Managing individual resources

Tesco is the major UK centered supermarket and the world's third most significant grocery retailer with stores across Europe, USA and Asia. Tesco has a well-established and long-term strategy for progress. Tesco has net gains of around £3 billion before duty. The goals of the strategy are
  • To expand the central UK business
  • To be strong in food and non-food
  • To develop retailing services
  • To put customer in the centre of what they do
  • To be considered a successful international retailer

Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen reselling groceries in the market segments of London's East End. Tesco brand first made an appearance in 1924 when Cohen bought companies of tea from T. E. Stockwell. They mixed their names to form - TESCO. In 1929, the first Tesco store opened in North London. Since then Tesco has expanded rapidly by beginning more new stores and retail services, while adapting to consumers' needs. In 1961, Tesco Leicester moved into the Guinness Reserve of Data as the major store in European countries. In 1968 Tesco exposed its first superstore in Crawley, Western Sussex. By 1970s Tesco varied into other products and opened its first petrol stations in 1974.

In 1992, Tesco launched its slogan 'every little helps', accompanied by the Tesco Value range in 1993 and the Tesco Membership greeting card in 1995, assisting Tesco to overtake Sainsbury's as the UK's major food merchant. Tesco. com was launched in 2000, accompanied by Tesco broadband in 2004 and Tesco Direct in 2006. Tesco's Personal Financing Acquisition was completed in 2008.

Tesco has now over 2, 200 stores with 280, 000 employees in the UK. From 1994 to 2007 Tesco widened overseas by starting stores in Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Rep. of Ireland, Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Turkey, Japan, China and US under the name 'Fresh & Easy'. Last year Tesco announced programs to establish cash and carry business in India.

TASK 2: Books Review

Differences between individuals tool management and personnel management

Human resource management (HRM) is thought as a strategic and coherent method of the management of an organisation's most respected assets - the people working there who singularly and collectively donate to the achievements of its goals. (M Armstrong)

Personnel management (PM) can be involved with obtaining, organising and motivating the human resources required by the venture. (M Armstrong)

The idea of HRM places better focus on
  • Integration with the business strategies somewhat than focusing on providing basic services such as recruitment and training

Adopting a management and business-oriented philosophy

  • Using unitary procedure alternatively than pluralist approach
  • Treating people as property (human capital) somewhat than costs

Personnel management

is workforce-centred, aimed mainly at an organisation's employees covering issues such as:

  1. Finding and training them,
  2. Arranging to allow them to be paid.
  3. Satisfying employees' work-related needs,
  4. Dealing with the problems and
  5. Seeking to change management action that could produce an unwelcome worker response.
  • HRM is "resource-centred, aimed mainly at management needs for recruiting (not necessarily employees) to be provided and deployed.
  • Demand alternatively than supply is the target of the activity.
  • There is better emphasis on planning, monitoring and control somewhat than mediation between employee and employer.

Role of individuals tool (HR) practitioner

The main functions of HR professionals are

The tactical role

  • To formulate and implement forward-looking HR strategies that are aligned to business objectives and included with each other.
  • To donate to the introduction of business strategies.
  • To work alongside their series management co-workers to provide on an everyday basis ongoing support to the execution of the strategy of the organisation.

The business spouse role

As business companions, HR specialists promote responsibility using their line management fellow workers for the success of the venture and try them in implementing business strategy and working the business enterprise.

The change agent role

HR specialists become change providers, facilitating change by providing advice and support on its introduction and management.

The internal specialist role

As interior consultants, HR professionals work alongside their clients in analysing problems, diagnosing issues and proposing solutions.

The service provider role

As company, HR practitioners provide services to internal customers.

The guardian of prices role

HR professionals may become the guardians of the organisation's prices and ethical criteria relating to people. They point out when behaviour issues with those prices or where proposed activities will be incompatible with them.

Role and responsibilities of line managers in HR practices

HR can initiate new plans and practices but the line managers have the primary responsibility for utilizing them. Line professionals can perform better ownership if
  • The practices profit them.
  • They get excited about the development and the trials of the tactics.
  • The practices aren't too complicated, bureaucratic or time-consuming.
  • Their duties are defined and communicated clearly.
  • They are provided with the advice, support and training required to implement the practices.

Human source of information planning

The need for HR planning

HR planning establishes the HR required by the company to achieve its strategic goals. HR planning at Tesco is designed to ensure that the company has the right number of folks with the right skills had a need to meet forecast requirements. It also ensures that folks with the right type of attitudes and desire can be found, who are focused on the company and involved in their work, and react accordingly.

The procedure for HR planning

Scenario planning:

Making extensive assessments of future advancements in the organisation's external environment and in the company itself and their likely effect on people requirements.

Demand forecasts:

Estimating the organisation's future needs for folks by mention of corporate and functional plans and forecasts of future activity levels.

Supply forecasts:

Estimating the source of people to the organisation by mention of analyses of current resources and future availableness, after enabling wastage.

Action strategies:

Choosing what action to take to deal with shortages or surpluses of people.

Recruitment process in two organisations

  • Recruitment is the process of finding and engaging individuals the company needs.

Recruitment planning

A recruitment plan includes
  • Number and types of employees required to cater for enlargement or new developments and make up for any deficits.
  • Sources of individuals.
  • Plans for tapping choice sources.
  • How the recruitment programme will be conducted.

Recruitment process at Tesco plc:

At Tesco, HRM is undoubtedly an important activity, covering from recruitment to management development. The company aims to increase the quantity of training schemes and further develop its recruitment programs so to supply the customer the benefits of a proper recruited, well trained staff.

For the Graduate Techniques,

Tesco has organized to recruit 200 successful University leavers for 2010/11 intake. Applications are opened from September 2009, including Tesco Telecoms and Environmental Executive.

For the A-Level Schemes,

18 year's school leavers have to follow a 12 month's course in management which involves a store familiarisation programme of 3 weeks and a authority and technical training.

The System, for people that have 180 UCAS points

offers prospects a 6 month's management program.

Recruitment process at McDonalds:

McDonald's is a franchise business. It is the largest food service company on the planet with an increase of than 30, 000 restaurants providing more than 47 million people everyday in 121 countries.

Recruiting and selecting and appointing all new staff are under the operations department in McDonalds

Training at McDonalds:

The franchise system provides training for the franchisees, professionals and their employees, usually done both at the franchisor's home office and the franchisee's place of business. This training prepares them in all facets of the business enterprise, including: purchasing and inventory maintenance, handling customer complaints, interacting with employee concerns, etc. The particular level and amount of training will change from system to system.

Interview as a range technique

The aims of interview

  • The purpose of an interview is to obtain the information required to decide on the extent to which prospects fit a person specification for the work. An interview can be described as a discussion with an objective. It is a discussion because applicants should be induced to speak freely with their interviewers about themselves, their experience and their careers.
  • Such a gathering allows judgements to be produced by the interviewer on whether the candidate will fit the business. Although these judgements are entirely subjective and are often biased or prejudiced, they will be made.
  • But the dialogue should be planned, directed and controlled to get the main purpose of the interview, which is to make a precise analysis of the candidate's suitability for employment.
Procedures involved in an interview

Interviewing preparations:

The prospect should be up to date about the positioning and time for the interview and the next phase following the interview.

Preparing for the interview:

Analysis the person standards and the candidate's application form and/or CV, and identify those features of the applicant that do not fully match the specification so these can be probed deeper through the interview.

Planning an interview:

Planning an interview:

Planning an interview: Includes: pleasant remarks; getting information on the candidate to evaluate against the person specification; provide prospects information about the company and the job; provide individuals information about the organisation and the job; responding to questions from the prospect; and concluding the interview with an indication of the next step.

Types of interviews:

Decide which types of interview to be utilized.

Timing the interview:

For daily habit careers, 20 to 30 minutes maybe enough while for requiring job 1 hour my be necessary.

Interviewing techniques:

Starting and completing; asking questions.

Selection interviewing skills: Building rapport; listening; keeping continuity; keeping control; note taking.

Coming to a bottom line:

Candidates should be assessed against their knowledge; skills; competencies education; certification; training; experience; and overall suitability.

Alternative selection methods:

  1. Selection lab tests:

    They provide more valid and reliable evidence of levels of intelligence, talents, aptitudes, personality and attainments than can be obtained from an interview. It is best to incorporate them in a selection procedure with set up interviews.
  2. Assessment centres:

    They provide good opportunities for candidates to select the extent to which candidates fit a person specification for the work. The concentrate is centred on behavior; group exercises and one-to-one role-play are being used to predict behaviour on the job; several applicants are assessed alongside one another to allow connection; several assessors and observers are used to increased the objectivity of the work.
  3. Work samples:

    Applicants are asked to defend myself against mini-jobs in a selection situation where they can be assessed, for illustrations - by way of a typing test for keyboard skills; role-playing; group decisions; presentations; or information.

Selection practices and types of procedures in two organisations in comparison to best practice

Selection at Tesco

includes choosing the best option people for a vacancy, while keeping the regulations of occupation. Tesco uses screening within the selection process to ensure that those decided on applicants for interview match the work requirements. Tesco selectors start testing by first looking carefully at each applicant's curriculum vitae.

Tesco uses several levels along the way of selecting individuals:

    After passing the screening process a prospect attends an analysis centre.
  • The professionals run the evaluation centres to get.
  • Applicants should go through either team-working activities or problem resolving exercises.
  • An interview then is carried out for those candidates approved by examination centres.
  • Line managers responsible for the job offer have to take part in the interview to ensure that the candidate fits the job requirements.

Selection at McDonalds:

Selection is quite not the same as Tesco in the way that we now have no screening and diagnosis centres. Here the manager only conducts an interview to identify an applicant's potential to be a successful McDonald's employee.

  • McDonalds prepares an interview guide to help the business forecast the applicant's previous behaviour and its effect on his future performance.
  • The questions look for real occurrences or situations predicated on behavioural proof in the applicant's life record that matches with the standards for the job.
  • Candidates are ranked on their replies and the ones who earn the best ratings are picked for the work.

Process of job analysis and the main factors identifying pay

  • Job analysis is important in the compensation management as it deals with equal purchase work of similar value.
  • Approaches to job evaluation
  • Job analysis can be analytical or non-analytical.

Analytical job evaluation schemes:

Procedure for making decisions about the job value, which are based on an activity of breaking down the whole careers into a number of defined factors such as responsibility, decisions and the knowledge and skill required. It is organized and judgemental.

Non-analytical job analysis schemes:

Enables the complete careers to be compared to place them in a level or a list order - they aren't analysed by mention of their factors.

Choice of procedure:

Analytical job analysis is the most common approach to job evaluation. The two main types of analytical job evaluation schemes will be the point-factor techniques and analytical matching.

Point-factor job evaluation scheme:

  • Jobs are broken down into factors.
  • Each factor is split into a hierarchy of levels.
  • Evaluators consult job explanation.
  • A maximum point score is assigned to each factor.
  • The total score for one factor is divided between the levels to create the numerical factor level.
  • The complete scheme contains the factor and level definitions and the rating system. This includes the 'factor plan'.
  • Points are assigned to jobs under each factor.
  • The separate factor results are then added jointly to give a total score, which signifies the relative value of each job and can be used to place the careers in list order.

Market pricing

Jobs can be valued by their market rates - market pricing.

  • Market pricing is the process of obtaining information on market rates to see decisions on pay constructions and specific rates of pay.
  • It is called 'extreme market costing' when market rates will be the only methods to decide on inside rates of pay and relativities, then typical job analysis is not used.

Reward systems

A pay back system involves policies, processes, techniques and steps that combine to ensure that praise management is completed effectively for the advantage of the organisation and its own employees. Examples of incentive systems are

Total reward

Total reward carries a combo of rewards, namely

financial rewards

such as basic pay, contingent pay, worker benefits; and

non-financial rewards,

which come up from the task itself. These rewards are associated together and cured as whole.

Basic pay:

Is the sum of money that constitutes the speed for the work. It varies based on the grade of the job or the amount of skill required.

Contingent pay

- Performance related pay: Additional financial rewards related to performance, competence, contribution, skill or experience which may be added to basic pay.

Employee benefits:

They include pensions, sick pay, insurance cover, company automobiles and annual getaway pay.

Non-financial rewards:

They do not involve any immediate payment. They occur from the task itself, e. g. achievements, autonomy, recognition, and scope to develop skills.

Tesco employs over 285, 000 employees. They offer bundle of pay and benefits - childcare vouchers and two show strategies: 'Save when you Earn and Buy as You Earn'. Their 'Shares in Success structure' rewards employees who work hard with free Tesco shares and their award-winning offers pension program, which contains 160, 000 employees - building a pension based on their profits and service.

Link between motivational theory and reward

The procedure for motivation

Motivation serves as a goal-directed behavior.

Types of drive
  • Intrinsic drive: The self-generated factors that affect people's behaviour which may arise from the task itself.
  • Extrinsic drive: This occurs when something needs to be done to stimulate people.

Some people are self-motivated. However, most people need to be motivated to a lesser or greater extent. Organisations should provide high levels of motivation that can be achieved by by using a selection of rewards system in an attempt to gratify employees' needs in order that they are motivated to work.

Organisational methods to monitoring performance

The aim of performance management is:

Empowering, motivating and fulfilling employees to do their finest. Armstrong World Industry

It includes

Reward and acceptance:

Creating set ups that maximise recruitment, retention and motivation; obtaining the best performance from individuals available.

Performance improvement throughout the company, for specific, team and organisational effectiveness

Managing behavior - ensuring that individuals are encouraged to behave in a way that allows and fosters better working associations.

Organisations should consistently screen their employees' performance in order that they make their best contribution. The strategies should centre on understanding the goal of an organisation and its structure. They play focus on the planning of work, complex requirements, principles of management and behavior. Attention is directed at the division of work, tasks, responsibilities, preserving specialisation and co-ordination, hierarchy of management and formal organisational relationships.

Tesco effectively handles the performance of their employees so that they can lead the UK's dealer. Tesco has a range of functions and techniques of their stores to monitor the shows of their employees. Tesco's managers monitor their employers and the company through: Planning and setting up goals and aims; establishing standards of performance; fixing faults and taking prompt action.

Exit procedures employed by two organisations compared to best practice

Exit steps at Tesco and McDonalds

On or before the employee's last day ask for a notice of resignation. This notice provides documentation of the employee's objective to resign, allowing the department to post and refill the position more efficiently. It should contain the previous day of active work, the previous day on payroll, and the reason for leaving.

Prepare a notice of termination terminating the employee, obtain authorising signatures.

Advise staff to

As soon as you possibly can on or after employee's last day, as appropriate

  • Cancel mobile phone and IT system accesses.
  • Cancel departmental computer passwords and computer accounts.
  • Cancel employee's loan provider details.

Selection requirements for redundancy

The selection conditions used by the employer must be obviously defined in order to be applied sensibly to each candidate.

Selection conditions for redundancy includes
  • Duration of service and experience
  • How long was the staff absent from work (last in, first out).
  • Measure of skills and knowledge
  • Qualifications, aptitude and performance,
    1. Attendance and disciplinary information.


"The aim of human tool management is to ensure that the organisation is able to become successful through people. "

My findings show you that the introduction of strategic HR procedures at Tesco has broadens the range of the business by expansion of new market segments in UK and in another country.

Tesco's HR strategy is dependant on long term perspective that addresses about how precisely the best return can be obtained from the recruiting available now and in the foreseeable future.

Tesco aspires to obtain the right range of the right sorts of folks in the right place at the right time and ethically getting rid of them when they aren't needed.

Tesco creates a host in which employees among others associates get the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Tesco handles the hard (composition, systems) and very soft (culture, worth) top features of the organisation.

Tesco creates constructions that maximise recruitment, retention and determination; obtaining the best performance from people.


Module Teacher Lecture records and messages:

Sabir H Jafri. , Managing Human Resources (Unit 1) H1, HND running a business. London: Guildhall College


http://www. lonympics. co. uk/new/Tesco. htm

http://www. thetimes100. co. uk/downloads/tesco/tesco_14_full. pdf

http://www. tescoplc. com/plc/about_us/strategy/.

http://www. tescoplc. com/plc/about_us/strategy/non_food/

http://www. telegraph. co. uk/finance/markets/2788089/A-history-of-Tesco-The-rise-of-Britains-biggest-supermarket. html

http://www. tescoplc. com/plc/media/pr/pr2009/2009-09-17/

http://www. hrmguide. co. uk/hrm/chap8/ch8-links6. htm

http://www. redundancyhelp. co. uk/LegFair. htm

http://www. uwex. edu/secretary/policies/section10/S10-Exit. pdf

http://www. thetimes100. co. uk/downloads/tesco/tesco_13_full. pdf

http://66. 102. 9. 132/search?q=cache:XEsdkNJC0LcJ:www. thetimes100. co. uk/downloads/mcd/mcd_10_3. doc+selection+practices+and+procedures+%28McDonalds%29&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk

http://hr. concordia. ca/eed/pdf/exit_procedure. pdf


M Armstrong. , 2006. Individuals Learning resource Management Practice. 10th Release. London: Kogan Page

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