In this assignment covers three matters: Organizational Culture, Desire and Group and Team working. Each subject matter will summarize one key theory and application of this principle in some depth and cover other theory briefly. Discuss a specific organizational example and identify criticisms of the theory in each part. Human being behavior in organizations is a symbol of civilization, between the modern civilization and traditional civilization, the human organizational behavior is one of many transitions. The organizational behaviour defines how individuals work in groups and the structure of communities in the organizations. With all the step of individual way, increasing knowledge inclines someone to further analysis and the task form or style will not suitable for specific eventually, working into group is inevitable tendency in the nowadays and future. Organizational Culture as a one of most important aspects in the business is functioning for upgrade the character of company.
Molander & Winterton (1994, p. 3) state governments that "Whoever has spent time in a number of work organizations will have observed the way the 'local climate' differs, the different ways that things are done, differing levels of energy and individual freedom, and undoubtedly, different kinds of people". And "The intricate combination of assumptions, behaviors, reports, misconceptions, metaphors (symbols) and other ideas that fit collectively to define what it means to be a member of a specific society", this view has been recognized in the work of Stoner and Freeman (1999, p. 181. ). Culture is derived from notional context, evidently linked to strategy and decides how strategy can be implemented. In successful corporation, there is a 'strong' culture.
In 2006, Haier is the world's 4th greatest whitewoods manufacturer and one of China top 100 IT company. Furthermore, Haier branches in technology research, make industry, trading and financial services with 240 subsidiary companies and 30 design centers, vegetation and trade companies and more than 50, 000 employees across the world. The global revenue was around 10, 000 million pounds. Nevertheless twenty years ago, Haier was a small state held company in Qingdao, China and it was sacrificing $178, 000 on twelve-monthly profits of $421, 000. (Haier, 2010) Throughout that period, it possessed built up its own sales network around world, export more than 160 countries. In the meantime, Haier just product refrigerators originally, now its product range cover dozens of categories in the home electrical product market with thousands of individual products.
"If we do not eliminate these refrigerators, what is be shattered by the market in the future will be this venture. "
This hammer is symbolic of Zhang's complete rejection of the prior company frame of mind that faulty products could be tolerated and knocked out at a discount. This story implies that Haier Corporation is with a solid and distinctive culture.
The international strategy of Haier seeks to give a fast delivery and good service to local market and customers by make maximum use of local labour resources and capital. It will always be changing products for the local preferences and practices (much like the wine fridge), a practice that may become costly in terms of difficulty and logistics. Haier's global branding strategy is aimed at standing as a local brand in different market. With all the strong Haier culture, Zhang has decided to go for the difficult marketplaces first on the foundation that success in these market segments would require the business to improve faster than seeking to dominate less fiercely contested market segments. Haier has dominated the Chinese market, though Zhang has looked for to grow the network through alliances, including the 2002 arrangement with Sanyo, this contract helps Haier make into Japan market.
both attributes have harmonious exchanges, the difference of ethnic background, instead of causing estrangement between your Chinese and American staff in their work, has increased their fascination with shared understanding.
Initially, the American employees were against to volunteer for overtime to complete the day's focus on work, however the Haier culture encouraged them agree to the 'strange' work system from China and even prepare for another day's just work at Independent Day. Haier seems distributed its culture to America.
Another obstacle unique to China is we have started our brand development past due. So we must catch up in a very short period of your energy. I will offer you an analogy: It's like building a 10 tale building. Our overseas competitors have previously finished completely up to the ninth floor. The Chinese market is their tenth floor. Once they have moved effectively in to the China market, they will be done with building this high-rise. But in China, we've only built the first floor. There are still nine floors to look.
The story lately completed in the Essentials of organizational tendencies by Mullins (2008 cited in Lecture notice University of Birmingham Organizational behavior course, 2009). Haier makes culture as an instrument of upgrade and powerful company. The aspects of culture can be nationwide, organizational, or interest group, relatively enduring values, beliefs, traditions, traditions, and procedures commonly shared by a discrete group-defines restrictions between organizations. In addition, it can be transmitted from one generation to the next-conveys a sense of steadiness and personal information. Culture is something bigger than specific self-interest, provides requirements and control mechanisms. Technology and risk, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation and stableness perceived as group culture separate the high strength employee and low strength employee. The country's origins effect appears of all global companies that rooted in nationwide business system of their house country. Hofstede's evaluation has brought up cultural dissimilarities in such areas as ability distance and uncertainty avoidance, such nationalities as North american, British, German/Western european and Japanese emphasis different approaches to business. Cultures connect to such elements as nationwide business systems, corporate and business control, management development and human resources management such as COKE, TOYOTA, and UBS.
The Business organisation and management lecture given by Dr Peter Foss in November 2009 has shown this is of drive is "The determination to exert high degrees of effort toward organisational goals, conditioned by the effort's capability to meet some individual need". Many factors can impact desire for example, needs or goals, behavior or action, desired goal, stress or fulfilment and feedback. These make a pattern system, the need or expectations brings about behaviour or action a desired goal will be place, during the process the blockage will result in frustration, on the contrary complete the blockage will contribute to fulfilment, finally some opinions to needs or expectation. Two differing perspectives will be the content theories and process theories. The content theories emphasis "what" and process theories emphasize "how".
The content ideas identify our needs and strengths; provide the elements of determination (Spicer, 2010). The Maslow Hierarchy of needs construct by 5 periods, from most affordable to highest each level has its own expectation after reach it, then will move to the next level. We satisfy needs in the order given: physiological, safety, sociable, esteem and self-actualisation. After decide on next unsatisfied need, the satisfied need will not be a motivator any more. In the meantime, lacks of satisfaction will results physical and mental health. The innate prefer to level hierarchy and self-actualisation stimulates the desire for more. The Hongwu Emperor is one example to interpret this theory.
Hongwu Emperor called Zhu Yuanzhang found Ming Dynasty in China, who's an outstanding armed forces scientist and politician. He was born in Pei Region in 1328 and he was the youngest of four brothers. His family was difficult to supply basic needs on their behalf and in 1344, the shattered dam of Huang River damaged this poor family, only Zhu Yuanzhang survived. To be able to dispense the dreadful life condition, Zhu Yuanzhang signed up with an area rebel group to deal with Mongol military. With a solid survivable desire, physical ability and natural leadership potential, Zhu Yuanzhang became a innovator in a single branch of Red Turban. The Red Turban was merged brief by Buddhism and Zoroastrianism, the major drive against Yuan Dynasty. Within the 1356 Zhu Yuanzhang got control of a significant city of China, Yingtian (now called Nanjing), he started operate his own policy and built his electric power prepared for independent from Red Turban in the future. Benefited by Zhu Yuanzhang's wonderful talent, he earned the major naval fight, after won and from now on, Zhu Yuanzhang started out collecting treasure and jewellery from people under his rule and built his own palace in Yingtian. He had taken the others of China and demolished Yuan Dynasty in 1366. In the year 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself Hongwu Emperor. (Buzzle, 2010) Out of this report, Zhu Yuanzhang adopted Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, copy from physiological to security when he became a member of the rebel group, after needed control of Yingtian, and he wanted for affiliation. When Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself Hongwu Emperor the stage from esteem to self-actualisation.
However, the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory tied to live condition and degree of knowledge. According to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid, the Physiological is the most typical need and Self-actualiation is the tiniest. It is not suitable for today's world any longer, with the upgrade level of individuals civilization. Self-actualization cannot stay at the top of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid any more, physiological will not the basic need for most people.
Theory X Type
Theory Y Type
People dislike work and want to
Work is interesting, require it for growth
Force is needed to obtain the right
People will escort themselves to goal
People are largely motivated by
Desire to fulfill one's potential is motivating
Most folks have little creativity
Creativity is obtainable, but generally under used
Source: Foss, 2009
The McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y show two other views of individual. Managers would more support Theory Y, the mental motivators are far better than material motivators. The staff with Theory Y mainly would be the top of their own place, but Theory X cannot. David McClelland learned that employee motivated by the six basic human needs: achievement, electric power, affiliation, freedom, self-esteem and security. (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010)
The Process theories of motivation focus on the decision of motivator that impact in the period of work. How much effort the employee paid in the specific work will depend on the motivator. The three process ideas of determination are equity theory, expectancy theory and goal-setting theory. ( Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010)
Self : Outcomes(100)
The Equity Theory is defined by proportion of a person's inputs and final results to clarify how people utilize the resources and energy to deliver fairness. The balance or imbalance direct influence the satisfaction and inspiration of employees. Inequitable reward brings about dissatisfaction, lower output and departure. Equitable prize contributes to continue same level of output. More than Equitable Praise conduces to harder work, low priced reward, higher drive. Conspicuously, the best way to manage the desire of employees is a confident praise system. (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010)
Expectancy theory based on the expectation for the outcome of employees. Additionally, satisfy the formula: Push of drive (F) = V (way) - I (likelihood) - E (expectation), motivation is the merchandise of direction, likelihood and expectation. The effort impact the performance, performance impact prize, finally the reward determine how much outcome and expectation. The satisfactions of personal goal approach contribute to a higher passion of staff to the task or research. (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010)
Goal-Setting theory is the procedure of motivate employees using goal setting techniques method. A challenging goals lead to higher level of performance, but this hinge on the worker's capacity, otherwise, will damage the determination and self-confidence if the goals cannot be reached. Specific goals conduce to raised value of work than oversimplified goals. An energetic employee in goal setting can improve performance by increasing dedication. Individual's belief of being capable of carrying out a task assisted by arranging goals raises performance. (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010)
The next theme I decided to go with is Group and Team Working. Group and team are two different conceptions. The Group is two or more people work together, in person communication and also have a common aim for. Nevertheless, the Team is several several people who affect and care one another, are acting as you "people" for common targets and understand themselves as a dependable entity with an organisation. (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010) Growing from Organizations into Clubs is one of the managers of group need to believe over.
The Team possessed always better than the Group that is why a group of the globe best soccer players cannot 100% defeats a professional team with undiscovered players. The task and process procedure of copy group into team have significant amounts of aspects: different culture if the members of the group have different nationality or culture history, choose a head from the group, environment, determination, resources and power or potential. There could also have good deal of of uncertain and sophisticated difficulties. Affiliation and success of specific needs of group members, the communicate channels, openness to one another and decision making are foundations of a team.
Nowadays, team working is competitiveness, with a high competitive market competition, organization required to update its efficiency of work and focus on the value of the nature of team working. Especially when face a large-scale task, the individual cannot surface finish it alone, at this point, age individualism was end, an outstanding team seems be the key stream of world development. The performance of the team is determined by the classification of work team, lower-level clubs just make things such as self-managed work team similar with a single group, middle-level teams screen thing like job team however, not perfect, the senior-level groups plans and operates things, they drive the project to be real by their steps. (Bratton, Sawchuk, Forshaw, Callinan, Corbett, 2010)
To be considered a high performing team required the purpose, clear identified goals, mental health, role clarity, older communication, productive discord resolution and responsible interdependence. Establish sense of urgency, select participants for skill and skill potential, pay attention to first meetings and actions, established clear rules for each member, challenge group frequently, set and seize over a few quick performance oriented tasks, spend plenty of time along and use positive reviews. The other important guideline is insure emotional safety: equal voice, contribution; everyone participates; strike issues not people; level of privacy in team talk. (Foss, 2009) The leader is the core of a team who control the direction of team approach with a standard consideration. The first choice should acquainted with the power and virtue of every member and makes them work best in the suitable position, stimulates the actual of these, strengthens the communication between your team and makes the members feel their importance in the team. The customers of team are indispensible for the team, should have the awareness of team working. Concluding the job of themselves is the responsibility in a team, in additional, the users of team should trust one another.
The barriers to team success like interpersonal loafing, risky move, decision-making, groupthink and common knowledge. A pernicious conflict in the team, especially between the leader and co-leader, this will dissociate the team. Within the team, the 1+1 most likely not larger than 2. In the 2004 NBA final, the Laker has Shaquille O'Neal, Kobe Bryant, Karl Malone, Gary Payton and the trainer Phil Jackson versus the Pistons. Everyone believed the NBA most effective team within the last twenty years would defeat the team without one superstar easily. However, the result was the Pistons defeat the Lakers with score 4 to 1 1. Actually, Shaquille, Kobe, Karl and Gary they are great baseball players no matter in the group or history, nevertheless they aren't a team, just a famous group. Kobe and Shaquille not go along well for the team leader, Karl and Gary desire to have a champion band, a team with local trouble and international invasion cannot call a "team".
The three topics are from the module organizational behavior and sociology of work. An abundant knowledge of organizational behavior helps handle the relationship between employees and managers in the business and also have the positive function to the company development. The first subject is organizational culture, and the first part is the definition about organizational culture. Next using the Haier co-operation as the application form organizational example, during the application part connects with the theory of organizational culture. The ultimate part is identified the key theory and concepts, in addition, the criticisms of the idea and guidelines in this part either. The next topic is drive. The first part is describe what determination is and The Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory as the primary theory. Using the Hongwu Emperor as the example to explain the maslow hierarchy of needs theory. The following is the criticisms and personal judgment up against the maslow hierarchy of needs theory. Finally part is the other key principles and theory. The last subject is group and team working. The first part is same with the other two parts describe the definition of group and team working. Next depict the variations between group and team. The Laker from NBA is the organization showing how to control a team and the obstacles to team performance. The Organizational culture, Desire and Group and team working are important aspects to an organization. The knowledge of organizational behavior is artwork of human romance in the business, it is the mental heart of an organization. An effective management of organizational behaviour not only create a concordant relationship through the employees and professionals but also clear the barriers to organization upgrade and performance.
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