to acknowledge failure. "

But there remains a major question- "What are the characteristics of a good innovator?" or "How exactly to assess if one is worth leading a group or an company?" Through the following analysis, findings and practical cases I would try and find answers to the questions mentioned above.

Theoretical approach to leadership

There have been numerous theories discussing several aspects of leadership and various styles where it is used. The initial being the "Trait theory of Control" that was worked after and analysed at size as early as around mid-1850. This theory was mainly considering the measurement of qualities of persons which may be defined as habitual patterns of emotion, behaviour and thoughts. This theory highly is convinced that the traits of an person are in-born and remain frequent over life lime and hence it concluded that "Leaders were delivered, not developed. " In contrast to this theory, some other theories which came up in overdue 1940s and early on 1950s stated people who are Leaders in a single situation may well not necessarily be leaders in other situations. These theories took into account the macro environment and took into consideration various factors influencing the decisions and behaviour of the leaders. The criticism of Characteristic theory by many experts taking into account its shortcomings, led them in an alternate theory, the "Theory of Behaviour and Style". This theory resulted in review of "Managerial Grid Model" which suggested five different leadership styles, predicated on the market leaders' concern for folks and their concern for goal success. A graphical representation of the managerial grid model is shown below.

However many researchers assumed that different situations call for different characteristics which resulted in development of "Situational and Contingency Theory". This theory mentioned that the actions and behaviour of any leader were generally inspired by characteristics of the situation in which he functions. The best promising model because of this theory originated by Fred Fiedler and is known as "Fiedler contingency model". He thought that "The leader's success is dependant on 'situational contingency' which really is a result of conversation of two factors: Control style and Situational favourableness". As the first choice I've chosen to analyse best suits to the style of management, Contingency Theory would be the foundation of my examination about his command style.

Fiedler's Contingency Theory and Mr Vineet Nayyar

In the past due 1950s and early 1960s, noticeable professional and business psychologists: Fiedler and Woodward started to study the management and behaviour styles of leaders and professionals. Previously to Fiedler's analysis, professional psychologists mainly focussed on personal characteristics of influential market leaders. They thought that there was only one best way to run an company which produced best results & most effective business routines. The reason why of Fiedler's model influencing most analysts was that it refused one best way and perfectly easily fit into modern highly complicated organisations where cases and environment of market leaders kept changing more regularly.

Fiedler's model evaluated a potential innovator with a scale of work style which range from Task-Oriented on one end to Relationship-Oriented on the other. The other important factor which affected behavior was the contextual circumstances in which the group operates. That is furthermore supported by three contextual parameters impacting on appropriateness of a particular style. They are: Leader-member relations, Task Composition and Innovator Position Electric power.

The diagram below depicts the model.

Mr Vineet Nayyar, 70, is the Vice Chairman & Managing Director of Technical Mahindra since 2005 and the Chairman of Mahindra Satyam since 2009 following its acquisition by Tech Mahindra. He's an accomplished innovator and has led many organisations across his career span of 40 years. He has worked meticulously with Indian Authorities (an IAS - Indian Administrative Services public), international multilateral businesses and the corporate sector (both consumer and private). While in administration, he has used many senior positions as District Magistrate and Secretary of Authorities Administration. He has also been area of the World Lender for over 10 Years. In corporate sector, he was founding Chairman and Managing Director of status owned Gas Expert of India, MD and V Chairman of HCL Systems. He keeps a Master's degree in Development Economics from Williams College or university, Massachusetts.

Vineet is without a doubt an outstanding leader and a job model for employees at Technology Mahindra. During his 6 years tenure, he has taken several critical decisions which have impacted the company positively and also have created a feeling of trust which I believe is the most important characteristic of being a leader of organisation. Year after year he has won excellent feedback ratings from employees of the company which are apparent of his control characteristics. Along with high staff satisfaction, his role as a leader of company was backed up with exponential progress of the organisation. The business has doubled its size both in man electric power as well as the total business sales. It has also received three organisations, Axes Systems (India) Private Limited, iPolicy Networks Private Small and Satyam Computer Services Ltd since 2005.

As recommended by Fiedler's Contingency theory, Leader's behavioural style is majorly impacted by environment around him. Over the last 5 years, Asian and Global current economic climate have observed many highs and lows. During the time when Vineet got into into Tech Mahindra, global economy was on a steady rise. He saw this as huge chance for Tech Mahindra, and the company under his authority launched an extremely successful IPO (Initial General public Offer) in 2006, through which the organisation elevated around $100 million to create a new development centre at Pune, India estimating an employee seats capacity of 9000. This proven an extremely motivating factor for employees of the organisation, as the business was then listed in Indian Stock Exchange which put into the credibility and popularity of the company. As the IPO was a huge success, the employees of Technology Mahindra were given bonus shares on completing twenty years of Technology Mahindra in 2006. This move increased the sense of ownership and the amount of commitment of the employees towards the organisation.

As the economy extended to flourish, the company gained new and potential clients along with existing customers which put into exponential surge in company's physical and liquid belongings. Under Vineet's authority, Technology Mahindra increased footprints across India and the world. It offers added four new development centres in India along with several abroad site offices across Asia Pacific, European countries, Americas, Middle East and Africa. Company's headcount increased from 16, 500 in 2005 to 35, 200 this year 2010. As the company grew more robust and bigger, it created more jobs for individuals and had been respected as a safe company considering job stabilization. These positive factors, along with Vineet's influential leadership skills, resulted in a favourable situation which immediately proved to have a positive effect on group performance. Leader-member relations were 'Good' along with 'High' task composition. With new development centres getting into operation, there have been revised operations and policies which clearly defined each employee's assignments and duties. Every employee had been given a task to set-up his goals at the start of the year which were then finalized along with supervisor's reviews. There have been team/individual conferences/skip level conferences to point out any concerns, reviews or comments related to employee's work. All this led to 'High' Task composition. All the groups/teams were going by way of a team-lead and a supervisor who got full authority to assign and monitor tasks for folks in the group. These people also possessed the power to recommend fantastic performers for rewards and awards every one fourth. Hence we can consider Head Position vitality also to be 'High' thus leading to 'High' Favourableness of the situation. The most appropriate Behavioural style hence can be conceived as Low LPC, Process Oriented. However along with Job Oriented command style, Vineet was also inclined towards Relationship-Oriented behaviour as the company was successful. Organisation incorporated several awards that have been to be given to high performers and send out bonus deals among employees. There is high worker satisfaction leading to improved upon overall group performances.

The economy continuing to grow till early on 2008 after which there was a steep downturn. The economic turmoil in United States and Europe had a direct impact on Technical Mahindra as all of its major clients participate in this geography. This was a extreme change of environment for Vineet and he had to modify his authority style with the changing situation. Vineet along with his management team had to turn out cost affective job driven solutions to cope up with the increasing pressure of dipping current economic climate and demanding clients. There were many changes in company procedures to make sure they are streamlined and affordable. As the market further weakened, many employees were discontinued using their company roles in order to maintain an even position on operating the projects. Worker Analysis and Appraisal Process was assessed as company was now working on less operating revenue. All the overhead costs were reduced and add-ons were cut-off. This lead to decreased worker satisfaction and hampered team shows.

During once period (2009) Technical Mahindra surfaced as the best bidder to con hit Satyam Pcs Ltd (Later renamed as Mahindra Satyam after takeover). Vineet was appointed as the Chairman of Mahindra Satyam considering his excellent service to Technical Mahindra over time. His past activities and characteristics as a leader both became the deciding factor for this decision. Economic depression in conjunction with accounting fraud was a nightmare for employees of Mahindra Satyam. With a strong headcount of around 45, 000, Mahindra Satyam because of its tainted image and lost credibility lost many major clients. Its working profits came down to negative and the company was very difficult to maintain. Vineet and his team completed group of management and process changes in Mahindra Satyam to improve its position in the market. Rebranding Satyam Personal computers to Mahindra Satyam was one particular move. The connection to Mahindra & Mahindra group instilled an elevated sense of trustworthiness. There were interior exchange placements within Technology Mahindra and Mahindra Satyam to utilize excessive man electricity and Technology Mahindra slowed its exterior recruitment process. Many employees of Mahindra Satyam who did not have a good performance assessment were handed pink-slips. It had been critical for Mahindra Satyam to restore itself and get back its put in place the IT Industry. Some similar stern changes and innovations required in Mahindra Satyam over the next few months. All these changes in Technology Mahindra and Mahindra Satyam led to decreased employee satisfaction. Employees were not given enough salary hikes and campaigns were delayed. As more and more employees were terminated credited to low operating margins, the team sizes grew smaller resulting in increased work pressure. This did not have a good effect on Leader-member relations and may be referred to as 'Bad'. Task structure also dropped to 'Low' as there was increased workload anticipated to less team members. Existing associates were unclear about the added duties they had to partake that have been an overhead to their already existing duties. Leader position power still remained 'Strong' as there is constant supervision on performance of the individuals. All these factors resulted in 'Low' Favourableness of situation and behavioural style can hence be concluded as Low LPC Highly Task-oriented.

Conclusion

With all the above evidences and cases of effect of external forces on management style of Vineet Nayyar, I could strongly conclude that control behaviour of market leaders change with circumstances. An excellent leader is judged concerning how he changes his behavior under different situations and choosing the right style of control. Citing all the above cases of management and analysing them with theory as mentioned by Fiedler concludes that Fiedler's Contingency theorem aptly suits Vineet Nayyar's authority style. As the situations and macro environment changes rapidly, leadership as an enormous pool of possible operative styles was a ground-breaking idea by Fiedler. It really is in my virtue a idea in modern management theories which rejects a stiff assumption about ideal management.

Culture

Introduction to culture

Culture: A phrase having its roots from Latin phrase 'Cultura' which means "to cultivate". Culture is a word having numerous meanings and definitions and is usually the essential part of any organisation present today. Gareth Morgan has described organizational culture as: "The set of the group of beliefs, ideals, and norms, as well as symbols like dramatized situations and personalities that presents the unique figure of a business, and the context to use it in it and because of it. " Organisational culture is hard to describe and is comparable to other intangible entities which can you need to be experienced by the virtue from it being into living. Using the size and complexity of organisations differing from a few to thousands, this is a vital and crucial part of any organisation. It is in modern time, a characteristic of the company which mirrors the environment prevailing in the same and distinguishes it from others predicated on its Ideals, Rites, Rituals and cultural network.

During the following text, I've tried analyzing organisational culture at Technology Mahindra based on theoretical and sensible approaches.

Theoretical method of culture

Organisational culture has been analysed and identified by many anthropologists and sociologists including Package and Kennedy, Charles Handy, Edgar Schein, Robert A. Cooke and many more. All the analysts have defined Culture in a variety of forms as it's very difficult to express it distinctly. Everyone when becomes an integral part of organisation, becomes an integral part of its culture. He recognizes, discovers, inherits and then practices culture at company through his different ways. Schein has broadly categorized the nature of culture as 'split' phenomena having three degrees of visibility. They are: Basic Assumptions, Prices and Beliefs and Artefacts and Creations. He has further emphasized that these three layers of noticeable culture interact among themselves and don't stand out from each other. A visual representation is shown below.

Many different models can be found which differentiate culture on the basis of its character prevailing in various organisations. Among which is advised by Peters and Waterman called the Characteristics of Excellent Companies. The authors studied cultures at some of the most successful organisations and came up with a list of common idealized methods within those organisations. This was by some seen as 'One best culture' and received strong criticisms by many research workers.

Another model was suggested by Goffee and Jones which is also called as The Goffee and Jones Contingency Platform. This was a more modern approach to organisational culture and advised the dependency of culture on business environments. They opposed the theory of one 'Right' or 'Best' culture for various organisations. Their framework could be depicted predicated on two dimensions: Sociability and Solidarity. These two dimensions were rated from Good to Bad and a four cubes composition was attracted.

They suggested an organisation may have one or a mix of these four ethnicities: The Communal culture, the Networked culture, the Mercury culture and the Fragmented culture. Taking the exemplory case of Tech Mahindra, I'd be closely third, technique to look at its culture rated on Sociability and Solidarity.

Culture at Tech Mahindra

Tech Mahindra is a sizable company with around 35, 000 employees around the globe. Tech Mahindra recruits fresh school graduates yearly in good sized quantities. Soon after these college or university graduates join the business, on their visit day, are exposed to a series of induction processes. Included in these are registration procedures, induction talk from the head of HR office and many similar interactive trainings of what is expected out of an employee at Tech Mahindra. All these sessions discuss the value offered by Technology Mahindra culture and how these values are essential to modify by all the employees. The new employees are then split into batches and are allotted to various Preliminary Training Programs (ITP and the employees are then called ITPians) predicated on their record studies. This ITP course extends around 4 a few months where ITPians go through various Techie and Behavioural trainings which prepares an ITPian to simply accept the challenge which his job offers. During the Behavioural training there are numerous sessions about Code of Carry out, Company dress code, Technical Mahindra rewards programs, focus on Quality work, Information Security and add-ons associated with performance.

All the employees are asked to check out a demanding dress code which is Business formals from Monday to Thursday night. Employees are permitted to wear Business Casuals, i. e. Jeans and Collared T Shirts on Fri. This dress code is purely followed and its own Manager's responsibility for counselling defaulting team members in so doing facilitating adherence to the Company's policy. Any selection of informal wear which is revealing, excessively form equipped or exhausted is strictly not allowed. There are occasions where many employers don't have such varieties of laws on dress code like Yahoo. This however can be long debated over and over again with no company outcome. In my opinion having a dress code is a good measure to generate and maintain a healthy and professional environment over the organisation.

The ITPians are briefed about Code of Carry out policies of Technology Mahindra about which they are asked to listen attentively. They are briefed of how they shall follow the appropriate legal construction of the country in which they operate. Employees are expected to know also to understand the legal obligations applicable while undertaking their responsibilities and discharging their responsibilities face to face. Ignorance cannot be an excuse for violation of legislations. They are also told to compete fairly with their competitors as well as highest possible requirements of integrity and ethics atlanta divorce attorneys sphere of activity. ITPians are briefed that they shall not put their personal problems over organisational needs. Employees are always likely to protect and nurture the business's interests on a regular basis and remain impartial in any decision that they may be necessary to take. These are told not to offer or acknowledge products, hospitality or other inducements, which impact a choice, or take part in any form of bribery.

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