This proposal presents my research on the above topic. We can look into how HR managers can boost a organization and also the turnover rate of the career in the air travel is generally high for cabin crews and staff retention is definitely a issue that happen in many companies in several mother nature of business and sometimes it is not only the pay that created such problem. Basically, I have structured the proposal into three different sections, for easier understanding and become organised.
Firstly, in the Books Review section, it'll explain on the theory of optimization of the company and personnel retention, which include memorable quotation, diagrams and attractive examples.
Secondly, in the study methodology section, it'll concentrate on type and characteristics of the study, description study, the choice of research tool and the study restrictions will be included.
Thirdly, in the Demonstration and Talk section, it will analyse the data that is gathered previously and present my research result by demonstrating the relationship with recognized facts and also the key issues that Singapore airline encounters.
2. 0 Books REVIEW
It presents a summary of the academic books on my chosen issue and serves to inform my research. In addition, it develops my understanding of chosen subject and helps me understand the company and issue better.
2. 1 Optimization
Premji (2006) define Search engine optimization "As the utilizing of firm resources well, at high efficiency and allows the organization to attain the desired final results". This is define as attaining or getting the entire use of utilization efficiency and the efficiency.
Above is the diagram which ultimately shows the partnership of the efficiency, usage and efficiency as mention before. Through the diagram, we can recognize that the change of any one of the factor the other factor may be changes as well. Which means that for us to understand the performance of the company, we must have views in several aspects as all the factors are associated. For instance, if usage is very low, then both efficiency and effectiveness won't achieve any results therefore you will see no benefits that may be extracted from it.
Very often, if the business goals for the effect is being achieved, it will tend to forget about the value of the other factors. Business should not overlook the factors in order to better make themselves to attain the future results.
2. 1 Efficiency
According to Premji (2006), Efficiency is defined as "how well are you using what you are employing. " It is also known as the percentage of end result and type.
This diagram shows the procedure of the insight which resulted in output by the end than it. Usually in an organization, employee can be classified into three main categories:
Output oriented people
Input focused people
Efficiency focused people
2. 1. 1 End result Oriented People
Output focused people are people who try all ways or whatever allows them to get marketing campaign results that they desired. These folks try to get the most out of the output and using any ways they can to the type and process. It's important to comprehend that the end result is actually distinct from marketing campaign results. Therefore, with maximize result will not necessary achieve good results. Generally the outcome oriented people use more than what the price ought to be to get yourself a good result, however they will not see it. As HR administrator, he/she have to ensure that the company resources are fully utilized and really should do not employ output focused people or creating such people in the business.
2. 1. 2 Source Oriented People
Input focused people are known as workaholics. They often concentrate on the type and the attempts, they believe by creating more suggestions it'll lead to a good end result. Success to them are enjoying their work and work as hard as they could to attain the desire result. As HR manager, they should recruit a fair percentage of the people, as they are in a position to perform the instructions given to them due to their working frame of mind.
2. 1. 2 Efficiency Oriented People
Efficiency focused people are people who have confidence in a return following the investment. Generally, they target in make full use of the efficiency either to obtain a high end result for a degree of insight given or less to accomplish a equivalent of result. As HR manager, who ensures that organization resources are being used, should make an effort to work with and groom a more substantial percentage of efficiency-oriented employee in the organization. With the mixture of input-oriented and efficiency focused people, the business performance is achievable.
2. 2 Utilization
Premji (2006) will specify Usage as the way of measuring "how much are you using out of what you have. " This means that one should devote whatever you have rather than to miss out any opportunities.
Utilization and Efficiency are carefully linked and help each other. For instance in an instance whereby there's a dependence on a reduced amount of input, and because of the increased in effieciency, the 'extra' type can be utilized in somewhere else, due to utilization. The partnership between Usage and Efficiency make a difference an company performance. If organisations focus on Efficiency orientation without usage focus, it will lead to use efforts that give good returns. Alternatively, if organisations maintain Utilization emphasis without Efficiency orientation, will lead to using all available resources, without achieving adequate returns.
2. 3 Effectiveness
An organization's capacity to achieve the required end result is known as Effectiveness. This can be related to gains, expansion, customer satisfaction, branding and many more. In an company, teams often place a results as their goals.
From the above diagram, visualizing the three factors that work on different purposes:
Utilization deal with resources and efforts
Efficiency concerned with number and quality output
Effectiveness is all about desired results
Utilization and Efficiency will be the internal areas of an organization, Success brings in the clients view and gives an exterior aspect to the Marketing. Effectiveness relates to the what the organization wants to achieve. For example, if organization's dreams are low, end results can be easily be performed, therefore effectiveness can be high.
Premji (2006:9) point out that "Effectiveness in an organization is focused on "knitting jointly" the individual components with the strategy to achieve the end result. " But there are two important conditions to be looked at:
Individual components must be good.
Components must be knitted well along.
The diagram below will show a much better notion of "knitting together":
Coverage of Effectiveness
UtilizationWith higher success, it generally does not only helps to achieve the expected results but also reduce the required end result from carious operations, to attain the same expected final results.
On another hands, Hayes (2010) view performance from a new aspect, he defined it as:
Purpose: Income are usually used to measure the organization effectiveness but not to all or any the organisation. For example the government medical center, the potency of hospitals will be on the ready time and services provided and not the profits from it. Hence, as manger, must identify the primary performance indicators that reflect the goal of the organization.
Stakeholder point of view: Different stakeholder uses different signals to guage an organization's performance. Using their company point of views, revenue may be their main concern or rather the most crucial factor, but from the wider community of view, such as customer, staff and supplier, they can be afflicted by products and services produced. Every person have different views. The inability to manage the business key stakeholders conception, it could threaten the business.
Level of analysis: By only focusing on the entire performance may led to inefficiencies being detected. Efficiency can be assessed at different levels, including the organization level, division level and individual.
Alignment: Examination of effectiveness have to be associated across the organization.
At this point, it will be good to distinguish between efficiency and efficiency, for better understanding all the factors, Carnall (2003) identifies efficiency as obtaining mentioned goals within given resources constraints. And the definition of performance includes the good use of resources to attain goals but also the need to adjust to changing to be able to stay efficiency.
2. 4 Optimized Organization
Peter F. Drucker (1993) defines business as: "Business is an activity which turns a resource, particular knowledge into a contribution of financial value on the market place. " As talk about earlier on, Optimization is high Usage, high Efficiency and high Success.
The desk below shows the nine possible combinations of Utilization, Efficiency and Success on a two point of range high and low:
Something fundamentally incorrect.
Organization not ambitious enough
Lot of wastage
Can reduce resources
Weak knitting together
In finish of the table, it is inadequate to just focus on one factor and the factors weren't handle properly, it may lead to a reduction of marketing. All three factors should be maximises as a practice alternatively than as a a reaction to issues.
2. 5 Staff retention
Jennifer A Carsen (2005) defines retention as "how many of your current employees hang in there over confirmed period of time". However, retention may well not always be a very important thing for the business this is in order retention may include poor performers, unsatisfied staff and also require been caught up in the work due to funds. Retention is focused on retaining the good staff in the organisation. Retention could also weeding out of poor performers and keeping space for the better ones.
2. 6 Office diversity
Jennifer A Carsen (2005), As the labor force continues to diversify, organisation must take similar employment opportunity to be able to stay competitive. Company should not only employ staff of different race, culture, gender, age group, love-making but also to comprehend the ways that they can respect the staff worth, expectations and capabilities. Relating to Jennifer A Carsen (2005) there are five reasons why the staff choose to leave the company:
Staff receive no convincing reasons to stay : They don't feel a sense of belonging into the organisation that they are in.
Career limiting stereotypes : Some personnel may believe that they are simply incompetent or not qualified, they have the pressure of proving their competencies even though they have good performance in their job range this therefore limit their job journey as whatever they do do not seem to be to be the best to the organisation and they believe that it is hard for them to progress.
Poor guidance : Many superiors have no idea how to handle their staff. Just how superiors handle personnel and resolving problems do have a great impact to the personnel too. For instance, if the staff sensed that the superiors did not handle the issues fairly they may then choose to give up their job.
Unclear and misaligned profession path : Personnel is unclear or unsure about their profession path and when they do not know who in the company owns the profession planning process.
"Safe" projects, unclear goals: Personnel weren't given with challenging jobs. Also, they are matter about the unclear or shifting jobs performance conditions.
2. 6 Instilling diversity principles
In order to achieve personnel retention, the organisation should put into action the key points provided by Jennifer A Carsen (2005).
Obtain commitment at the very top : This is to accomplish responsibility to all or any the levels especially the management in order to bring the execution a success.
Hold management accountable: Performance reviews and incentives award should be done by the management. Professionals should treat all personnel with esteem and dignity.
Reward those who embody the workforce diversity rules : Usually do not reward those who have failed to perform the principles. Pay back should be done fairly.
Encourage employee contribution : Using the management alone to handle the concepts is not enough. Organisation also needs to encourage their staff to words out and also allow them to play a role in implementing the principles.
3. 0 Research Methodology
A questionnaire (See appendix 1) is conducted for data collection. It engaged around 100 cabin crews therefore the total selections of the questionnaire were 100 copies.
Generally the questionnaires were conducted through lots of ways. First of all, the questionnaires are distributed out through email or hard-copy to the cabin crews by making use of a friend who is also a cabin crew of SIA. Subsequently, undertaking observation on the day to day activities occurring in the air port whereby the cabin crews are always around there, and with a tiny discourse group (3-5 people). Last but not least, arranging a short interview procedure with the many seniority of crews, these enhance the value of information that I have gathered as important info such as organization's search engine optimization, retention and the ways these crews work.
3. 1 Explanation Study
Description Study act as helpful information to the analysts in obtaining the data through the data collection :
Contacting good friend who for help, a covering notice with a summary of the study goal with a question of the interviewee need was distribute via email.
Getting the interviewee aspect with a follow up phone call in which the researchers should clarify the aim with an increase of information and answer to any inquiries.
Prepared for the Questionnaire and begin sending it out through via email or hard-copy to all the interviewees who may have responded.
A notice of gratitude was send out to all the interviewees and follow up with the deadline indicated.
Do a follow up action by calling all the interviewees if it is essential for more enquires. For example, a imperfect questionnaire.
Sending questionnaire one more time to the interviewee who've yet to answer.
Researcher shall use both personal and camaraderie circles while looking for individuals who are either working at HR departments or those who have recruiting experience. The researcher would need to speak to the HR team, the associates to see whether if they would like to participate or interested in the project as stated to them. With the contact details provided by the non-public or friendship circles, the researcher may email or delivered to the respondent to create a little group to see the day to day routine with their work or operation. With addition, a interview period will also be conducted with chosen interviewees, mainly with people of different seniority, to enhance the worthiness of the information which had been gathered through the questionnaire and the discussion group. The interview treatment is conducted predicated on 4 degree of cabin crews within SIA, from airline flight stewardess, leading stewardess, chief stewardess and in-flight supervisor. In conclusion, the research test includes 4 representatives from the cabin team line. To keep anonymity, personal details of the interviewees havent been brought up.
3. 2 Research Rational
Questionnaire (See Appendix 1) was being chosen for my research because it is very cost saving and useful as compare to other methodology of the data gathering. And this also strategy allows the interviewees to complete the questionnaire during their free time and they may feel convenient to give the solution of what they really noticed as this questionnaire is anonymity. Interviewees are required to complete a self applied administered questionnaire, with 75% questions predicated on a 5 point size is employed to measure the factors. The constructs are measured predicated on the multi-items scales (MIS) rather than solo item scales (SIS), as MIS allows the response to become more specific to be averaged out when put together.
According to Anderson and Narus (1990), to increase the response ratethe questionnaire should be distribute double. The interviewees will be given a due date of two wweks following the questionnaire had been distribute. If no response was done after one week questionnaire will be send out for the second time.
3. 3 Research Limitation
The limitation of using questionnaire is expected the following:
Slow- Feedback: the interviewees do not act in response or send the questionnaire prior to the deadline. Generally, take a longer time.
Below Expected Consequence: Distribute to 100 cabin crews, likely to acquire 90% - 100% but only received 50% replies.
Incomplete Questionnaire Form Gathered: A number of the questionnaire is not completed especially under personal particular section and Question 4, about 40 % of the respondents leave it empty or place " NIL"
Difficulty in Gathering Questionnaire end result: Gathering of the results may be hard as the questionnaire are either send again via email or manually therefore a manual admittance is require to type or gather the data obtain.
4. 0 Demonstration and Discussion
In this section, I will check out the search engine optimization and also personnel retention as mention in the previous sections. Both optimization and personnel retention performs a important role to generate the success of the company. William Bridges (1995) stated that "There is no generally agreed-upon way to inventory an organization's culture nor is there any scarcity of theorists and consultancies which have developed means of mapping key elements from many different perspectives" The info which have been collected can assist the managers understand the certain barriers and how to improve in the organisation.
4. 1 Analysing Singapore Air travel (SIA)
Very often due to the complexity of the business, most of the organization tends to just forget about the value of optimizing and personnel retention. According to the article of my questionnaire, only about 30 percent of respondents suggested that they give consideration of optimizing and the staff retention as a ongoing basis. Most the respondents seems that the organisation only consider means of optimizing and retain staff in the case when crisis happen. The questionnaire also implies that respondents view of personnel retention as an over-all managerial tool (60 percent), for targeting major change initiatives (20 percent), as development opportunity (10 %) and for building organizational durability (ten percent). Most of all, optimizing a company and personnel retention allows managers to get knowledge into how employees view the business to that they like the organisations.
Another reason many organizations usually do not pay attention is usually that the organisation may not have a idea or knowledge of it. In the questionnaire, respondents were divided in the question of management's response of staff retention issue. With due to bulk (55 percent) thought that older management tend to take changing issue seriously and the rest of the respondent (45 percent) status the reverse Professionals may concern with changes is because they are worried that with changes the staff may raise a higher expectations which can lead to work difference.
Lastly, optimizing and personnel retention is vital as it's the key to success or the company.
4. 2 Assessing Singapore Flight ( SIA) alignment
One of the main element objective of optimizing and culture change is to check the amount of alignment. For example if the organisation is not adding to to high performance practices then there's a dependence on change to allow a nearer alignment.
In general, alignment is usually difficult to accomplish and the concluding up of the positioning gap could become an issue towards high performance. The common hurdles to high performance evident in my questionnaire finding include:
Lack of Talk about Worth: The strategy is not yet determined and even when a strategy is set it isn't being practised, unsuitable management structure and the lack of openness to take in new changes.
Lack of Management: Didn't take the necessity of the staff seriously, stopping the politics and issue and did not address on the issue of workload.
Lack of Mentorship: Do not have time to teach and develop the staff, lack of skills, heavy workloads and high stress.
Inappropriate Systems: The rewards given is inappropriate, the conferences are terribly run and it beats the purpose of having one.
4. 3 Assessing Singapore Airline (SIA) performance
In order to accomplish high performance it consists of the Achieving powerful involves in a link between employee and the business. As everybody knows, employee wishes to feel that these are being valued by the company by their good performance and be pretty accessed. Managers can are likely involved by influencing on every individual performance giving the need and support to assist the staff to do a good job, especially people that have experienced.
4. 3. 1 Level of Accountability
Generally, the common problem that SIA face is when the the staff don't have an obvious idea if the work have been done to avoid overlapping. This in exchange cause a dual work.
To ensure a correct degree of accountability the staff should have a correct information to allow them to know what is being required. To ensure the increase of accountability of SIA, it should take looking into:
Clarify each day jobs
Use improvement reviews.
Impose sanctions if necessary
4. 3. 2 Rewards System
It is very important in conveying the organizational principles:
Rewards have two organizational goals:
To recognise previous performance
To motivate visitors to perform
The most important factor is that the personnel have to feel that the reward has been carried out rather. Affordable salary is the standard to make a trust, as each individual do not want to feel that they can be actually being underpaid.
5. 0 Conclusion
Through this research project, it allows me to find some useful data in which allows me to know very well what to do to sustain an employee and also add to me the idea of optimizing the company and i realise the key matter is how to increase performance of the organization. Within this research, personnel retention is a key concern to performance success as it'll optimize the business to attain higher procedure, competence and success in return achieving an improved or bettering the performance of the organisation.
In conclusion, there is absolutely no two similar company which is the same and develop the same solution for staff retention and in optimizing the organisation to achieve the powerful and success, it is almost always situational. There is certainly many challengers and pressure from both inner and external environment, and so a regular change is actually required to meet up with the changing environment. Organizations should consider the way the business can be competitive to other company and should give a learning experience to the staff and growth as well in order to create a greater staff engagement. When these staff get yourself a higher ski, the probability of getting a higher performance is greater and easier.
All company should be flexible. However the flexibility will rely upon the organisation's capacity to digest the info and be decisive in your choice being made. Lastly, the street to success of the company will rely upon the people determination to adapt to the new changes and so it's important for the organisation to know precisely what is the necessity with their employee's need.
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