Leadership is the procedure of influencing other folks to accomplish an objective and direct them, as individual or as a group, which makes it more cohesive and coherent. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to recognize different varieties of leadership.
Authoritarian or Autocratic
This management style is employed when supervisor or leader sets objectives and explains to employees what to be achieved, how it is usually to be achieved without getting any advice or responses from them and strongly encourages obedience. In this case the group becomes reliant on the leader which often contributes to frustration with the management often leading to high guidance, micro-management, and loss of cohesion.
This style should be used only on uncommon events like on a fresh employee that has just started the job. A dynamic leader would prefer this style of management when he has everything to cope with the problems, he is running lacking time and his employers are well determined.
Illustration by Author
Participative or Democratic
As the name implies this style encourages the participation of personnel and employees in your choice making process. Being asked because of their ideas makes employees feel they are important part of the organisation and promotes them to set up extra effort. The final decision of earning expert rests with the first choice. This form of management is a good sign of strength and trust which will make employees value you.
Dynamic leader use this management style when he only has part of information and needs source from his employees. Head might learn than almost all of his employees but still he does not know everything and that's the reason for using experienced and skilful people to help him.
Delegative or Laissez-faire
In this management style the first choice allows employees to help make the decisions openly within broad limits. This results slow paced life as there are extremely few guidelines to stick to which may lead to insufficient motivation and low efficiency.
This style is usually to be used when the employees can handle analysing the problems and are experienced enough to really know what is usually to be done and how. This style shouldn't be used as a tool at fault others when things go wrong.
The best innovator is the one who does not follow a definite style but attempts to accomplish a balance between these three styles depending upon the problem.
Leadership And Change Management
The the very first thing during the process of change is the power, competence and skill of innovator to manage the whole process. Kurt Lewin discovered periods of change viz. unfreeze, transition, and refreeze (Strategies for managing change).
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Unfreeze or Preparation For The Change
What we signify by preparing for change is creating the right environment, planning resources and procedures that might happen in future. Just like a healthy individual is more capable of coping with diseases and infections similarly a ready organisation is at better position to handle ramifications of changes. The management will play an important role by means of sensible planning and decision making expertise.
Transition or Execution Process
This is the center period from the announcement of the change complete to the successful installation of the change. This is actually the most significant point during the change process marked by the instability, lack of direction and low drive of employees due to fear of their instable future. An effective leadership during this period will be centered on aiding employees understand the future way of the organisation after change and secondly by making the change meaningful. People goes to extraordinary length for triggers they believe in and a powerful leader will encourage the employees on the importance of change to get maximum out of these.
Refreeze Or Summary FROM THE Change Process
This is the time that comes after the initial phases of instability and insecurity, which includes now subsided and due to effective role of command the employees have become more focused to the new path of the organisation. An efficient authority will during this process work towards improving the task life of the employees and ensuring them about the positive way that the company is relocating.
Strategies And Plans At M&S And Tesco
The major general strategy open to leaders of most major company including Tesco and M&S is that they either choose to be the cheapest cost retailer and become market head or differentiate products and services so that it is respected by customers to the scope that they are happy to pay reduced price. With regards to M&S in their main products (food and clothing), they attempt to achieve differentiation from others. Tesco on the other side has focused to attract more customers when you are low cost merchant.
Both Tesco and M&S are most successful company in UK and both of them consider training and development of their employees as very important for his or her business. Training and development forms important part of organisational strategy of Tesco and M&S usually because their success has been characterised by their extension. Furthermore to ensure that they remain before competition they place high importance on training and development. Management noticed that there surely is no better way to do this rather than through the use of training and development. (Paisley, 1999).
The effort of "Result in succeed" by the M&S command is an example of the importance they attach to identify and train future leaders. This programme has been heralded as the flagship development programme and is known as to be a key component in its future people strategy. (Verity Gough, training zone, 08/11/2010)
Tesco's slogan "every little helps" which shows their commitment to lessen prices and increase customer support is now used in their staff training as well. Tesco's management believes that any involvement by them will lead to a rise in the data and expertise of these workforce.
In 2007 when Sir Stuart Rose, was leading M&S he released a policy document to fortify the green credentials of M&S. According to the policy document offered by Sir Stuart Rose M&S would invest in a variety of activities at the expense of 200 million over the period of next five years. The aim of this hundred-point five calendar year plan was to reengineer the company's activities to meet a range of socially sensible goals including ethical trading, health promotion products, sustainable sourcing, and carbon neutrality thus making M&S inexperienced leader in retail market. This initiative by Sir Stuart Rose was widely seen as an example of creative leadership skill. (Market leaders We Deserve, 2008).
Again in Apr 2007 there is an tv show which shown a leadership dilemma for Sir Stuart Rose. Bryan Ferry who was simply at that time modelling clothes for M&S was embroiled in a controversy regarding his admiration for Nazi iconography. Following Ferry's apology over the matter M&S distanced itself from performer and officially released a affirmation that ". . . it didn't give its ideas on views that were indicated by people in other situations" and refused to comment further upon this issue. (Leaders We Deserve, 2007).
Present leader of M&S is Marc Bolland. He served as leader of supermarket string Wm Morrison and overcome M&S's internal candidates to travelling bag this post in '09 2009. In November 2010, he declared a large range of changes to the insurance policy and strategies accompanied by his predecessor Sir Stuart Rose by saying that M&S's goal is now to become a global retailer. In a multibillion pound revamp he released scaling back of his forerunner ideas of retailing various branded groceries like Marmite and Coca Cola and also axing collection "fashion-for-fifty somethings". He also planned to open more simply food stores less than 2 yrs after Sir Stuart close 25 of these, scrapping retailing of household devices like TV's and iPods. He also released plans to invest 300 million annually for next 3 years on revamping UK stores which lately under Sir Stuart got 3bn makeover.
Bolland used know-how of management consultants from McKinsey to come up with this grand plan. His research chosen that among other activities the customers struggled to find their way M&S stores( he analyzed 30 colleagues to find five items in one hour, only eight been successful), customer possessed problems understanding in-house brands like Per Una, Small and Autograph, which only 1 in five shopped in homewares office -thereby generating sales improvement for the reason that area key target. During this research he also talked to surviving users of the founding families of M&S and figured M&S "must do things that other brands don't do". In 2008 M&S total annual profits come to a 1bn but due to downturn it was down to 700m. New authority has not made any assurances but Mr. Bolland is self-assured of his ideas. (guardian. co. uk, 2010).
Tesco, before Sir Terry Leahy needed control, was simply a market follower with the strategy catch-up. It was Sir Terry Leahy who aimed Tesco towards leading through market knowledge and in process which makes it largest in the UK. He altered Tesco into a customer-centric organisation. His strategies including diversification into non-food retail steps into clothing, bank, and its own international development helped Tesco end up being the biggest and most profitable in the united kingdom. He was in charge of the Tesco Clubcard. It was because of his successful strategies and guidelines that he was voted most admired head eight times before decade.
Recent announcement that Sir Terry Leahy will step down noticed Tesco shares stop by 2. 4% thus giving an idea of importance of Sir Terry Leahy to Tesco as an organisation. He'll be been successful by Philip Clarke who'll be brining his own make of leadership. In case there is Tesco this change may have various implications as at the end of such an extended and successful tenure of Sir Terry Leahy it's not only the traders who are liable to anxiousness. He was highly associated with Tesco brand so effective succession planning will be critical and its own heading to be complicated for his successor. Mother board members who overlooked this top position will be major problem for Philip. ( Personneltoday, Beth Holmes, June 2010).
There are various situations where the leadership skills of Tesco's management have played a substantial role in overcoming hurdles. One such event can be recalled in their joint venture case in 1999. At that same time the French hypermarket known as Carrefour had tried to enter into Korean marketplaces but it failed miserably. However, in the same time Tesco entered into a joint venture with Samsung under the name of Samsung Tesco Homeplus. The Korean people have desire for local supermarkets chains. This fact was overlooked by Carrefour but Tesco's management took this localization factor seriously and tried to provide this joint venture a local view leading to its success. This jv confronted difficulty in 1999 soon after the merger. The main reason behind this is the reduced morale of the employees because of varied cultural dissimilarities arising out of the merger. However to steer clear of the mistakes which resulted in Carrefour's failure and to tackle this issue the market leaders at Tesco's and Samsung started out the Shinbaration job force effort. This initiative travelled quite a distance in managing out the major differences between the work forces of the two organisations. As a result of this positive strategy of Tesco authority it was able to get a strong foothold in Korean marketplaces and had lately announced it enlargement plans by starting eight additional retailers in the united states (ISN, March 2010).
Thus we remember that the tremendous success of both M&S and Tesco can be to a large degree attributed to the effective and competent leadership skills showed by their market leaders whether whether it be in terms of dealing with their competitor, changing business surroundings, or inner troubles. The new command of both these organisations has up to now been able to cope well with the handover process.
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