The concepts behind the organisational behaviour:

Organisations are multifaceted and human behaviour in an organisation is even more complex and unpredictable. Hence, Organisational behaviour is necessary. Organisational behaviour is the study of human behaviour in the organisation and exactly how knowledge about human behaviour is useful in increasing an organisation's effectiveness. Its main purpose is to learn ways through which people could work better. It deals in a methodical way to review and research in a theoretical development, getting information about different activities of other organisation. Organisational behaviour provides

Analysis of different levels within an organisation.

Help in understanding the complexities involved with interpersonal relations of several people.

View to look and manage the organisations as systems which have inter-organisational relationship.

Holistic view of management's behavioural approach and not representing the complete management.

A platform to coordinate between two different cultured groups.

Organisational behaviour is the analysis of what folks think, feel and do in and around organisation. Organisational behaviour researchers systematically study individual team, and organisational-level characteristics that pressure behaviour within work setting. Organisational behaviour is interdisciplinary field and its own appearance can be traced back again to Human Relations Movement stimulated by Hawthorne experiments during 1920s. The idea of scientific management, propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor, had produce fundamental principles of the topic predicated on Motion and Time Studies, that have been introduced in industry in the United States on a sizable scale. The major contributions of the scientific management have been (i) standardization of work; (ii) equality in payments of wages, and (iii) precision in training. 1

2. The challenging nature of Work Organisation:

The effective management of individuals occurs in the context of wider environmental setting, including the changing patterns of organisations and attitudes to work. It is frequently documented that a global economy, increased business competitiveness, the move towards more customer driven market, advances in systematic knowledge, especially telecommunication and office automation, have led to an interval of frequent change and need for greater organisational flexibility.

The power and influence of private and public organisations, the rapid spread of new technology, and the impact of various socio economic and political factors have attracted increasing focus on the idea of corporate social obligations and business ethics. Increasing attention is also being focused on the ethical behaviour which underlies the decisions and actions of managers and staff; and many responsible organisations and professional bodies now choose to create a code of ethics.

The changing nature of organisations and individuals at the job has positioned increasing pressure on the awareness and need for new psychological contracts. Forces of global competition and turbulent change make employment guarantees unfeasible and demand a new management philosophy based on trust and teamwork. People are seen as a responsibility and a resource to be put into. Employees need to abandon the stability of lifetime employment and embrace the contact of continuous learning and personal development.

3. THE TYPE of Organisational Behaviour System:

Organisational behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour of men and women of people in a organisation setting. It involves the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour. Common definitions of organisational behaviour are generally along the lines of: the analysis and knowledge of individual and group behaviour, and patterns of structure in order to help improve organisational performance and effectiveness. There is a close relationship between organisational behaviour and management theory and practice.

Organisational behaviour is of interdisciplinary nature which integrates the behaviour science with other social science.

From the disciplines, it helps to enhance the relationship between people and organisation.

A lot of research work and conceptual framework is emerging to ascertain human behaviour.

It has now turn into a separate field of study whose principles, concepts and processes are synthesized.

It is principally designed for solving the organisational problems which are just related to human behaviour.

4. Challenges and Opportunities:

In recent year many challenges and opportunities are emerging in organisational behaviour which is

An employee is becoming older.

Expectations of the employee are quickly changing.

Loyalty towards organisations has faded away.

Competition is increasing day by day forcing the organisations to increase there productivity.

Globalisation of business is forcing staff to change themselves to new cultures and environment.

Thus, now a day organisational behaviour has taken a significant role in the organisation to handle the new challenges occurring throughout the world. Listed below are some critical matters facing managers for which organisational behaviour provide solution.

Diversity of Workforce-

Through organisations are becoming cosmopolitan yet people interact but maintain there separate identities.

Manager should learn to respect this diversity as it could assist in creating innovation and decision making in the organisation due to different perspectives on various issues.

Demographic of work force-

Couples of pursuing professional career which is hindering organisational versatility in getting and development talents.

Young people with professional qualification are joining the organisation as they are more preferred.

Young people are ambitious, enthusiastic and also have desire to have learning.

Employees expectations are changing-

Due to changes in the work force demographics employees' attitude, aspirations and expectations have also changed.

They do not look after job security, attractive wages, housing facilities and quality of working.

Employees require empowerment and quality of status.

Globalisation-

The internationalization of the business enterprise world has made a great effect on the organisations.

These days the managers must be more flexible and proactive as he has to deal with employees of other countries that have different needs and attitudes from there own country.

Even in there own country they need to face different problems due to dealing with people having different culture and background. Thus the manager need to know and understand their different culture and then adopt a suitable solution to get cooperation from them.

5. Organisational Behaviour Modification:

Definition of organisational behaviour modification by Robbins is- "Organisational behaviour modification is a programme where managers identify performance related employee behaviours and then implement an intervention technique to strengthen desirable behaviours and weaken undesirable behaviours".

Organisational behaviour modification meant for improving the organisational effectiveness.

It is derived and developed from the concept of skinner's operant conditioning.

If identifies eliminate or modify the undesirable behaviour and change it with the more desirable behaviour for goal attainment.

The manager should take notice of the overt behaviour of the individual and then modify it accordingly.

Steps in organisational behaviour modification:

Identify complex behaviour-

First identify the complex behaviour which does apply to organisational performance of the employee.

Complex or critical behaviours such as absenteeism, tardiness, complaints of not carrying out work etc; should be recognized through the employee and his superior.

Impact of the behaviour-

Now it is necessary to gauge the impact of such behaviour.

If the impact is under tolerable limit then it requires no action otherwise it is necessary to improve it.

Analysis of the behaviour

Now the analysis should be achieved which involve full examination of the behaviour of the employees.

This refers why an organisational behaviour modification is employed to change critical performance behaviour.

Intervention

An intervention strategy must deal with

the identified critical behaviour to change and

the factors leading to such behaviours

Evaluation

Finally it desire to evaluate the working of the intervention strategies and also to see that they are changing the undesirable behaviours for bettering the performance.

The positive change means that the strategies are successful otherwise other appropriate strategies should be applied to get the desired result.

6. Motivation:

The term motivation comes from the Latin word "moveve" this means to move. Motivation is exactly what drives a person into doing something. A lot of what we do is driven by the very thought of a potential reward, or a consequence can be apparent tangible benefits, such as financial reward; enjoyment; or the risk of the being recinded through loosing once job. There are also other benefits that are less obvious, but which still motivate visitors to take action such as an internal satisfaction; or feeling of achievement.

Grazier provides a useful referencing indicating that the expectation of a benefit is a major reason that somebody would be motivated to do something. "Every day brings with it an endless set of decisions to be made. The process of making those decisions is driven, in large part, by the hope of advantage of the fear of any consequence. "

The idea of motivation is related to, but distinct from other concepts, such as instincts, drives, and reflexes. Motivated behaviour is usually goal-oriented; the goal may be associated with a drive such as hunger or thirst (called primary motivation). However motivation is also closely tied to sensory stimuli: an animal won't usually exhibit eating behaviour unless food is presented. Unlike instinctive behaviour, motivation depends on affect. Finally motivation can be learned (in which particular case it is called secondary motivation) and typically elicits more complex behaviours then simple reflexes.

Motivation is

The force that compel visitors to move and instigate them to act.

To create an urge or desire to do some better performance.

To in calculate enthusiasm in them in order to take initiative in doing the work.

To generate the willingness to make use of there best effort in performing their work.

Thus, motivation is to include an act to get the desired goal. It is a process that motivates the drives or aspirations to attain some object. As a matter of fact performance depends upon motivation as it influences the productivity and quality of the work.

Definitions of Motivation:

1. "Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to perform desired goals".

- Scott

2. "Motivation refers to how urges, drives, desired, aspirations, strivings, needs direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings". - Mac Farland

3. "Motivation is an activity that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activities behaviour or a drive that is targeted at a goal or incentives".

- Fred Luthans

Characteristics of Motivation:

Motivation has very importance in each field of life. Below are a few characteristics of motivation

Motivation requires some urges of desires which may be fundamental or for ego-satisfaction.

Motivation is goal directed as it must fulfil some need.

Motivation starts by internal feeling of a person.

Motivation is the driving force to get satisfied for attaining some goals.

Motivation is a continuous process as all the needs aren't satisfied at the same time.

Motivation work in totality of a person.

Motivation is the main element in inspiring the employers.

Importance of Motivation:

Organisational efficiency of any organisation depends upon motivation. It is the most importance factor as it deals with the behaviour of the employees. Performance depends after behaviour which really is a combination of ability and motivation.

Thus, motivation is important as

It generates will to do the task. For example- a person has the capacity to do the work but if he is not willing to do it the capability becomes useless.

Resources in an organisation can be best utilized if the motivation is directed towards achieving the organisation goals.

Motivational plans within an organisation reduces labour problem i. e. , absenteeism or indiscipline etc.

Through motivation the organisation can increase its production and productivity as the employees will employ full efforts to utilize correct methods, systems, or technology effectively.

Motivation produces in staff to carry out the work allocated to them for achieving the target set by organisation.

Through motivation employees use fill knowledge and skills to complete the task satisfactorily so that the organisation can gratify their personal and social needs.

Thus, the motivation force is dynamic which must be satisfied by attaining the goal. Motivation requires effort which should persist and much more through the direction of goal. Further, motivation is vital within an organisation to increase the behaviour of its employees towards their work and direct them for obtaining them target set by organisation. The efficiency of work is also enhanced if folks are well motivated. As without motivation the technology systems and methods all becomes ineffective. To raise the efficiency and effectiveness associated with an organisation it's important to enhance the performance of its employees which may be determined by two factors

Level of Ability and

Affect of Motivation

These can be summarised the following performance = Ability*Motivation

Theories of Motivation:

The nature of humans is complex hence no generalization could be formed on motivation theories. Thus, the various theories of motivation are classified into main categories. These theories predicated on
Human needs theories by

Maslow

Herzberg

Mc Clelland

Human nature theories by

Mc Gregor

Quchi

Argyris

Expectancy of Human Beings theories by

Vroom

Porter and Lawler

Human Needs Theories

Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory:

It is based on human needs. The behaviour of the person at a particular time is usually depends after his strong need. A person first fulfils his basic needs and then seeks to fulfill other higher needs. Maslow believed that once a need is satisfied it no more serves to further motivate him. He was of the judgment that needs have priority. When lower level need is satisfied, other next more impressive range needs emerge. He arranged the basic human needs in a hierarchy the following

Physiological needs

Safety needs

Social needs

Esteem needs

Self actualisation needs

B. Human Nature Theories

Mc Gregor's Participation Theories:

The management's dealing with his employees in the organisation depends upon certain assumption and generalizations towards behaviour and nature of their employees. Mc Gregor has given two alternative views of human behaviour predicated on their participation as worker. They can be

Theory X- Negative Theory

Theory Y- Positive Theory

Theory X-

The following assumptions about human nature are negative in approach

People usually dislike and avoid work.

Need to be directed and controlled.

People are lazy and avoid responsibility.

Avoid leadership and prefer to be lead.

Lack of self motivation and ambition.

Theory Y-

The following assumptions about human nature are positive in approach

Have great prospect of work.

Can be motivated to accomplish organisational goals.

Self motivated and taken initiative.

People want to learn and show responsibility.

People want rewards, recognition and appreciation.

C. Expectancy of Human Beings Theories

Vroom's Theory of Expectancy:

This theory originated by Victor H. Vroom. It is a process theory which is concerned with topic "How motivation Occurs"? This theory handles the variables of motivation and their inter relationship. According to it motivation is the

Sum of most values which lead for some action.

Through it employee achieves some degree of his job performance.

His effort depends upon the results of his performance, i. e. , the reward or value he obtains to meet his goals.

It can be depicted the following

Employee-Effort-Performance-Reward

Thus, this theory suggests that your time and effort one places on a particular work to get the desired performance in getting the related value or reward.

7. How an organisation may benefit with motivation:

First class card at Ritz Carlton Hotel, Champs cards at Yum Brands, telephone calls from the CEO of Keyspan, and different celebrations once and for all performances at Panafric Hotel are designed to maintain and improve employee motivation. Motivation refers to the forces within somebody who affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour. 3 Motivated employees are prepared to extent a specific level of effort for a certain amount of a chance to ward a particular goal. Motivation is one of the four essential drivers of individual behaviour and performance and, consequently, is an integral element of employee engagement. An engaged workforce is an important predictor of organisation's competitiveness, so it is easy to see why employee motivation is constantly on your brain of corporate leaders.

The search for a motivated and engaged workforce is not easy, however. Most employer-92 percent of these, according to 1 major survey- say that motivating employees has become more difficult. Three factors seem to be in charge of the increasing challenge. First, globalization, it, corporate restructuring, and other challenge have considerably altered the employment relationship. These changes potentially undermine the levels of trust and commitment necessary to energize employees beyond minimum standard. 4

Second, in decade past companies typically relied on armies of supervisors to closely monitor employee behaviours and performance. Although commitment and trust were low, employees performed their jobs with the boss watching them closely. But most companies thinned their supervisory ranks when they flattened organisational structure to lessen cost. Supervisors will have many more employees, so they can not possibly keep a watchful eye out for laggards.

The third challenge is a new generation of employees has brought different expectations to the workplace. A few years ago various writers disparaged generation-X and generation-Y employees as slackers, cynics, whiners and malcontents. Now we realize that the situation wasn't their lack of motivational potential; it was that employers didn't know how to motivate them. It appears that many companies still haven't figured this out. According to 1 report more than 40 percent of employees aged 25 to 34 sometimes or frequently feel demotivated in comparison to thirty percent of 35 to 44 year olds and just 18 percent of 45 to 54 year olds. 5

Hotels and other firms are returning to good old fashioned praise and recognition to motivate staff. Share options can evaporate and incentive plans might backfire, but a few words of appreciation more often than not generate a warm glow of satisfaction and renewed energy. The challenge of recognition is to 'catch' employees doing extraordinary thins. Keyspan Corporation chairman Bob Catell resolves this by regularly asking managers for list of unsung heroes at the New England gas utility. He calls a worker weekly, often spending the first short while convincing the listener that the CEO is really calling. "They begin by saying, 'hey you can't fool me, this isn't Catell!' But once they realize it is me, they are pleased that I would take time to do that. "

Along with recognition from managers, approximately 1 / 3 of large American businesses rely on peer recognition as one way to motivate employees. Among them is Yum Brands Inc. , the parent company of KFC, Taco bell, and Pizza Hut. Yum's restaurants around the world use a recognition program in which employees reward colleagues with 'Champs' cards, an acronym for KFC's values. The Ritz Carlton Hotel in Kuala Lumpur, which is rated as among the finest places to work in Asia, applies a similar peer recognition process using First Class cards. Nancy Teoh, Ritz Carlton Kuala Lumpur's human resource manager, explains that "congratulatory message or words of appreciation are on paper by any member of the team to another and even as far as from the hotel and corporate senior leader. " Teoh adds, "This serves as a motivational facet of the work environment. "6

So motivation is vital for growth and better service in virtually any industry. I will explain importance of motivation through both of these case studies

Buddy's Snack Company is a family group owned company located in Rocky Mountains. Buddy forest started the business enterprise in 1951 by selling home made potato chips from the back of his pickup. Nowadays Buddy's is $36 million treats Company that is struggling to regain market share lost to Frito-Lay and other fierce competitors. In the early eighties Buddy passed the business to his son, Buddy Jr. , who is currently grooming his son, Mark to succeed himself as head of the company.

Six month ago Mark joined Buddy's Snacks as salesperson, and after four months he was quickly promoted to sales manager. Mark recently graduated from an area University with an MBA in marketing, and Buddy Jr. was hoping that mark would be able to implement strategies that may help turn the business around. Once Mark's initial strategies was to introduce a fresh sales performance management system. As part of this process, any salesperson who receives a bellow average performance rating would be required to attend a mandatory coaching session along with his or her supervisor. Mark forest is hoping that these coaching sessions will motivate employees to increase their sales. This case describes the reaction of three salespeople who've been required to attend a coaching session for their low performance over the previous quarter.

(Russell Casey, Clayton State University, and Gloria Thompson, University of Phoenix)

Mergers have roared back corporate America, and with them attended highly lucrative payouts for the executives who triggered or accepted the acquisitions. One of these is Gillette CEO James M. Kilts, who received an impressive $165 million, including commodity and severance, for selling the razor maker to Procter & Gamble. Bruce L. Hammonds, CEO of MBNA Corp. , was apparently promised $102 million regarding the the mastercard company's acquisition by Bank of America Corp. Further behind but nonetheless well ahead of the average employee's lifetime income is Toys 'R' Us Inc. CEO John H. Eyler, who'll receive cash and benefits worth about $63 million when the struggling toy retailers is bought by an investment group. But several observers say these special perks are blatantly unfair. Others point out that bonuses perversely reward people who made the company susceptible to takeover. 7

(Business Week)

8. Conclusion:

Understanding the behaviour of organisations arises from combining the fundamentals of the sciences or disciplines indicated with a number of more general and overtly subjective assertions. The full total picture is incomplete, ever-changing and continually developing. The drive is therefore towards as complete an understanding as it can be rather than absolute illumination. This understanding is based on the application of ways of research and inquiry that are capable of relative evaluation. This also concerns the validation and consistency of results and conclusions, specially when the divergent and conflicting nature of the several perspectives is known as. Ultimately, conclusions and predictions about human, and therefore organisational, behaviour are always subject to measures of uncertainty and interpretation.

Organisation behaviour is vital running a business and our personal life as well. We must organise everything. I have to attend class then want to study at home then assignment, everything should be organised and ditto applied in Company.

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