In today modern world, where globalization is occurring at every step, organizations are extending more rapidly than previously. Management and the managers IE individuals who perform the action of management (management about 2009 ) are an important part of the organization.
Management can be defined as the procedure of Company and coordination of the actions of an organization in accordance with certain procedures and in success of clearly defined objectives (businessdictionary 2009 ). Management can be described as a skill or a science. The four key functions of management are (1) Planning, (2) Organising, (3) Directing and (4) Controlling.
Planning in an organization occurs in different ways and at all levels. It consists of setting objectives, making strategies and helping the business plan for the near future. Organising identifies the way organization allocates resources, assigns tasks and completing goals. Directing is handling or supervising workers of the business to accomplish the goals of the organization. To effictively perform the function of directing, managers must posses good leadership skills. Controlling ensures that the companies goals and targets are being found. The manager must ensure that standards placed for the employees are being found in the correct way.
Managers are another importan source of information for an organization. A manager can be explained as somebody who is responsible for planning and directing the task of several individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary (about. com 2007). Although over time, the role of professionals has changed significantly. Prior, managers were thought of as "the boss. ". Eventhough that might hold true for today, managers view themselves as leaders somewhat than as people who notify subordinates what to do. The role of the supervisor is often highly complex and comprehensive.
In a business, there are 3 levels of management :top level, middle level and lower level. "These three levels of management form a hierachy within an organization, in which they are rated in order of importance "(Persus Book Group 2002)
Top level management : It contains table of directors, president of the business, CEO's etc
- Lays down the objectives and insurance policies of the company
- Controls and Coordinates activites of all departments
- Prepares strategic ideas and plans for the enterprise
Middle level management: It includes branch and departmental managers
- They excecute the strategies of the business which are established by the most notable management
- Act as a web link betweek top and lower levels of management
- Help in motivating the lower level employees to work efficently and effictively
Lower level management : It involves supervisors, foremen, superintendent etc.
- Assigning of careers and tasks to various workers
- Guide and instruct workers for day to day activites
- Foremen help solve the grievances of the workers
Also, managers play an important role in the management ideas which exist within an group. Organizational culture, education of managers and employees and the surroundings determine the management ideas of an organization or a business(Deresky 1998). Some of the management techniques which were used in days gone by as well as the techniques which are currently in use are Scientific Management, Contingency Theory, Hawthrone Result and Human Relations etc
At the flip of the 19th century, the most known organizations were large and industrialised. They often times included ongoing and boring jobs that manafactured a variety of products. Frederick taylor devloped the methodical management theory ie "theory of management that analyses and synthesies workflows, with the aim of improving labour efficiency "(taylor 1947, p. 36).
This theory aimed at the careful research of responsibilities and time and motion studies in conjunction with the part rate pay techniques in order to boost productivity. (Management review guide 2007).
The tasks were standardized as much as possible and the workers were rewarded on the basis of their productivity. This approach worked well for organizations with assemblage lines and other mechanised activities.
The key points of scientific management are :-(thompson and mcchugh 2009)
- Devloping a technology for each component of work
- Scientific selection and training of workers
- Cooperation between management and workers
- Equal divison of work and responsibility between management and workers
According to Taylor, management had to reverse existing electricity relations in development and therefore the supervisor of an organization is in charge of gathering together all of the traditional knowledge and minimizing this knowledge to rules rules and formuale (tompson and mcchugh 2009)
Taylor also presumed that personnel were determined by the quest for rational do it yourself interest and economic incentives and thus a director should workout compensations and rewards for the individuals. Also a manager should ensure that he places the right staff member in the right job
In today's world medical management has been merged with other ideas and is used by managers in the form of time and movement studies to eliminate wasted motions, incentive schemes predicated on performance and selecting the best qualified workers for each and every job
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