Motivation is a desire to accomplish goals, the drive to excel. Motivation is an activity that arouses, sustains and regulates behaviour towards a specific goal. Many theorists' try to explain motivation in various way. Like relating to Huzczynski and Buchanan, ''Drive is a decision-making process by which the individual choose desired results and models in action the behavior appropriate to acquiring them. '' In other words motivation is some sort of interior energy which drives a person to do something in order to attain something. Drive is inspired by, values, values, attitudes, needs and goals.
There are two types of drive. An example may be intrinsic determination and the other is extrinsic inspiration.
Intrinsic desire are kind of motivation that come by natural means or people do off their own interest without any external pressure. They can be therefore psychological rather than materials and relate to the idea of job satisfaction. Intrinsic drive are the satisfaction that originates from completing a piece of work, the position that certain careers convey and the sensation of achievements that originates from performing a difficult job well.
On the other hand, Extrinsic motivation are kind of desire that comes outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are prize like money and level, threats of consequence etc. For example, cheering from audience to a new player to get something is extrinsic desire.
Starbucks Company: RESEARCH STUDY in Desire and Teamwork
Starbucks Organization, the most famous string of retail coffee shops on earth, mainly advantages from roasting, reselling special coffees and various types of coffee or tea drinks. Established in 1971, it has about 4000 branches in depends upon. Moreover, it has been one of the rapidest growing companies in the us as well. The reason why of why Starbucks is worldwide popular are not only the grade of coffee, but also its customer support and cosy environment. Besides, it is also noted for its satisfaction of employees. The turnover rate of employees at Starbucks was 65% and the rate of professionals was 25% a year. Because of this, Starbucks would be one of the perfect business models for the strategies of staff motivation, customer satisfaction and assistance of teamwork.
The professionals in Starbucks treat each workpeople similarly and all the staffs are called 'associates', even the supervisors of every branch are called it as well. In order to narrow the distance between professionals and employees, in addition they co-work with the essential level staffs in leading line. Due to this, they can maintain a well management system and generate a much closer and more familiar atmosphere than other place, making not only employees can enjoy their job but also customers are damaged by their excitement.
Listen to employees
Starbucks has a well-organized communication channel for employees. It places a great importance on labours. For example, professionals plan the working hours per personnel and set up the schedule of your time off, according to their desires to meet their requirements.
The partners possess the right to figure out what's the best insurance plan for the coffee lover, and the directors show a admiration for each suggestion. Starbucks even desires every employee to become listed on in making and developing ideas, then attaining their goals all together. Because of this, business could improve their strategies even innovate by different ideas.
The strategies to keep well relationship
the numbers of employees in each branch of starbucks are usually from three to six. Such a small size of a retail shop makes staffs acquaint with each other easily and deeply. Inside the co-working period, this helps a team to match different personalities and majors quickly to achieve well performance
A goal of open public welfare
Starbucks contributes part of its revenue to public service; on the other side, it also establish a goal to boost and contribute to the society. As a result, the aim makes all staffs have a good idea that what they do for Starbucks is for the modern culture as well. It boosts their morale.
Starbucks changes the behaviours and viewpoints of global consumers to caffeine, which successful example has caught global attention. According to the case of Starbucks, it implies that motivation is the key factor of any company policy and its success.
Many theories try to explain motivation and why and how people can be determined. These ideas can be categorised in two categories: 1. Content ideas and 2. Process theories.
Content theories is about ''what will be the things that motivate people??''. It shows that the best way to motivate a worker is to learn what his/her needs are and provide him/her rewards that will gratify those needs. Maslow's ''hierarchy of needs'' and Herzberg's ''two-factor theory'' are two of the main theories of these kinds.
On the other hands, Process theories is approximately ''How can people be encouraged''. These theories explore the process through which final results become advisable and are pursued by individuals. This process assumes that people are able to choose their goals and choose the paths towards them, by way of a mindful or unconscious procedure for calculation. Expectancy theory and McGregor's theory X and theory Y are these kind of theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs:
Abraham Maslow detailed five innate human being needs. And put forward certain propositions about the motivating ability of each need.
Human beings have wants and wishes which impact their behaviour. Only unsatisfied needs impact behavior, satisfied needs don't.
An Individual's needs can be arranged in hierarchy matching with their importance from basic to intricate. Each level of need is dominant until satisfied.
The person improvements to another level of needs only following the lower level need is satisfied.
A need which has been satisfied no more motivates an individual's behaviour
The need for self-actualization can almost never be satisfied.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory involve some major restriction:
An individual's behaviour may be in response to several needs, and the same need may cause different behaviour in several individuals, so it is difficult to use the model to explain or anticipate individual's behaviour in response to rewards.
The hierarchy ignores the idea of deferred gratification and altruistic behaviour (by which people sacrifice their own needs for others)
Empirical confirmation of the hierarchy is tricky to find.
Research has discovered that the hierarchy displays UK and US ethnical values, which may not copy to other context.
Herzberg's two-factor theory:
Herzberg's identified two basic need systems: the need to avoid unpleasantness and the need for personal expansion. He advised factors which could be made available from organizations to satisfy both types of need are cleanliness and motivator factors.
According to this theory, the necessity to avoid unpleasantness is satisfied through hygiene factors. Health factors are to do with the environment and condition of work including: company coverage and supervision, salary, the grade of supervision, interpersonal connection, working condition and job security. If inadequate, hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction with work.
The dependence on personal development is satisfied by motivator factors. These activities create job satisfaction and are effective in motivating a person to superior performance and work. These factors are connected to the work itself, including: position, advancement, reputation, responsibility, challenging work, a sense of achievement, development in the work. A lack of motivator factors will encourage employees to concentrate on the hygiene factors.
Major limitation of this theory is it was predicated on inadequately small test size and it offers a limited social context.
The application of the theories are available in occupational field such as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction.
Process theories of inspiration:
Vroom's expectancy theory:
Expectancy theory quite simply states that the strength of an individual's determination to do something will be based upon the magnitude which he needs the results of his attempts to contribute to his personal needs or goals.
For example, a worker may have a higher expectation that increased productivity will result in campaign, but if he's negative towards the idea of advertising (because he dislike responsibility) he'll not be determined to increase his production. Like just as, if promotion is very important to him- but he does not believe higher productivity will get him marketed (because he has been handed over before, perhaps) his drive can be low. That simply means that an individual should be rewarded with what she or he perceives as important rather than what the manager's perceives.
McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor suggested that professionals tented to work as though they subscribed to one of two units of assumptions about people at work: Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X shows that most people dislike work and responsibility and can avoid both if possible. As a result of this, most people must be coerced, managed, aimed and/or threatened with punishment to get them to man adequate effort.
Theory Y shows that physical and mental effort in work is really as natural as play or snooze. People value are a source of satisfaction and pleasant responsibility. They are able to achieve goals by exercising self applied direction and home control.
So, why inspiration is so important?
One of the primary importance's of drive is to increase individual's morale. For instance, if a activities team is constantly losing their complements then this will have a negative influence on the morale of the whole team as no person likes to lose. Besides, this damage can affect the behavior of the average person. Therefore, the supervisor of the team is accountable for motivating his players to help them stay centered on future suits. And need to build up their confidence. Upon this basis, drive is important since it can help a person to forget about his past and help him to go on.
Now in business or in business desire is important because, determined employees help organizations make it through. Motivated employees tend to be more fruitful. If employees can be motivated they will work more proficiently and productivity will go up. Besides, motivated worker always look for improved ways to do a job, encouraged employees are definitely more quality focused.
Simply we can say that. Motivation is important because, it Elevates level of efficiency of employees like, increase output, minimizing cost of operation and increasing overall efficiency. Its helps company to achieve its goal, since it creates best possible utilization of resources, In addition, it builds friendly romance which is vital because it enhances employee's satisfaction. Finally, determination leads to stableness of workforce. This is very important for the reputation and goodwill of the company. The employees can continue to be faithful to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of involvement in the decision making. This will create a good public image in the market which will catch the attention of competent and skilled people in to the company. Based on these, we can say that it is not possible to get extra degree of commitment and productivity from your worker unless they may be motivated so in retrospect it's so important.
So, what encourage people or how can people be motivated?
This is a common question arise. People can be motivated by many means, mainly money such as salary, pay back, incentives and non-monetary like risk, reorganisation etc
Although ''money'' is recognized as a best motivator for, however, sometimes just doing work for salary is not enough for employee to stay at an organization. Again, what inspire one person may not motivate other
Interestingly neither Herzberg nor Maslow cites money as a significant motivator. Matching to Maslow money is a lesser level motivation. It gets the motivational impact on staffs which lasts for a short period. At an increased level of hierarchy, praise, respect, reorganisation, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivator than money. Yet organizations persist using financial incentives as their key motivational tools. Furthermore, research demonstrates manual workers are more likely to be motivated by money than are usually more professional or managerial teams.
There is threat and opportunity in almost all of the average work place. Motivation by threat is not a powerful strategy, and in a natural way staffs will be more attracted to the chance side of inspiration than the threat area.
Other theories which expended those of Maslow and Herzberg like vroom's expectancy theory exhibit cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be determined by different facets at different time.
According to the ''system of scientific management'' produced by Fredric Winslow Taylor, a personnel motivation is completely determined by pay, and therefore management won't need to consider emotional or cultural accepts of work. Alternatively, David McClelland assumed that worker cannot determined only by the need for money, infect, extrinsic inspiration could eliminate intrinsic desire such as accomplishment determination. For McClelland, satisfaction sits consistent with a person's life with the fundamental motivations. Another theorist, Elton Mayo found that the social associates an employee has at workplace are extremely important because boredom and repetition of jobs could lead to reduced determination. Mayo assumed that, workers could be encouraged by recognising their communal needs and making them feel important. Because of this, employees received liberty to make decision on the job and higher attention was paid to casual work communities.
In ''essentials of organizational behavior'' Robbins and assess examine popularity programs as motivators and identify the value of individual popularity, participation of worker, awareness of the popularity process as important motivator in work environment.
Job design: Simplification of the job, proper training, and versatility can motivate employee.
Job enrichment: supplying the staff decision making job, freedom to choose, encourage into involvement in the look process and providing regular reviews is also motivating
Job rotation. Steering clear of repitivness in work put employees into different use enough time make employee determined and feel challenge. Often, they become bored doing same work again and again and in doing so de-motivate as well
Job optimisation: Skill variety, process identity, task value, autonomy also stimulate people.
In realization we can say that inspiration takes on an important role in our life. On this financial downturn, in-order to survive, business needs encouraged people. Because inspiration helps employees to become more productive and beneficial employee make the business more profitable. But to encourage other we need to stimulate ourselves. Without motivating ourselves we can not motivate others. Are you considering determined by the supervisor who comes past due every day? The business need to set clear goal, since it is impossible for any person, any team or group, to be motivated without a clear and specific goal. We also have to recognize their achievement or quite simply we have to give worker proper recognition for their performance. Because, people prefer to note that their work isn't being ignored. We also need to give people the trust and value they deserve. We have to create opportunity, give people the possibility to advance. Tell them that hard work can pay off. In companies like Sainsbury or Tesco, you can begin your carrier as a customer assistant, and then you can become the team innovator, floor supervisor, associate manager and director as well. This opportunity of progression like these, company must show to the worker, that will automatically motivate them. The business need to give proper reviews and corrected them if indeed they do anything wrong. Finally, company need to provide employee their freedom of speech, in other words need to give them the opportunity to get involved and let them believe that they are the part of company and their advice counts. In companies like John Lewis, all employees are the shareholder of the business. That is very motivating. That's how exactly we should motivate people and that is how drive as an idea can be established in our office.
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