The dissimilarities of bureaucratic and non bureaucratic organisations

Organization is two or more people who interact to attain organizational goals and targets successfully and effectively. Also it can identify as non-random set up of components or parts interconnected in a manner concerning constitute something identifiable as a device. In an organization, they use organizational structures for their works. We are able to identify there are three traditional organizational design such as simple, useful, divisional. Organizations face more durability and weakness in these set ups. Nowadays they try to ignore that weakness and develop these organizational designs as Team structure, Matrix structure, Job framework, Boundary less structure and Learning composition.

Using those modern day organizational designs organizations gain there a wide range of advantages. Employees tend to be more engaged and empowered, Reduce obstacles among useful areas, liquid and flexible design that can react to environmental changes, faster decision making, highly adaptable and responsive, pulls on talent wherever it's found, organization can manage environmental changes and employees feel absolve to make decisions are advantages. So, contemporary organizational designs are much better than traditional organizational constructions to the organizations.

"Organizational composition is the formal platform where job jobs are divided, grouped, and coordinated". When professionals develop or change and organization's framework, they are involved in organizational design, an activity which involves decisions about six key elements:

Work Specialization

Departmentalization

Chain of Command

Span of Control

Centralization and Decentralization

Formalization

Organizational design is engaged when managers develop or change an organization's structure. Organizational Design is a process which involves decisions about the next six key elements:

i). Work Specialization

Describes the amount to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs. The primary idea of this organizational design is an complete job is not done by one person. It is broken down into steps, and a different person completes each step. Specific employees specialize in doing part of a task rather than the complete activity.

ii). Departmentalization

It is the basis by which careers are grouped mutually. For instance every corporation has its own specific way of classifying and grouping work activities.

There are five common kinds of departmentalization:

a). as shown in the Shape, it groups jobs Functional Departmentalization by functions performed. It could be used in all sorts of organizations; it will depend on the goals all of them wants to achieve.

iii). String of Command

It is thought as a continuous line of authority that stretches from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who records to whom. You will discover three important ideas mounted on this theory:

Authority: Identifies the privileges inherent in a let people what to do also to expect those to undertake it.

Responsibility

Unity of command line should are accountable to only one supervisor.

iv). Span of Control

It is important to a big degree since it determines the number of levels and professionals an organization has. Also, determines the amount of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively control.

v). Centralization and De-Centralization

vi). Formalization

It identifies the amount to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which staff behavior is guided by guidelines and techniques.

BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE

A structure with highly tedious operating jobs achieved through specialization, much formalized regulations, duties that are grouped into functional departments, centralized specialist, small spans of control, and decision making that practices the chain of command line.

In large organizations and under well identified conditions, organization composition may be bureaucratic. The essential elements of a bureaucratic business are:

The use of standard methods and methods for undertaking work; and

A high amount of control to ensure standard performance.

Mintzberg (1981) has recognized two types of bureaucracies. They are standard and career al bureaucracy. Standard bureaucracy is dependant on efficient performance of standardized daily habit work. Professional bureaucracy is dependent upon successful performance of standardized but complex work. Thus, it requires a higher degree of particular skills. The framework of standard bureaucracy is dependant on functions, large technological staff and many mid-level managers. In contrast, professional bureaucracy has few mid-level managers.

Strengths

Functional economies of scale

Minimum duplication of employees and equipment

Enhanced communication

Centralized decision making

Weaknesses

Subunit issues with organizational goals

Obsessive nervous about rules and regulations

Lack of employee discretion to cope with problems

QUESTION - 3:

Assess and take a look at advantages and drawbacks of your determined style in your organisation

Types of Organizational Structure

In making organizational design decisions, professionals have some common structural designs to choose from. Mostly we consider about two organizational designs. These are:

Traditional organizational structure

Contemporary organizational framework.

Traditional Organizational Structure

When we consider the traditional organizational design, especially there are three major types of buildings. They are simply can be stated out:

Simple structure

Functional structure

Divisional structure

Disadvantages

Lack of flexibility to changing mission needs/swiftly changing world

Internal and exterior communication obstacles (ideas aren't communicated)

Slow/Low-quality in responding to customer requirements

Failure to get things done

Customers/Sellers have a hard time dealing with the organization (multiple/unknown contacts)

Due to above reasons they need to move in creative ways to structure and organize works and to make their of customers, employees and other organizational constituents. On this century, there tend to be favourable concepts that contain being made, especially credited to global village concept almost all of organizations have with their organizational structures in order to achieve their overall targets through making employees' job satisfaction. Which means contemporary structure is employed by organizations.

Simple Structure

A simple structure is defined as a design with spans of control, centralized power, and little formalization. This type of design is quite typical in small start up businesses. For example in a company with few employees the dog owner is commonly the manager and regulates a function of the business. Often employees work in all parts of the business and do not just give attention to one job creating little if any departmentalization. In this kind of design there are usually no standardized insurance policies and steps. When the business begins to increase then the composition tends to are more complex and increases out of the simple framework.

Functional Structure

The functional firm, shown in Body, is a structure in where power rests with the efficient heads; the structure is sectioned by departmental communities. Staff members are divided to teams (e. g. financial, planning, public relations, executive, legal etc) according to their specialised a few of these communities can be further subdivided into smaller efficient groups.

For example, the Anatomist Section may be further subdivided into Mechanical Anatomist and Electrical Anatomist Units.

The main good thing about this organizational structure is that each practical group has complete control over its section of the task, enforcing in this manner the application of standards across tasks. The down sides of the useful organization are that of swiftness, flexibility communication when attempting cross-functional jobs. Since in an operating organization the work is divided between the departments, any query or demand must be handed down among department mind for approval, causing in this way delays. Furthermore, the re project is shared one of the functional professionals (head of the departments) and this may cause insufficient ultimate responsibility for task management.

Divisional Structure

A divisional structure is made up of separate, semi divisions. Within one corporation there could be numerous divisions and each department has its goals to accomplish. A manager oversees their department and is comp lately in charge of the success or failing of the department. This gets man agers to target more on results knowing that they will be held in charge of them. 12 causing in this way de lays. In addition, the duty of taking care of the task is shared one of the functional professionals (brain of the departments) and this may cause lack of ultimate responsibility for project management.

Contemporary Organizational Designs

The versatile structural methods that job jobs are divided, grouped, and coordinated for reaction to energetic environmental factors.

To face highly energetic and complicated environment the modern-day organizational structure is very important. In response to advertise place demands to be lean, adaptable and progressive current group s use these contemporary structures.

Team structure

Matrix structure

Project structure

Boundary less organizations

Network organizations

Modular organizations

Virtual organizations

Learning organizations

Team Structure

In the team bottom structure, the complete organization comprises of work organizations or teams that perform the organization's work. Within the team base framework, employee's empowerment is vital because there is no type of managerial authority from top to bottom. Rather, employee clubs are absolve to design work in the way think is best. However, the clubs are also kept accountable for all work activity and performance results their respected areas.

In large organizations, the team framework complement what is typically a functional or divisional structure. This enables the organizations to own efficiency of any bureaucracy while providing the flexibility that team provide to improve production at the functional level.

Examples for team structure

In marketing field sales team is use this team based structure. Also forces use this team structure.

Team based composition usually practice in unbranded products, like furniture, electric accessories, and cosmetic makeup products.

Advantages

Easy Integration.

Since it is the most popularly used form of team company it is straightforward to integrate. That is so, because every creator has experience with such a composition and comprehends their role within it.

Better Management,

More Control, since the entire team is in physical form within the same building, communication reaches its peak, since face-to-face communication is by way the most practical method in every situations. The physicality of the team composition typically means it is easier to find and solve issues alongside one another. It is also better to spawn a team spirit, particularly in crunch cycles, which can spark increased determination.

Greater output,

In a team structured structure there are numerous skills and capacity individuals give their contribution create a great outcome.

Disadvantages

Significant Overheads

Of course selecting a complete team and getting or renting work place with all that complements it (i. e. electricity, computer systems) a studio room will run high overheads. Actually, overheads can amount to a quarter of the budget on some productions, which is an incredibly high ratio of cost

Arising issues,

Team based structure business lead to opinion conflicts among team members.

Matrix Structure

The matrix composition of modern day organizational constructions assigns specialist from different practical departments to work on a number of projects.

In matrix framework one worker should report to two managers. Therefore the employee faces turmoil when they address their superiors. To whom must i report firstly, to whom must i obey or directly responsible for efficient department's manager and their product or job manager who discuss authority. The job managers have power over the efficient people who are part with their project team in area relative to the project's goals. However decisions such as marketing promotions, salary recommendations and twelve-monthly reviews stay the efficient manager's responsibilities. To work well, project and practical managers have to converse regularly, organize work needs on employees and solve conflicts jointly.

Matrix Organizational Structure

On the other hand the two managers impact to the staff so the worker should want with their works in correct way. By using matrix framework can set up high control and better guidance throughout the project period. It may helps to increase job performance and effectiveness.

In matrix composition we can simply get high performance since there is skilled, capability full and experienced employees result from different functional departments.

This framework is most effective to accomplish overall organizational goals. It brings about increase job satisfaction, experience and understanding of the employees.

Project Structure

An organizational composition in which employees continuously focus on assignments is a project structure. Within a project structure has no formal departments to which employee come back at the conclusion of a task. Instead employees take their specific skills, abilities and experience to other work job.

In addition, all work activities in job buildings are performed by groups of employees who become part of any job team because they have got the appropriate work skills and ability.

Project structure is commonly fluid and versatile organizational designs. There is no departmentalization or rigid organizational hierarchy to decelerate decision making or taking actions.

Ex-: Information Systems build by using task structure, Constructions

Project structure reduces job boredom, because they work different assignments, and less work specialty area. Although matrix structure work well and continued to be effective structure design choice for many organizations are employing more advance types project framework, in which employees continuously work on tasks. Unlike the matrix composition, a project structure does not have any formal departments to which employees returning at the conclusion of a project. Instead, staff take there specific skills, capabilities and encounters to other work assignments. Furthermore, all work activities in project structures are performed by clubs of worker who become part of your job team because they have got the correct work skills and talents.

In this types of constructions managers serve as facilitators, mentors and coaches. They "serve the project teams through the elimination of or lessening organizational hurdles and by ensuring that team has the resources they need to effectively and proficiently complete their work.

QUESTION - 2:

Assess and choose which style is suited to your selected company any why?

BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATIONS

In a boundaryless group, the restrictions that divide employees such as hierarchy, job function, and geography as well as the ones that distance companies from suppliers and customers are broken down. A boundaryless group seeks to eliminate vertical, horizontal, and exterior obstacles so that employees, professionals, customers, and suppliers can work together, discuss ideas, and identify the best ideas for the organization.

What will be the boundaries?

Vertical

Boundaries between tiers within an corporation Classic Example: Armed forces company Problem: Someone in less layer has a useful idea; "Chain of demand" Mentality

Horizontal

Which boundaries exist between organization efficient units? Each device has one function.

Problem: Each device boost their own goals but not the entire goal of the Organization

External

Here are external barriers between your organization and the outside world (customers, suppliers, other government entities, special interest categories, neighborhoods). Customers will be the most capable of identifying major problems in the organization and are interested in alternatives. Problem: Lose vision of the client needs and company requirements

Geographic

Barriers among organization units located in several countries Rather than being organized around functions with many hierarchical levels, the boundaryless company is made up of self-managing and cross-functional groups that are planned around main business procedures that are critical for satisfying customers such as new-product development or materials handling. The original vertical hierarchy is flattened and substituted by levels of clubs making the organization look more horizontal than vertical. Some believe that the boundaryless organization is the perfect organizational structure for the 21st century.

Types of boundary less Organizations

Network Organizations

In a network company, various functions are coordinated all the by market mechanisms as by professionals and formal lines of authority. Emphasis is located on who can do what most effectively and financially alternatively than on set ties dictated by an organizational chart. All the assets necessary to produce a completed product or service can be found in the network as a whole, not presented in-house by one company.

Virtual Organizations

The most interesting sites are energetic or electronic organizations. In a virtual firm an alliance of independent companies discuss skills, costs, and usage of one another's markets. It contains a network of regularly evolving self-employed companies. Each partner in a online company contributes only in its area of core competencies. The key benefit of network and virtual organizations is their versatility and adaptability.

The Modular Organization

A modular business is an group that functions a few primary functions and outsources noncore activities to specialists and suppliers. Services that are often outsourced include the manufacture of parts, trucking, catering, data processing, and accounting. Thus, modular organizations are like hubs that are surrounded by networks of suppliers that may be added or removed as needed. By outsourcing noncore activities, modular organizations are able to keep device costs low and develop services quicker. They work best when they concentrate on the right area of expertise and also have good suppliers.

Learning Organizations

The idea of a Learning Organizations doesn't involve a specific organizational design. Learning Organizations can be an organization which has a developed the capacity to continuously adopt and change because all people take an active role in discovering and resolving work related issues. Within a Learning Organizations, employees are practicing knowledge management continuously acquiring and showing new knowledge and are prepared to apply that knowledge to make decisions or performing works. Some organizational designs theorists even go as far as to say that an organization's ability to do this-that is, to learn and apply that learning as they perform the organization's work will be the only sustainable way to obtain competitive benefit.

In a Learning Business, it is a crucial for members to share information and collaborate on work activities throughout the whole firm, across different useful specialties and even at different organizational levels. This is done by lessening or eliminating the existing structural and physical restrictions. In this kind of boundaryless environment, employees are absolve to work together and collaborate in doing the organizations work the simplest way they can and to learn from one another. Because of this need to collaborate, teams also tend to be an important feature of a learning organization's structural design. Employees work in teams on whatever activities need to be done, and these staff teams are empowered to make decisions about doing their work or resolving issues.

With these empowered employees and groups, there's little dependence on "bosses" to direct and control. Authority plays an important role as an organization moves to become a learning organization. Market leaders should accomplish the creation of the shred perspective for the organization's future and then keeping organizational associates working towards that eye-sight.

Also organizational culture is an important aspect to be a learning organization. A learning organization's culture is one where everyone agrees on the shared perspective and everyone recognizes the natural interrelationship among the list of organization's process, activities, functions and external environment. In learning organizations, employees feel absolve to openly communicate, show, experiment, and find out without concern with criticism or consequence.

Learning can't take place without information. To get a learning group to "learn", information must be shared among participants, that is organizational participants must take part in knowledge management.

Company Summary - WATEEN Telecom

Mission Statement

To provide affordable communication services that matches and exceeds customers' requirements

To deliver top quality, flexible and impressive solutions those are affordable and conducive

To provide complete client satisfaction promptly, every time

Vision

To bring in Wateen Telecom in the Western european and North American markets and provide the best telecommunications international voice services by having a world-class reducing- advantage network to deliver a broad selection of reliable, affordable and quality customer- centric services.

Corporate Values

Simplicity: Useful and easy-to-use

Satisfaction: Client satisfaction is foremost

Quality: Top services; no compromises

Innovation: Always at par with the latest technology

Honesty: Practice everything we preach: integrity, ethics and wide open communication

Wateen's Organizational Structure

As shown in Number, Wateen's organizational composition can be divided into 2 parts: you are Business Units where the sub-units are segregated based on Product Departmentalization, and the Administrative Systems are categorized predicated on Functional Departmentalization.

Business Units will be the "money-making" departments or divisions that are directly involved with the products of the company; and the Administrative Systems will be the departments that organize Wateen's daily business operation activities.

Within the Business Devices, there are 8 sub-units:

QCT (Wateen CDMA Technologies) builds up and suppliers CDMA-based included circuits and system software for wireless speech and data communications, multimedia system functions and global setting system product.

QTL (Wateen Technology Licensing) grants licenses to make use of Wateen's intellectual property, including certain patent rights necessary to or useful in the processing, sales and use of CDMA-based products.

QSI (Wateen Strategic Initiatives) makes strategic investments in projects that concentrate on worldwide adoption of 3G wireless communications technologies (voice and data) and products serving consumers, the venture and all customers of the cordless value chain such as wireless network operators, device and equipment manufacturers, and application and content providers.

QIS (Wateen Internet Services) provides technology to aid and accelerate the convergence of cellular data, Internet and speech services.

QWBS (Wateen Wireless Business Solutions) provides companies around the globe with industry-leading flexibility platforms, applications and services that accelerate business. These products serve a variety of industries, including vehicles and logistics, third-party logistics, structure, petroleum, retail, food and drink, and medical.

QTV (Wateen Technology and Endeavors) offers the MediaFLO system enabling wireless multi-media services and supports Wateen's objective of permitting and fostering CDMA and cordless Internet market segments through strategic ventures in privately-owned start-up projects.

QGOV (Wateen Administration Technologies) supplies the Unites States government with secure wireless communications solutions using CDMA, Wimax and other Wateen technologies. Through administration funded R&D, QGOV is creating leading-edge security technology with the introduction of the QSec-2700, a 3G secure mobile.

QCTest and Deployment Products. Wateen's focus is the creation of products that ultimately lower licensee and carrier operator costs while enabling the quickest deployment of the latest technology.

The Administrative Devices consist of the following departments:

Human Learning resource Department

Marketing Department

Financial Department

Global Development Department

Those departments coordinate the company's business functions worldwide and offer necessary resources to the production operations.

Conclusion

At first glimpse, Wateen appears to utilize two types of traditional designs in its composition. One is Useful Structure that pertains to its Administrative Models where departmentalization is dependant on the function of the departments. The other is Divisional Framework which applies to its Business Units where each division's teams are accountable for performance and have strategic and functional authority as the top management functions as an exterior overseer to organize and control the many divisions.

However, Wateen also shows signs of Contemporary Organizational Design. By exhibiting the characteristics of an team structure, a design in which an organization is made up of groups that work toward a goal, Wateen could provide expertise in every specific field. Also, characteristics of the Learning Organization are thrown in to the combination. Wateen was named Organization of the entire year by the North american World for Training and Development in 2000. By obtaining this honor, Wateen demonstrated that they are a firm that builds on learning and development. This reputation highlights Wateen's determination to employee development and their concentrate on supporting learning with the overall business goals.

Although Wateen does show some kind of traditional organizational design characteristics, their website state governments: "We encourage teamwork while reinforcing the value of individuality to enhance our inclusive atmosphere and to leverage imagination. Despite our rapid development, we work hard to stay away from the chains of bureaucracy and keep our entrepreneurial, free- spirited culture, " which implies that Wateen has developed into a semi- modern-day organizational design.

QUESTION - 4:

Explain the skills necessary for management work and list according to their importance.

Preface

Ref#1 - Being a new manager-what a responsibility you took on! You might be thinking that the positioning sounded wonderful when it was offered, and now the reality has set in. You not have only a huge amount of work to accomplish, much more than you performed as an individual contributor, nevertheless, you have each one of these people who work in your brand-new organization for whom you now have responsibility as well. Where does one start?

The best place to start is to understand how to make use of your direct reports to enable you to reach your necessary results through them. For without them, you won't ever be successful.

Whether you work for a non-profit, for-profit, educational institute or the federal government or own your own business and also have employees for the reason that business, the abilities introduced in this book will help you become a far better manager. As a highly effective manager using these skills, your direct reports will become more determined and capable and can enable you to reach your desired results.

Introduction

When incorporated into the day-to-day activities-allow you to boost your ability to control your direct reviews. To gain the best learning out of this process, it is effective to consider your current work situation, or the new position of manager to which you might aspire, and identify situations that you believe are or will be the most difficult so that you can address. These circumstances might be specific interactions that have made difficulty that you should become successful such as letting a direct survey know that he needs improvement in his communication with customers or knowing what, when, also to whom to delegate a project. It could even be a meeting that hasn't yet happened, but one in which you may anticipate some soreness, such as providing a final appraisal.

As you think of your own obstacles, write them down on the chart on the next page and then prioritize them to be able of importance to your success. Quite simply, list the most urgent, important, and difficult situations that you want to conquer.

Defining Your Role

As we consider the manager's role in today's business environment, it's important to put the subject into the framework of what has happened-and is happening-in our world of work, because managers in today's business community can't simply emulate professionals of days gone by and expect the same degree of success. The manager's role is more challenging today than in the past due to numerous changes that are happening in today's world. These changes are more technical, more recurrent, and faster than ever before. In this chapter, we will:

Review the business trends which may have an impact on management efforts

Clarify the functions and duties of manager

Identify what's needed to create the ''right'' environment for success

Eight Management Skills of Effective Managers

1. Leader

The leader appears beyond the current day-to-day work requirements and determines where her business must go. Leaders move their organizations forwards by thinking strategically about the directions they need to take. They form relationships beyond the organization to build and keep maintaining the reputation of the organization.

2. Director

The director is able to define an issue and take the effort to determine a remedy. Using planning and goal-setting skills, the director determines what to delegate and ensures that individuals understand what these are being asked to do.

3. Contributor

The contributor is likely to be task focused and work targeted, making certain his own private productivity is taken care of along with motivating others to make sure that their organization's efficiency is at its highest potential.

4. Coach

The instructor is employed in the development of people by setting up a caring, empathetic orientation: being helpful, considerate, hypersensitive, approachable, wide open, and reasonable.

5. Facilitator

The facilitator fosters a collective effort for the business, building cohesion and teamwork, and managing interpersonal turmoil.

6. Observer

The observer pays attention to the proceedings in the machine, determining if people are meeting their goals, and enjoying to see that the unit is get together its goals. The observer is also in charge of understanding what's important for the team to know and ensuring that information overload will not occur.

7. Innovator

The innovator facilitates version and change, watching the changing environment, identifying trends impacting the organization, and, then, identifying needed changes for the success of the business.

8. Organizer

The organizer takes responsibility for planning work, managing tasks and structures, and then following up to ensure that what's committed to is completed by going to to technical needs, staff coordination, problems handling, etc.

Management functions by Henry Mintzberg and h

Ref#2 - The main functions of the management are:

Planning

Organizing

Controlling

Leading

Planning:

Specifying goals to be performed and organizing how to meet them examining current situation, gathering and analyzing information

Organizing:

Devising and allocating functions for individual position within the managers scope of work obtaining and allocating resources delegation - assigning obligations and responsibility to subordinates for results determining the assignments and expert of personal

Leading:

Motivating visitors to powerful, directing and conversing with people helping and inspire then toward attaining team and organizational goals

Controlling:

Set and keep an eye on performance the typical of improvement toward goals indentifying performance problems by contrasting data against expectations.

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