Motivation across cultures


The reason for the analysis was to determine what motivates employees across civilizations. To thoroughly review various motivational theories and international studies and tests done to associate these theories to a global perspective. To review the many aspects and subconscious process of drive and to review how to stimulate employees.

Research Technique:-

I have used supplementary data for my research. And this has been gathered from:-

  1. Various websites.
  2. News documents.
  3. Books.
  4. Journals.

Motivation Across Cultures

objectives of the study
  1. DEFINE inspiration, and describe it as a internal process.
  2. EXAMINE the hierarchy-of-needs, two-factor, and achievements motivation ideas, and assess their value to international real human learning resource management.
  3. DISCUSS how an understanding of worker satisfaction can be useful in human learning resource management throughout the world.
  4. EXAMINE the value of process theories in motivating employees worldwide.
  5. RELATE the value of job design, work centrality, and rewards to finding out how to motivate employees within an international framework.

The Character of Motivation


A internal process through which unsatisfied desires or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or bonuses.

Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented habit. Drive may be intrinsic or extrinsic. The word is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can be used to spell it out the causes for animal tendencies as well. This information refers to human motivation. Relating to various ideas, desire may be rooted in the basic need to reduce physical pain and optimize pleasure, or it could include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired subject, hobby, goal, talk about to be, ideal, or it might be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, morality, or preventing mortality.

The Mother nature of Motivation

The Universalist Assumption

The first assumption is that the drive process is universal, that people are encouraged to pursue goals they value - the actual work-motivation theorists call goals with "high valence" or "preference"

  1. The process is universal
  2. Culture influences the precise content and goals pursued
  3. Motivation differs across cultures

The Assumption of Content and Process

Content Ideas of Motivation

Theories that explain work drive in conditions of what arouses, energizes, or initiates staff behavior.

Process Theories of Motivation

Theories that clarify work determination by how employee behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted.

The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

The Maslow Theory
Maslow's theory rests on a number of basic assumptions
  1. Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become motivators
  2. A need that is satisfied no more provides as a motivator
  3. There are more ways to fulfill higher-level than there are ways to gratify lower-level needs

The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

International Studies on Maslow's Theory

With some trivial modification researchers reviewed the need satisfaction and need importance of the four highest-level needs in the Maslow hierarch

Esteem needs were split into two groups
  1. Esteem - including needs for self-esteem and prestige
  2. Autonomy - including dreams for power and opportunities for indie thought and action
The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

International Conclusions on Maslow's Theory

The Haire research indicated each one of these needs were important to the respondents across cultures

  1. International managers (not rank-and-file employees) mentioned the upper-level needs were of particular importance to them
  2. Findings for select country clusters (Latin Europe, United Areas/United Kingdom, and Nordic European countries) suggested autonomy and self-actualization were the main and least satisfied needs for the respondents
  3. Another research of professionals in eight East Parts of asia discovered that autonomy and self-actualization generally also ranked high.

The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

International Conclusions on Maslow's Theory

Some research workers have suggested modifying Maslow's "Western-oriented" hierarchy by reranking the needs

Asian cultures stress the needs of society Chinese hierarchy of needs might have four levels ranked from lowest to highest:

  1. Belonging (interpersonal)
  2. Physiological
  3. Safety
  4. Self-actualization (in the service of population)

The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory

International Results on Maslow's Theory
Hofstede's research signifies
  1. Self-actualization and esteem needs rank highest for experts and managers
  2. Security, cash flow, benefits, and physical working conditions are most important to low-level, unskilled workers
  3. Job categories and levels may have a remarkable effect on motivation and may well offset ethnic considerations
  4. MNCs should focus most heavily on giving physical rewards to lower-level employees and on creating a weather where there is concern, autonomy, the capability to use one's skills, and co-operation for midsection- and upper-level staff.

The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

The Herzberg Theory

Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

A theory that identifies two models of factors that impact job satisfaction
  1. Motivators
  2. Job-content factors such as achievements, recognition, responsibility, growth, and the work itself.

  3. Hygiene Factors

The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

The Herzberg Theory

The two-factor theory contains that motivators and hygiene factors relate with employee satisfaction - a more complex romance than the traditional view that employees are either satisfied or dissatisfied

  1. If hygiene factors are not looked after or are lacking there will be dissatisfaction
  2. There may be no dissatisfaction if health factors are taken care of - there could be no satisfaction also
  3. Only when motivators are present maybe there is satisfaction

Views of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction

The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

International Findings on Herzberg's Theory

Two types of International findings relate to the two-factor theory
  1. One kind of study includes replications of Herzberg's research in a specific country
  2. Do managers in country X give answers a lot like those in Herzberg's original studies?

  3. The others are cross-cultural studies concentrating on job satisfaction

What factors cause job satisfaction and how do these responses change from country to country?

Two-Factor Replications

A variety of research attempts have been undertaken to reproduce the two-factor theory - they have a tendency to support Herzberg's findings

  1. George Hines surveyed of 218 middle managers and 196 salaried employees in New Zealand using evaluations of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction - he concluded "the Herzberg model seems to have validity across occupational levels"
  2. A similar study was conducted among 178 Greek managers - this analysis found that overall Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction generally performed true
Cross-Cultural Job-Satisfaction Studies

Motivators tend to be important to job satisfaction than health factors

  1. MBA applicants from four countries positioned hygiene factors in the bottom and motivators at the very top while Singapore students (of any different ethnical cluster than the other three groups) provided similar responses
  2. Result:- Job-satisfaction-related factors might not exactly always be culturally bounded

  3. Lower- and middle-management employees participating in management development lessons in Canada, the uk, France, and Japan ranked the importance of 15 job-related results and how satisfied they were with each

Result:- Job content may be more important than job context

Job-Context Factors

In work motivation, those factors manipulated by the business, such as conditions, hours, earnings, security, benefits, and campaigns.

Job-Content Factors

In work desire, those factors internally controlled, such as responsibility, accomplishment, and the work itself.

Achievement Determination Theory

The Backdrop of Achievement Motivation Theory
Characteristic account of high achievers
  1. They like situations in which they take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems.
  2. Tend to be average risk-takers alternatively than high or low risk-takers.
  3. Want concrete opinions on the performance.
  4. Often have a tendency to be loners, and not team players.
A high nAch can be learned. Methods to develop high-achievement needs
  1. Obtain reviews on performance and use the info to channel initiatives into areas where success is going to be attained
  2. Emulate people who have prevailed achievers;
  3. Develop an interior desire to have success and challenges
  4. Daydream in positive conditions by picturing oneself as successful in the quest for important aims.
International Conclusions on Achievement Determination Theory
  1. Polish industrialists were high achievers scoring 6. 58 (U. S. managers' scored an average of 6. 74)
  2. Managers in countries as diverse as america and the ones of the former Soviet bloc in Central European countries have high needs for achievement

  3. Later studies didn't find a high need for accomplishment in Central Western european countries

Average high-achievement credit score for Czech professional managers was 3. 32 (significantly less than U. S. managers)

International Studies on Achievement Determination Theory
Achievement desire theory must be modified to meet the specific needs of the local culture

The culture of several countries does not support high achievement Anglo cultures and the ones that reward entrepreneurial effort do support success desire and their human resources should probably be managed accordingly Hofstede supplies the following advice:

The countries on the feminine side. . . separate themselves by concentrating on standard of living alternatively than on performance and on relationships between people somewhat than on money and things. This means social motivation: standard of living plus security and quality of life plus risk.

Select Process Theories

Equity Theory
  1. When people understand they can be being treated equitably it has a positive effect on their job satisfaction
  2. If they believe they are not being treated reasonably (especially with regards to relevant others) they'll be dissatisfied which will have a negative effect on their job performance and they will strive to rebuild equity.

There is significant research to aid the fundamental equity principle in American work organizations. When the idea is examined on an international basis, the results are mixed.

  1. Equity perceptions among professionals and non-managers within an Israeli kibbutz creation unit:- Everyone was cured the same but managers reported lower satisfaction levels than the individuals. Managers recognized their contributions to be greater than other organizations in the kibbutz and thought under compensated because of their value and work.
  2. Employees in Asia and the Middle East often conveniently recognize inequitable treatment in order to protect group harmony
  3. Men and ladies in Japan and Korea (and Latin America) typically get different purchase doing the same work - due to years of cultural conditioning women may not feel they can be treated inequitably

These results reveal collateral theory is not universally suitable in explaining motivation and job satisfaction

Goal-Setting Theory

A process theory that focuses how individuals start establishing goals and giving an answer to them and the overall impact of this process on drive.

Specific areas that receive attention in goal-setting theory include
  1. The degree of participation in setting up goals
  2. Goal difficulty
  3. Goal specificity
  4. The need for objective
  5. Timely feedback to advance toward goals

Unlike many theories of motivation, goal setting techniques has been continually processed and developed

There is considerable research evidence demonstrating that employees perform very well when they are given specific and challenging goals that they have had a hand in setting

Most of these studies have been conducted in the United States - few have been carried out in other cultures

  1. Norwegian employees shunned involvement and preferred to acquire their union staff use management in determining work goals. Researchers concluded that individual participation in goal setting techniques was viewed as inconsistent with the prevailing Norwegian beliefs of involvement through union representatives
  2. In the United States employee involvement in establishing goals is motivational - it had no value for the Norwegian employees in this study
Expectancy Theory

A process theory that postulates that motivation is influenced by a person's belief that

  1. Effort will lead to performance
  2. Performance will lead to specific effects, and
  3. The benefits will be of value to the average person.

Expectancy theory predicts that high performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction

Does this theory have universal application?

  1. Eden found some support for it while studying personnel in an Israeli kibbutz
  2. Matsui and co-workers found it could be effectively applied in Japan

Expectancy theory could be culture-bound - international managers must be aware of this restriction in motivating recruiting since expectancy theory is based on employees having appreciable control over their environment (an ailment that will not can be found in many ethnicities) Drive Applied:- Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards

Quality of Work Life: The Impact of Culture

Quality of work life (QWL) is not the same across the world.

  1. Assembly-line employees in Japan work at a rapid pace for hours and get very little control over their work activities.
  2. Assembly-line employees in Sweden work at a more relaxed pace and have a great deal of control over their work activities.
  3. U. S. assembly-line employees typically work somewhere between - at a pace less demanding than Japan's but more structured than Sweden's.
Sociotechnical Job Designs:-

The objective of the designs is to incorporate new technology in to the work environment so that employees accept and use it to increase overall production. New technology often requires people learn new methods and occasionally work faster. Staff resistance is common. Effective sociotechnical design can overcome these problems. Some companies have created sociotechnical designs for better mixing of their employees and technology without restricting efficiency

Eg:- Basic Foods- Autonomous groups at its Topeka, Kansas place, Workers show responsibility and work in an extremely democratic environment

Other U. S. firms have opted for a self-managed team approach

Multifunctional groups with autonomy for making successful product invention is more extensively utilized by successful U. S. , Japanese, and Western european firms than any other teamwork concept

Work Centrality:-

The need for work in an individual's life can offer important insights into how to encourage human resources in various cultures

  1. Japan has the highest level of work centrality
  2. Israel has moderately high levels
  3. The USA and Belgium have average levels
  4. The Netherlands and Germany have moderately low levels
  5. Britain has low levels
Value of Work

Work is an important part of all people's lifestyles credited to a variety of conditions

  1. Americans and Japanese work long hours because the cost of living is high
  2. Most Japanese professionals expect their salaried employees who aren't paid extra to stay late at work, and overtime has become a requirement of the work. There may be recent facts that Japanese personnel may do far less work in a working day than outsiders would suspect
  3. In recent years, the number of hours worked annually by German workers has been declining, as the number for People in america has been on the rise. Germans place high value on lifestyle and often choose leisure to work, while their American counterparts are just the contrary.

Research shows culture may have little to do with it A wider range of wages (large pay disparity) within American companies than in German organizations creates incentives for American employees to work harder.

Impact of overwork on the health of Japanese workers

One-third of the working-age human population suffers from chronic fatigue The Japanese primary minister's office found a majority of those surveyed complained of :-

  1. Being chronically tired
  2. Feeling emotionally stressed
  3. Abusive conditions in the workplace
  4. Karoshi ("overwork" or "job burnout") is currently recognized as a real social problem
Job Satisfaction
  1. EU workers see a strong romantic relationship between how well they certainly their careers and the ability to get what they need out of life
  2. U. S. workers were not as supportive of this relationship
  3. Japanese staff were least more likely to see any connection

This finding suggest issues may happen in American, Western, and Japanese employees working together effectively

Reward Systems

Managers almost everywhere use rewards to motivate their workers. Some rewards are financial in nature such as salary raises, bonuses, and stock options. Others are non-financial such as reviews and reputation. Significant differences exist between praise systems that work best in one country and those that are most effective in another.

Incentives and Culture

Use of financial bonuses to motivate employees is quite typical in countries with high individualism. Financial motivation systems vary in range

  1. Individual incentive-based pay systems where employees are paid straight for his or her output
  2. Systems in which employees earn individual bonuses predicated on organizational performance goals

Many cultures basic payment on group membership. Such systems stress equality alternatively than individual motivation plans

An individually established benefit system for the sales associates in an American MNC created in its Danish subsidiary was turned down by the sales team because

  1. It preferred one group over another
  2. Employees felt that everyone should receive the same size bonus

Eg:- Indonesian oil workers turned down a pay-for-performance system where some work clubs would earn more income than others.

Workers in many countries are highly encouraged by things other than financial rewards

  1. The most important rewards in locations at 40 countries of an electrical equipment MNC included recognition and achievements.
  2. Second in importance were improvements in the work environment and job conditions including pay and work hours.
Factors that concern employees across cultures
  1. French and Italian employees appreciated job security highly while American and British staff held it of little importance
  2. Scandinavian workers placed quality value on matter for others face to face and then for personal freedom and autonomy but didn't rate "getting forward" very important
  3. German workers placed security, fringe benefits, and "getting forward" as very important
  4. Japanese employees put good working conditions and a congenial work environment on top of their list but positioned personal improvement quite low

The types of incentives that are deemed important look like culturally affected. Culture can even affect the overall cost of a motivation system. Japanese work to present Western-style merit pay systems typically lead to an increase in overall labor costs. Companies fear that minimizing the pay of less productive workers' may cause them to lose face and disturb group tranquility. Hence, everyone's salary raises as a result of merit pay systems. Factors that motivate employees differs across culture. People from different cultures give different preferences to the factors involved. So while deciding the ways to encourage the workforce the factors that matter compared to that culture specifically should be considered.


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