Q. (a) how do individual variations and environmental factors effect human behavior in an corporation? Justify your answer with good examples.
(b) A creation company making automotive parts finds that workers focusing on the assembly collection have poor attendance, leave for home early and tend to be unproductive. They may be completely unionized and withstand any attempts by management to discipline them. If you're the HR Administrator of such a company, what might you do? Discuss with reference to theories of motivation, leadership, participative management and quality circles.
Is a field of analysis which explores the impact that folks, groups and constructions have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards bettering organization's efficiency.
Importance of Group behaviour:
OB is going to describe the cause-and impact relationship to change behavior for organizational needs. Here no two human beings will behave in an equivalent manner. OB seed products to explore certain consistencies in behaviour, in order to promote a rational knowledge of behaviour and some degree of predictability.
Approaches in Organizational Behaviour:
Factors Influencing Human Behavior
In order to address real human factors in workplace safety settings, peoples' capabilities and limitations must first be realized. The modern working environment is very different to the configurations that humans have changed to cope with. The following human being characteristics that can lead to difficulties interacting with the working environment.
Attention -The modern place of work can 'overload' real human attention with large numbers of information, way in excess of that came across in the natural world. How we learn information can lessen needs on our attention, but can sometimes create further problems
Perception -In order to communicate safely with the globe, we must appropriately understand it and the risks it holds. Work surroundings often challenge real human notion systems and information can be misinterpreted.
Memory -Our convenience of keeping in mind things and the methods we impose upon ourselves to gain access to information often put undue pressure on us. Increasing knowledge about a topic or process allows us to retain more info relating to it.
Logical reasoning -Failures in reasoning and decision making can have severe implications for complicated systems such as chemical substance plants, and for duties like maintenance and planning.
Environmental, organizational and job factors, in quick, influence the patterns at work in ways which can affect health and basic safety. A simple way to view human being factors is to think about three aspects: the average person, the job and the business and their impact on people's health insurance and safety-related tendencies.
Following figures implies that all three are interlinked and also have mutual influence
low skill and competence level
bored or disheartened staff
individual medical problems
illogical design of equipment and instruments
constant disturbances and interruptions
missing or unclear instructions
poorly maintained equipment
noisy and annoying working conditions
Organisation and management factors
poor work planning, resulting in high work pressure
lack of safe practices systems and barriers
inadequate replies to prior incident
management based on one-way communications
deficient co-ordination and responsibilities
poor management of health and safety
Poor health and safe practices culture.
It is concluded that the performance of human being is being firmly affected by organizational, regulatory, cultural and environmental factors affecting the workplace.
For example, organizational techniques constitute the mating grounds for most predictable human mistakes, including insufficient communication facilities, ambiguous procedures, unsatisfactory scheduling, insufficient resources, and unrealistic budgeting in reality, all techniques that the business can control.
Following number summarizes a few of the factors adding to human errors also to accidents
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What is Understanding?
How we view and interpret the happenings and situations on the globe about us.
FACTORS INFLUENCING Conception:
Perception is affected by mainly three units of factors:
i) Factors in the perceiver (perceiver factors);
ii) Factors in the mark (subject matter characteristics);
iii) Factors in the situation (situational variables).
Factors in the perceiver include pursuing issues:
Self-concept of the perceiver; Attitudes of the perceiver;
Motives of the perceiver; Hobbies of the perceiver;
Experience of the perceiver; Expectations of the perceiver.
Factors in the mark include pursuing issues:
Physical appearance; Verbal and Nonverbal Communication;
Personal characteristics; Novelty of the prospective;
Motion of the mark; Sounds of the target;
Size of the prospective; Qualifications of the mark;
Factors in the situation include pursuing issues:
Social context; Organisational role;
Work setting; Location of event;
Collectively, these three packages of factors determine our perceptions about others.
A making company making automotive parts finds that workers focusing on the assembly series have poor attendance, leave for home early on and tend to be unproductive. They are really fully unionized and avoid any attempts by management to discipline them. If you're the HR Director of such a company, what will you do? Discuss with reference to theories of motivation, command, participative management and quality circles.
The process that take into account an individual's strength, direction and persistence of work towards attaining a goal.
Needs + Droves + Incentives
Some motives are un learned physiologically based mostly such motives are termed as physiological, natural, un discovered or most important motives.
Ex: Craving for food, Thirst, Sleep, Intimacy, Avoidance of Pain, Maternal Concern
Number of motives, which can neither, be categorised as main, or secondary that can be known as general motives. Purpose must be unlearned however, not physiologically focused.
Ex: Curiosity, Manipulations, Activity Motives, Passion motives, Love, Concern, Feelings.
Quite a few important human motives fall season in this category. The important motives of Power, achievement, and affiliation are all supplementary motives.
Leadership can be explained as the ability to influence an organization towards, the attainment of pre-determined goals.
Traditional Ideas of Authority:
Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal characteristics and characteristics
Extraversion has best relation to leadership
Conscientiousness and Openness to see also tightly related to to leadership
Agreeableness and Emotional Stability aren't correlated with control.
Behaviors can be trained - traits cannot
Leaders are trained - not born
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
Social Needs or Belonging and love and passion needs
Physiological Need or Basic Needs
According to Maslow, certain concepts are relevant for understanding the needs. They are pre-potency,
Deprivation, domination, gratification and activation. Pre-potency is the power associated with the needs.
Physiological needs have higher pre-potency. Deprivation is the conception of the obstacle for satisfaction of the need. Thus, deprived need has high pre-potency. Domination is attaching importance to a need. A deprived need dominates the average person. To be able to reduce dissonance associated with the deprivation, individuals try to gratify by undertaking some action. Therefore, gratification is the satisfaction of the necessity. Gratified need will not dominate. By the end, activation of need determine motivation. Need satisfaction triggers the needs from one level to next higher levels. Maslow thinks that these repeat as a pattern until the highest level need is satisfied. Based on the idea Maslow recognized five categories of needs and their role in motivating individuals. They can be described below:
Basic and primary needs required for human existence are physiological needs. They relate to natural and are necessary for preservation of basic real human life. These needs are Determined to the human organ in the body. These are finite needs. They need to be satisfied regularly until human beings die. They aren't associated with money exclusively. They are hunger, thirst, sleeping, shelter, making love, and other bodily needs. The proposition associated with the essential needs is that they are principal motivators to any individual and once they are simply satisfied, they no longer motivate. The next level need becomes very important to satisfaction until the basic need is dormant. Provision of enough monetary rewards to fulfill these needs motivate employees in organisations.
Individuals seek cover from natural environment, biological danger, economic deprivation and mental threat from other beings and pets. For this purpose, he needs security for himself. The cover may be in the proper execution of seeking a shelter and creating into primary categories to combat risk from the natural beings. The motivational proposition are that the security needs dominate when physiological needs are satisfied, and after specific seeks to meet reasonably the security needs they don't motivate him. To be able to inspire employees, organisations provide fringe benefits, health and accident insurance, enclosure loans, etc.
Basically individual is a interpersonal being. He cannot reside in isolation and silence. Thus, he intends to determine romantic relationship with other human beings plus some times desire to rear animals. Community needs emerge from the basic urge of individuals to connect, belong with others, make a friendly relationship, make companionship, desire to be accepted by others and seek passion. These needs are supplementary in aspect. The propositions relating to social needs are these needs are satisfied by symbolic behavior and through physic and psychic contact with others in the culture. They are substantially infinite and exist until the end of individuals life. Organisations should provide scope for development of informal groupings, encourage working in teams, and provide scope for interpersonal communication, interpersonal romantic relationships and interpersonal understanding to inspire employees.
Maslow believes that individuals seek growth. They have natural desire to be identified and reputed by others. This instinct is called as esteem. Esteem needs are associated with self-esteem and esteem from others. The need for power, self respect, autonomy, self-confidence, achievement, acceptance of competence, knowledge, desire to have liberty, position and secure attention of others, gratitude are a few of the esteem needs specific wishes to fulfill. Maslow recognized them, as higher order needs. The type of esteem needs is that they are dormant until basic, security and social needs are rather satisfied. Satisfaction of esteem needs create a feeling of self-confidence, durability, capability and adequacy in the individuals.
Self-actualization is change of understanding and dream into reality. Individuals have internal potential to do something different from others. Realising the full inner potential, one wishes to be what he's with the capacity of becoming. Attaining to the amount of fulfilment of selfactualization needs is a hard task as folks are not clear about their inner potentials until an opportunity is perceived. Additionally these needs change with a big change in individuals life. The power of self-actualization changes over life circuit, vary from individual to individual and environment.
The following propositions are created about the motivation of individuals based on the Maslow hierarchy of needs.
i) Five needs are categorized into lower order needs and higher order needs. While physiological, safety and security needs are lower order needs, esteem and self applied actualization needs are higher order needs.
ii) Lower order needs are satisfied externally and higher needs are satisfied internally.
iii) Individuals start fulfilling lower order needs first and proceed to meet higher order needs later.
iv) No need is completely satisfied through the life period of individuals. A need significantly satisfied no more motivates.
v) A need when significantly satisfied produces satisfaction and it becomes dormant. Immediately the next level need becomes effective. So Specific is continuously determined to gratify unsatisfied needs. So, determination is a continuing process.
vi) Satisfaction of lower order needs will not produce contentment. Actually, they produce discontentment to fulfill other needs.
vii) Not absolutely all people have the same concern to gratify the needs. Priorities change from country to country and from situation to situation.
viii) Folks are extreme in the satisfaction of basic needs and unconsciousness requires the satisfaction. However, they use cultural awareness in the satisfaction of other needs.
Maslow's need hierarchy theory of determination was considered rational and easy to understand human inspiration. The theory has received attention of practicing professionals as they feel that identification of needs of employees has an insight to inspire them. This theory advised that supplying same compensation more than individuals' desire will have diminishing marginal utility. It has specific significance to the practicing manager.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Leadership & Individuals Behavior
As a head, you will need to connect to your fans, peers, seniors, among others; whose support you will need in order to accomplish your goals. To gain their support, you must be able to understand and inspire them. To understand and stimulate people, you got to know human nature. Individuals nature is the common qualities of most human beings. People behave matching to certain ideas of human mother nature.
Human needs are an important part of human nature. Values, beliefs, and customs change from country to country and even within group to group, but in general, everyone have a few basic needs. As the leader you must understand these needs because they could be powerful motivators.
Characteristics of self-actualizing people:
Have better perceptions of reality and are comfortable with it.
Accept themselves and their own natures.
Lack of artificiality.
They focus on problems outside themselves and are worried with basic issues and eternal questions.
They like level of privacy and tend to be detached.
Rely independently development and continued growth.
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