Literature Review of Research Goals and Objectives

Organizational change is a broad term which can be discussed by both

content and process. For better knowledge of this term both of its components is highly recommended. Both process and content can be impartial or dependent, it depends upon the type of change and situation of change. A lot of the researches concentrate on only one aspect. To comprehend organizational change a much better understanding of organizational approach is necessary which is employed to bring about change. Pursuing is a literature review of some articles, conditions and research paperwork related to organizational change;

David Chaudron. (2003). Evaluating and improving your organization, It says that to evaluate whether an organization really need organizational change or not, a business need to undergo four periods. These of four stages are, get started, determine problem and identify cause, choose treatment and occasionally evaluate. For delivering successful change it is vital to recognize problem and answers to that problem. In my research this post would help me since it would inform me how organizations come to know that they actually need change and exactly how this technique of change is started out and continued. I'd be better able to write on organizational change if I am alert to starting place of change.

William P. Barnett. (1995). Modeling inner organization change, William discusses two ideas of change. Adaptational and selectional mechanism of organizational change. Adaptional model state governments that Change occurs mainly through adaptive response of individual firms to previous change in technology, environment or whatever. He also discusses internal and external factors in charge of change. Organizations with this kind of approach will be more impressive and discovery driven. To save lots of them self from being obsolete and outworn such organizations have a detailed eyeball on environment and successful environment scanning leads these to successful change. Second approach says organizations cannot change easily. Whenever they do change increased risks are entitled. This approach talks about resistance to change and hesitation of top management in bringing about change. Organizations following this approach will be more conservative and don't anticipate change. Work to bring change is only made when it is necessary to endure. For instance, technology change in market makes such organizations to improve existing technology to remain competitive. Internal factors such as culture, corporation politics force an organization to change while internal factors like opponents, suppliers and customers and legislation make an organization to change. These variables are very very important to me because it would help me to base my research on these factors. These factors would guide me to understand kind of change and factors involved in change.

Booz, Allen, Hamilton. (2004). Overall method of change management, It generates relation between reasonable and emotional method of change, change team and change ladder. Integrating rational and emotional way means that emphasis should not be only on process and framework of change, people factor should also be considered. For example, in changing technology, if technological and structural aspect is considered only and behaviours of people are forgotten then it's very difficult to bring about this technological change. For better and successful change process activity/system and people/teams both should be kept in mind. To minimize immune to improve, people should be persuaded and shown bonuses in upcoming change so that they could propose change for personal gain that would lead to organizational benefit in long haul. It also says that the team which is conversing change should be credible. Once top management has made a decision to bring change, now it's up to change team that how affectively they converse the positive change meaning to every stake holder of organization. Change ladder part of article discusses communicating change around the business from top management to lessen staff. The bigger the ladder of change, a lot more chances of successful change are manufactured.

Jonathan Becker, Roy Gill, Susan Moy, Veena Seshasdri. (1989). Controlling change. T his case study addresses different problems and issues in utilizing change. In addition, it gives advice that how to overcome resistance to improve. This is more ideal for a student of change management because with theoretical knowledge it is also giving hint about practical knowledge. It says about a infirmary which had to handle many obstacles when they decided to change procedures and facilities but with great courage and decision making like training and better communication network helped them to implement change efficiently.

Henry Mint Berg, Francs Wesley. (1992). cycles of business change, authors speak about two types of group changes; change in condition and change in course. Change in state is concerned with culture, structure, system and people. While change in route can be involved with perspective, position, programs, facilities. In addition, it discusses inductive and deductive changes. Change process begins with inductive change and then it extends to to deductive change. In inductive we need to change our perspective, objective and goals while when it leads us to deductive changes it requires the change of firm like culture, system and people behavior and power hierarchy. This research newspaper also talks about different periods in life of a business that lead an organization to level of revolution. Matching to comprehensiveness model of change discussed in this research newspaper, Change begins as an incremental process like adding value for some process or product/service but it extends to to different periods of comprehensiveness like incremental to isolate, isolated to targeted, centered to piecemeal, in the end it becomes revolutionarily. The collection of stages is really as follow; stage of stability, stage of adaptation, level of have difficulties and level of revolution. This content has specific relevance with my research theme because it deals with all stages related to improve in organizational life. To understand complete change process all phases need to be understood.

J. T. Hage. (1999). organizational development and organizational change, It differentiates innovation from change. Corresponding to writer, advancement can be an isolated process. It neither has resilient impact on organization nor does change organization as a whole. It is like innovating an activity or product. For innovation, you have to concentrate on single technology but group of innovations lead to improve when development is not focused upon an individual process but focused upon organization as a whole. Most of the research students mistake technology with change and use both terms interchangeably. In my own research, this informative article is a good piece of information that really helps to differentiate two most significant concepts in change management subject.

Craig Eric Schneier. (1994). The training and development source booklet, in which article writer talks about organizational change and member's tendencies change. According to create the first step towards change is to develop appositive notion about change among all members of business. One chapter of the book discusses organizational life cycle stages that are; setup, survival and change. Firm starts off with Entrepreneurial stage and extends to to decrease then reengineering stage starts it offers ongoing improvement and concerning employees to ensure change. This publication also talks about different agents involved in change and reengineering, as older organizations need to entail both interior and external realtors both because interior agents like employees endorse change while external agents like customers understand change. This chapter of source book is vital for me in this research because it talks about brokers in change that's why this part of literature is very regular with my topic.

Curtis M. Grimm, Ken J. Smith. ( 1991). Research notes and communication management and organizational change" this post talks about characteristics of management that which kind of managerial expertise can lead to successful change and ensure popularity of change by all the brokers involved in change process. Qualities included in this research were education, experience in related field and years. Results demonstrated that professionals who been successful to bring change are young and strong since they are young their industry experience is less but still they are very successful in causing change. In education those managers with MBA degree are more likely to bring change in corporation. This sort of research paper is very much indeed highly relevant to my topic because it assist me to comprehend connection between change and managerial characteristics and behaviour, it also help me to understand multi dimensions field of change management.

John Holt. (1989). Controlling change in expansion, explains some pushes of change what make an organization to improve. These makes include perspective, area of interest, competition, people and program. These causes can be elaborated as perspective of a business could possibly be the market innovator in low cost products for your they could need to change organization's procedures and work system. To create a niche for a new product they could need to change procedure like from mass customization they may select for full customization. Because of this very reason group would have to change complete procedure and point of view to cater a specific niche for their product. Because taking advantage of tomorrow's niches will demand system-wide cooperation, from college or university presidents to state agents. A distributed sense of mission and a restored sense of its importance are essential in increasing teamwork, especially as diverse as these team members are. Your competition is brutal and increasing for all those our niches. That is as it ought to be: education, that long-term countrywide treasure, is much too important to be kept in the hands of an monopoly. Monopoly there isn't; competition for extension education markets abounds. In commercial agriculture, there are consultants of most stripes; universities such as Harvard and Stan- ford carry out agribusiness seminars; source companies are entering management consulting by dangling the carrot of funding well- planned procedures.

Dr. Kathleen K. Reardon, Dr. Kevin J. Reardon, Dr. Alan J. Rowe. (1998). Management styles for the five stages of radical change. It discusses control style and change. Top level leadership is most significant agent in group change. This post explains different kind of organizational leadership and brings about enforcing change. These types are commanding, logical, inspirational and supportive. Commanding leader is directing and focuses on results thus this kind of market leaders brings changes quickly. Logical market leaders are innovative and are incredibly careful about change. They have a thoughtful process before commencing any change. Inspirational leaders focus on opportunities so change is radical there is no promise for change. Supportive market leaders are those who help in work and involve others that's why they are incredibly slow in causing change. This article also talks about change stages and control style needed for each phase. Planning stage require rational while introducing phase require commanding leadership. This article is very highly relevant to my topic since it talks about most important agent in change that is head.

Aims and objectives of Research:

The research looks for to ascertain:

description of variables

explanation of romantic relationship between different parameters and factors

broadening the knowledge of field

evaluation and prognosis of problem statement

solution to problem

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