Although there are several ideas distributed by different authors about inspiration which a manager should retain in mind while carrying out their professional role. These theories of motivation can be further divided into two categories: 'process' theories of drive and 'content' ideas of motivation.
Content theories deals with "what" motivates people at work and it is concerned with specific needs and goals, whereas process ideas deals with the procedure of drive and can be involved with "how" drive occurs.
Under 'Content ideas' of desire there are a number of important ideas such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's two factor theory, Alderfer's ERG theory & Mc Clelland's theory of needs. And under 'Process theories' some important ideas are: Vroom's process theory of desire, goal setting theory of desire and Adam's equity theory.
First we will demonstrate some content ideas: Abraham Maslow (1954) provided content theory of motivation, after his research he has identified that there are five levels of individual of inspiration; first level is physiological needs where he needs basic things such as air, food and water for determination, then comes second level where he needs his personal security, health insurance and safety against injuries, when he passes through this level he enters to third level where he need to feel a feeling of owed and popularity ; it is about relationships, individuals and friendship, after that fourth level comes where he wants to be regarded for his work and well known by other employees and then your final level comes where self actualization needs exist ( he wish to accomplish something creative and no other factors motivates them any further). ( Simplypsychology, 2007)
Another Important Content theory is McClelland's theory of needs. In his theory he identified three important needs for employees at the job. First need is dependence on Success, Higher achievers usually like to do work separately they want to understand how to do things by their selves, they would like to take tasks, they like to do challenging tasks. They can be always willing to take risks and never leave things on chance such people usually in most of the times aren't motivated with financial rewards unless they may be of the same level of their performance. They feel comfortable when they acquire feedback of their elderly people and improve themselves by the knowledge and faults they have done in past. (Deguara, 2001). And the previous need is need for the energy in simple words this means have authority to control over others. Some people do not like to be controlled they want to do things in their own way, nor like to work under someone.
Fredick herberg's provided two factor theory in which he said his theory divides satisfaction of job and determination into two factors which can be known as desire factors and health factors, he in his theory said desire factors such as achievement, recognition in company, his job itself, tasks, the possibility of getting promotions create motivation in an employee. Other factors are hygiene factors that happen to be good romance with co-workers, good and save environment of work, proper office equipment, salary and socialization, they do not cause determination but if these health factors aren't present or fulfilled they could create de-motivation that can lead to downfall for an organization. (Ruthankoon, 2003).
Now we will discuss about some "Process ideas of drive". First we will discuss Vroom's theory of determination. In his theory he considered three factors which causes drive in employees that are valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valance identifies value of the praise for the staff, expectancy refers to the level of confidence the worker has for the possibility of achieving the prospective and instrumentality refers to the conception of employees as if they are certain to get what they are expecting even it's been promised by manager. Vroom says that all these factors are connected with the other person like a chain and everything must be satisfied for an employee to become determined. Professionals must asses that weather worker can get the job done, is he obtaining a fair reward regarding to his performance which is that reward so this means full to him/her. If any of these factors are lacking then there will be no drive.
Reinforcement theory is also an important Process theory. Publisher states that there are four main factors of the theory: Positive, Negative, Abuse and Extinction reinforcement. Positive reinforcement should be given when the worker has really worked well hard and contributed in the business's interest so he must be rewarded in order to encourage him, so in future he might do much better than the prior performance. Negative reinforcement should get when a worker do not work hard may be credited to some problems from the organization and that leads the business to make reduction, so the supervisor should help the worker to remove his problems, so he may not cause further loss to organization. Punishment reinforcement occurs when an employee has caused a business to are affected a great loss credited to his negligence, Business should give him abuse so in future he might be cautious to repeat the blunder again (example: deduct his salary or wages). As well as the Last the first is Extinction reinforcement, it occurs when worker do not be employed by the eye of the business and besides it, has contributed in the heavy loss to the business. Then that staff must be terminated or extinct from the organization. (Edublogs, 2006).
Johm Staccy Adams after his great research gave his equity theory in 1963. He said employees be prepared to be treated reasonably at work. If the employee working much better than other employees and giving exceptional performance but not being rewarded equivalently, they'll feel undervalued. Adam grouped work effort as type and on the other hands rewards and benefits as outputs. He explained that if the employee's outputs are less or not equal to the input that they have made can cause de-motivation. Employees could also compare their own inputs and outputs with other employees in order to assess that whether they are being fairly treated or not (employees often make such comparability with the similar degree of employees). (Smallbiz, 2012)
Now we will discuss about how in practical managers can use these theories to inspire the staff at the job. First if we speak about maslow's hierarchy theory (content theory); by the use of it managers can judge themselves that at which level employees comes in and then can inspire him according to their needs. Other than this it can also help managers to Appropriate wages to the individuals, provide them job security and good environment of work, plan social events so employees can get near one another, form groups and promote team working, Some employees do not want to work the same constantly so give them challenging activity to complete.
Vroom's expectancy theory (process theory) can also contribute in motivating a worker: by making certain where a employee can perform the expected performance or not, employees that have given exceptional performance should be rewarded with specific pay back so they do not feel that they may be unfairly cared for, see in which a reward which an employee will get after achieving the mark is equitable to the performance which he previously given.
Nowadays for most employees financial rewards aren't only desire, Besides this there are other factors too that can help in determination of staff such as: providing the staff a safe, secure and healthy environment where he can do his work with relaxation and with a bit of mind. Managers also needs to give a proper guidance before providing them with the task so they could understand what they have to do as well as how to do? And on other aspect when the work is completed the managers should give them feedback about their work that how well they did in it? And what can they do to boost it in a better way. Managers should conduct conferences in which they can discuss the problems of the other person and find ways to solve them. Cultural activities can also add in inspiration of personnel, so organizations should spend in interpersonal activities by this they can create good relation among the personnel and they can share with each other easily and can help out each others, treat them with respect, give them recognition because of their exceptional performance if they did any, form groups where employees can perform job together, working in a team also creates synergy (when two forces combine to jointly and the effect is higher then than normal outcome it is named synergy), besides that Ensure that there should be a balance between your prize and the performance which a worker has made because if there is no balance additionally, it may create de-motivation, that can be very dangerous for an organization. In organizations when there is a high degree of de-motivation it can lead to high employee turnover, decrease in efficiency and revenue may become losses in future. Other than that create friendly environment therefore the employees can tell the managers without the dread, send them overseas for trips abroad and providing them with extra holidays if indeed they have done some extra typical work.
Redesigning Job of worker is also an efficient way to motivate the employees. Professionals can redesign the work of employees in pursuing ways: Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Job rotation. Job enlargement is a technique in which the number of responsibilities for the worker is increased but the jobs will be related. It could result in greater flexibility of staff. It is regarded as horizontal restructuring of the job. Job enrichment means to increase the degree of responsibilities of an employee so he might feel responsible. It really is regarded as vertical restructuring of the work and the last an example may be Job rotation, in this technique employee is relocated from one different job to another. There are many advantages of this process: some employees feel good when more obligations are given to them, some employees may like to do challenging job to demonstrate themselves but on the other palm there are some disadvantages of the process too like a lot of people are too sluggish to do things, some do not want change by any means and some do not know how to do new things or jobs.
Managers can also use Performance related pay to motivate the employees. Some examples of PRP are: Offering the employees part work pay, by giving them payment on the each product of end result, this is oldest form of performance related pay and continues to be found in some municipality direct service organizations, By offering them extra or share options predicated on the contribution of these towards organization's profit, may offer them percentage of percentage on sales basis, By offering them extra payment of the work which they have done efficiently within time. PRP have advantages both to employees and employers such as: employees can screen their own performance, by and large employees get reward in cash, the praise can lead to job satisfaction for staff, it is mediated that by acquiring bonus and bonuses employees get more motivated to their work, mass creation of the business can may be increased, less guidance may be needed, employees who are being compensated may lead to Job satisfaction, by PRP professionals can inspire the employees to achieve the objective of company. Now on the other hand It can also have drawbacks like There could be conflict about how precisely the performance is assessed and whether an employee has done enough to be compensated or not, It can encourage unhealthy rivalry between professionals, There is a lot doubt about whether PRP actually does indeed anything to motivate employees, This can be because the performance component is usually only a tiny ratio of total pay, there a wide range of cases in which monetary rewards aren't sufficient for staff and will not motivate them any further. (Online)
In summary it could be said that in today's world motivation is becoming mainly important for organization and companies of most sizes that want to accomplish their goals in a competitive marketplace. Top performers of a business constantly provide high quality work and keep maintaining a optimum level of creation and always ready for all kind of issues. Motivated employees will preserve a higher level of creativity too. On the other hand de-motivated employees can be really catastrophic for a business. So a director should be careful in such things and become aware different techniques and apply different ideas to encourage them. One cannot be certain or sure one certain method or theory gives the best final result because people in various organizations are different from each others like their morals and needs cannot be similar same as one another so they cannot be determined in specific same manner. So it is the responsibility of managers to comprehend the type of their employees and understand their prospects they should apply theoretical and methodical ways to stimulate them. Desire of employees can lead the company to operate efficiently and effectively. If we obtain it in a simply way we can say that "Failure of employee's performance means failing of organization's performance". The need for inspiration is often under-estimated and it's really minimal understood knowledge area among people who carry vital leadership jobs within an company. It's a very important subject to see over, professionals should be critically worried about this matter and should always give their finest of create such environment within an organization which motivates a worker to give their finest efforts in every issues of performance and the success of the company.
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