1. 1 Determination of Apparel Production Company
Motivation signifies reaching good productivity in firms since it enhances performance of employees. Regarding to Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 136), determination is "the internal psychological process of initiating, energizing, directing and retaining goal-directed behavior". Inspiration commenced in the 20th century having discovered that employees were relaxed and needed close and regular supervision to be able to perform to the expectation. It had been identified that whenever workers are determined, their performance are much better with minimum supervision.
Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 136) ascertained that whenever employees are acknowledged & rewarded for their performance, they become encouraged and perform better which contributes a healthy production of a business. To initiate desire, the following methods should be developed: reduce working time, spiraling wages, fringe benefits, human relations training, sensitivity training, communication augmentation, job satisfaction and staff counseling amongst others (Herzberg, 2003, pp. 88 - 91). Clothing Manufacturing company has embraces necessary tactics, which motivate its employees, thus retaining its identified staff and at the same time increasing the performance of the business.
MAS Linea Aqua(Pvt) Lt. ( LA) is a jv between Sri Lanka apparel manufacture MAS having group, the world's leading company of swimwear Speedo International Ltd. and Brandot International a US based Investment Company. The factory is continuing to grow into circumstances of art manufacturing facility that can drive a global class product. Annual turnover USD 75 million while maintaining 3350 employees. Dedicated customer target team with competence in the areas of development, sourcing, prices, purchasing, planning and creation will ensure that all orders are fulfilled to client satisfaction, seen the merchandise from design to delivery. With an comprehensive supplier centered from European countries through the Far East, the company will offer a variety from fashion to performance price competitive commensurate with customer demands with a state of art fully air conditioned modular manufacturing unit which allows acceleration and flexibility in the process. A high stand of HR Management is been looked after. The company preserves a strict compliance of global / ethical standards.
2. 0 Theories of Motivation
Several ideas of desire have been put forward to explain this content and procedure for motivation. Process theories of inspiration include Adams' equity theory, Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory, while content ideas of inspiration include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, theory X and theory Y for McGregor and two-factor theory of Herzberg. Content theories of motivation relating to Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 143) suggest internalized and instinctive forces are accountable for the desire of human action since they are derived from both psychological and natural factors.
2. 1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow developed Hierarchy of Needs theory from clinical surveillance. The Hierarchy of Needs model originated from subconscious representation related to interpersonal factors affecting mental health. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory highlights five main needs in a hierarch in a bid to explain human action. They include mental health need, safety and owed. The mental needs are the basic needs such as shelter, water and food that one needs for survival. It really is argued that such needs can be attained at workplace through heating, space, work and pay. The needs of security and safety are attributed to one's feeling of freedom and security from danger to existence (Tutor2u, n. d). Such needs should be offered to employees at work place simply ensuring general security to all or any by offering services such as job security, health lapses, and secure deposit against strike, pensions and insurance schemes. The third need in the hierarchy after subconscious needs and safety is belongingness, which all about love and love for others in the business, which achieved through teamwork. The fourth level is esteem needs include dependence on self-respect, respect for others and positive image at office, which are attained mainly through general population recognition of status of position or work. The last level in Maslow's hierarch of needs is need for personal progress, which is gained through development opportunities and training programs.
Figure 1: Maslow's theory of Hierarchy of needs
Source: Tutor2u, n. d. Motivation - Theories. [Online]. Offered by: http://tutor2u. net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories. htm [Accessed 2 Jan 2011].
2. 2 McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor relating to Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 146) criticized theory X, which is the original management practices based on the next assumption as stated by Fulop and Linstead, "People have an inherent dislike of work and can avoid it if they can, most people must be coerced, governed, aimed and threatened with punishment to get them to contribute adequate effort". The third assumption about theory X is the fact that averagely human beings prefer being directed, have minimal ambition, neglect their responsibility and need security as the first priority. McGregor asserted that theory X will not explain or express human characteristics, which it promises. As a result, the theory is recognized to be restricting thereby preventing people from noticing possibilities that exist in other managerial strategies. The amount of commitment is determined by the rewards aimed at meeting the mentioned objectives. Maslow argued that the most crucial needs are that of esteem, which is intrinsic to work.
2. 3 Herzberg's two-factor Theory
According to Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 148 - 149), Herzberg suggest that the factors, which affect commitment do not enhance satisfaction and at exactly the same time eliminate dissatisfaction. Herzberg reasoned that the factors show up in two main groups of satisfiers and dissatisfies. He called the satisfier factors the motivators while dissatisfies are the hygiene factors. The motivators relate to job plus they include job satisfaction, achievements, improvement and responsibility, while dissatisfies include factors associated with employee conversation with working environment such as salary, work condition among others.
2. 4 Adam's Equity Theory
The equity theory of Adams explains that folks normally make an effort to achieve fairness as well as justice in what he terms interpersonal exchanges. This theory highlights the fact that there exists an employee-employer relationship as the central component, where the worker inputs include skills, experience and education. The employees expect result or return with their input in terms of pay, identification and fringe benefits. Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 150) argues that there can be found equity when the ratio of effects to inputs is the same among employees of the same protocol.
2. 5 Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory explains that the action of individuals is attributed to the expected final results, which can subsequently be used to predict individuals behavior at work area or any given situation with at least two options or alternatives. The central element of this theory is because people at office are rational and they contemplate what to do to become rewarded. Vroom argues that notion of expectancy is influenced mainly by earlier success at the job place, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Another important factor to the expectancy theory is instrumentality, which depicts one's opinion as instrumental in influencing performance.
2. 6 The Goal-setting Theory
Setting a goal is a process that is utilized by several organizations to with an aim of increasing efficiency as well as success by identifying supposed results. The mechanisms of placing goal include directing attention on the relevant and considerations, regulating effort in shaping selective work and increasing persistence as well as fostering action packages and strategies. Goal-setting theory explains that manner of preparing goals, self-perception and incentives impact attitudes towards goal established.
3. 0 Desire Application in Attire Manufacturing Company
Apparel Developing Company has achieved since it started operating on the market since 1981(Outfits Processing, n. d. ). The business enjoys a solid reputation of providing uniform and corporate apparel to several industries. Current, Outfits Making Company is a leader in supplying total solution from design to delivery to their customers. Reasons for these are qualified, well skilled and encouraged human reference.
The Company retains its employees with high esteem by offering them among the finest services in the industry which include one of the best remuneration among other benefits such as healthcare, bus moves, paid time off, free breakfast time, subsidized lunch, free classes and free bicycles among numerous others. Such services have been proven beyond reasonable question that they motivate employees, which enhance their performance. Improved staff performance result into dedicated effort in the creation process and providing the firm's clients. Drive therefore generally motivates worker thereby increasing output and economic return.
3. 1 Employee Determination Strategies in Clothing Manufacturing Company
Classic example the management of Linea Aqua is committed to worker motivation in various perspectives. The key strategies applied derive from the company's Trim manufacturing system attempts. These strategies could be summarized to details as shown below.
Job rotation: The management has made a decision to rotate the careers creating a fresh learning, healthier and motivating environment for employees to operate. In definition, job rotation is the exposure of different specialists in the creation process to different responsibilities meant to boost the individual workers knowledge/skills. Through this exercise, the company has had the opportunity to expose its workers to different departments, increasing their experience and boosting their morale at the job. Indeed, job rotation has been a sure strategy in the determination of workers in the company.
Job Simplification: From this study the business has applied job simplification strategy in motivating its employees. Through this approach, the creation process has been divided into simpler tasks that happen to be convenient to carry out. Industrial Engineering Department has been delegated to re-engineer all the actions and develop choice method through development. Through this the company has actualized increased efficiency with less work either mentally or actually.
Reduction of working hours: Results from practice in the business a great way of motivating workers never to depriving them of the possibility to work. Overtime, the average worker time has reduced gradually from ten time to only six hours every day. This theory has damaged motivating employees to work harder within the fewer time frames. Therefore, reducing time in the task place has a online effect of motivating workers to work at higher quantities and better features in creation.
Salary and wage increase: The management has further used the wage spiraling method of motivate its staff. Over the times in its history, the Management has sustained to increase salaries and wages of individuals. It has been identified that creation is depended on rewards. Higher rewards can expect higher performance vice versa. On this context the company management has taken benefit of its workers aims. Their major goal being to earn a living, the management has insinuated a definite intensifying salary and wage revision system. In initiatives to seek another wage and salary level, staff have kept working harder and better. This has apparently acted as an incentive towards building desire among the staff.
Fringe Benefits: As the entire world moves to a fresh order of welfare and efficiency, the Clothing Company has not been left behind. Past studies show that, workers performed to make a living and to create a career. Workers in the past worked in quest for income and security. However, recent studies show different styles in the 21st century. Today, staff goal is to participate in creation activities & to achieve social welfare and discover personal satisfaction. Individuals today are definitely more alert to their protection under the law and obligations. For this reason, the company hasn't lagged in responding positively to this change. The company management has reduced overtime, increased employee benefits and advantages such as medical cover and other allowances. In addition they include regular paid getaways for outstanding employees. The personnel in the corporation sees and recognize that their management is current and meant for their welfare. With this sense, the company workers are determined.
Personnel training: The company management is commendable because of its value in staff training. As the goals of employees are moving towards self-satisfaction in the work place among other objectives, the management hasn't lagged in ensuring that its employees are priority in training. The business sponsored lots of its employees to position oriented courses, partly for specific development and overall for the betterment of the company in relation to worker desire issues. When workers are provided with an increase of of professional competence through training and education programs, they should focus on towards better quality and increased production.
3. 2 Job Enhancement, enrichment &augmentation through Job design:
Linea Aqua uses its job grading mechanism to put employees on different pay rings, and the source document found in the process of job evaluation is the work Description. Based on the JD a mix efficient team would evaluate if the size of the work is expanded, if the job requires comprehensive thinking or whether the complexity of the work due to considering challenge has increased. This certainly adds value to the work applicant making him understand the development, the role that is meant to be played out, clarity through chain of command, the skills that needs to be acquired or developed in order to meet his or her focuses on, and knowing the set ups which motivates them towards profession progression which is commonly known as succession. Specially whenever we consider the executive layer and above unlike the staff member and staff category they may be much more very sensitive to achievement and recognition or attaining self-confidence and actualization needs as depicted on the higher layers of the necessity Hierarchy.
3. 3 Praise & Recognition through Performance Appraisals:
Not many organizations practice proper methodologies of appraisals, which can be directly linked to pay back and recognition. Because of this employees complain about not providing a fair reading with their justifications, participating in favourites in the organization and the task horse being the work horse forever. To avoid the subjectivity of compensation and acknowledgement LA uses a systematic incentive scheme associated with performance. It has helped the business to keep its employees motivated and to escape with de-motivation which is created and given through subjective decisions manufactured in the lack of a comprehensive appraisal system.
3. 4 Empowering Employees at different levels through different strategies:
LA has two sets of staff categories that need to be maintained motivated. These two subsets vary mainly due to their degree of education. Hence empowering these subsets to keep them encouraged is addressed in accordance to their degree of needs. Including the minimum layer known as the Employee category which constitutes 90% of females - the device Operators are empowered to uplift their living needs through the ladies Go Beyond Program. This program is specially made for women enabling these to extend their horizons in order to build up their families and life styles. This is given to them in the form of advice, legal education, inculcating entrepreneurship characteristics and knowing them as market leaders of the society. Executives or employees with an educational qualifications are empowered through the learning culture that the business has created to them. The source tool used is a shared point where individuals show their learning, views about issues that interest them which also adds value with their lives. Further the business stimulates learning and development for individuals and invests the skills of the employees to the business enterprise. The data and skills soaked up through these programmes are then again captured through the skill matrix which visualizes the individual's knowledge platform after training. Employees are accepted and based on their assessment email address details are segregated as another pool. This pool will get priority for Training & Development as well for Succession. Through each one of these strategies the business has attempted to create determination through self-actualization needs.
3. 5 Employee Commitment to Jobs in Linea Aqua.
Overall, there are common features to inspiration, but what motivates one person alternatively than another is at the mercy of infinite variation. Regarding to analyze, life experience, time, physical and psychological make-up will be significant parameters, but will gender, race and ethnicity. People may be encouraged differently at different times and in various contexts. In addition, emotion can be an important and neglected part of work life, and theories of desire have tended to view motivation as sort of calculus rather than a form of ideas. In the business, both approaches have something to offer, but the protracted neglect of the mental impact on drive means that we still have much to learn about it. It really is clear that determination is very complex. The old carrot and stick model, which oscillate between bribery and bullying, has been superseded. Although simple linear relationships between what a manager does and what sort of staff member responds, has been discredited, there is still no shortage of effort to boost workplace motivation. On this understanding, the company has conducted several studies to assist in improving worker determination in the task place.
The job design has been found to be very important since they have proven that indeed, dedication motivates employees. Employment well designed has great impact in the attitude and belief of workers. It has been set up that in the modern day population that trust, commitment and emotional labor are significant factors, which contribute to performance.
3. 6 Ways of boosting worker motivation
There are various strategies that the business has taken up to boost its worker motivation. These are in line with the theories of determination within an organizational environment and are as talked about earlier. Several ideas of inspiration have been submit to explain the content and procedure for motivation. Process theories of drive include Adams' collateral theory, Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory, while content theories of inspiration include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, theory X and theory Y for McGregor and two-factor theory of Herzberg. Content ideas of motivation regarding to Fulop and Linstead (1999, pp. 143) suggest internalized and instinctive forces are responsible for the motivation of human patterns since they are produced from both subconscious and natural factors. These have been mentioned earlier in the newspaper and just as, have been applied in the company.
According to goal-setting theory of drive for case, attitudes and goals of employees into the goals of firm is affected by incentives, self-perception and what sort of goals are established. Linea Aqua has used necessary precaution by training the employees to improve their self-perception through training programs of the company. The company also offers several incentives in terms of benefits involving wages, insurance techniques, pension, subsidized travel, and lunches among many others. Expectancy theory, which asserts that employees are motivated when they know that they can gain benefits that, is proportional to your time and effort the offer in job performance.
For instance, the company supplies the intrinsic (intangibles) and extrinsic (tangible) rewards the idea propagates to its employees. The extrinsic praise the company offers to its employees include good remuneration, health care, free transportation and lunch, insurance strategies and parking among others. The intrinsic rewards will be the acknowledgements of the employees' performance, which allow them, create a sense of achievements and success.
3. 7 Assessing Worker Motivation Levels
One of the ways in examining worker determination levels is through work performance assessments. The Company is rolling out proper milestones for conducting performance checks both per specific workers and collectively in areas or departments. Through the main element performance results (KPI), the company management is able to analyze and relate the results to the overall prevailing company environment. Then they have the ability to tell whether an individual or division is either improving or dropping. In this manner, it is possible to tell whether staff are determined or discouraged.
4. 0 Conclusion
Motivation of employees is an essential component of management in an corporation. Motivated employees have been found to perform better thereby increasing production of the company and organization. Several motivators have been formulated and applied in various companies. However, motivators which have been found to work on long-term basis are those that aim to change the attitudes and conducts of employees. Among the major method of motivating employees that Herzberg propagates is job enrichment, which he argues that whenever a job is manufactured interesting at the trouble of organizations, employees are bound to like the job and can feel motivated the majority of the time.
However, much as the theories of drive may sound successful, they may be more complicated used. Linea Aqua has demonstrated this and has provided several reasons well worth forming a critique of the theories. For example, the theories reviewed above only touch on specific issues in the workers esteem in the work place. For example, Herzberg's two factor theory only details on the aspect of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employee. It generally does not acknowledge the place of company requirements which might sometimes mismatch the personnel interests. In the same way, other ideas have their constraints and therefore, this paper is justified to attest that the theories of drive in the work place are only partly reliable and therefore limited. However, it's been said again and again these it is best half of a loaf than no loaf at all and so, the company has chosen to uphold these ideas as discussed below.
Many psychologists, sociologists and philosophers have developed several theories on both content and procedure for motivation. The theories include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Herzberg's two-factor Theory, Adam's Collateral Theory, Expectancy Theory and Goal-setting Theory. Maslow's theory of hierarch of needs is perfect for instance quite acceptable and suitable. Maslow enlisted the needs of employee which ranged from psychological needs to safety and security needs. He enlisted esteem/personal development needs as well. It is correct that employees won't pay attention or concentrate in their work if indeed they don't have the subconscious needs. Therefore it's important that employees check out the welfare of employees by ensuring that they have access to affordable survival needs by offering them realistic remuneration that permit those to meet such needs. Such needs should be supervised strongly by the security and safety needs to ensure security of employees. Employees should be cared & respected, designed to feel important to the business in order to instill the sense of belongingness. As the business values its workers good wages and training programs are offered, which enables the employees to acquire all the needs in the Maslow's hierarchy.
Herzberg's two-factor theory of satisfiers and dissatisfies enhances job satisfaction through the means of motivators and eliminates job dissatisfaction by the means of hygiene factor. This is critical because job satisfaction will not necessarily mean lack of job dissatisfaction. Adams' collateral theory is also quite logical in the sense which it tries to eliminate inequity in company, which can be a great impediment to performance as well as output. Attire enhances job satisfaction by offering wages on identical basis depending on the work of employees. All of the theories of drive are necessary in changing the attitudes and behaviours of employee which translate to increased performance and efficiency.
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