The Key Functions of Human Resource Management

Recruitment and Selection:- a component an employee being hired or repositioned in an organization. Recruitment can be explained as recognizing a position in an organization to employee someone in order fulfill the needs of it.

Selection is the step-by-step procedure to find the right applicant that would work enough to fill the required position.

When doing these an organization should look after some key questions to be able to carry on with procedures.

  1. What do we want from the position?
  2. How can we attract the right candidate?
  3. How can we identify the right candidate?
  4. How can we realize we first got it right?
  5. Who all should be engaged along the way?

Redundancy: - a worker is given proper security when the business needs fewer amounts of resources or retirements. Normally, this is occurring when a business does not require the positioning or the organization itself will shutdown.

Industrial and employee relations:-this is a significant clause of organization status to be maintained in the industry. From the research done on this, it is widely accepted that if the employee has commitment on the business due to attitude of organization towards its employees through considerable payment or over payment to motivate them. This is industrially called in several ways like the psychological contracts or by the loyalty of the employee to the business. The interaction between your individuals is a major part in organizational performance and productivity.

Record keeping of personal data:-keeping details of every single employee including their work history and present status. This helps the organization to decide and allot the employee to categorize to a specific segment for the best usage of the workforce. Proper allotment of the people with their skills and knowledge on an area gives excellent outcome in the overall performance.

Employee benefits and compensation:-the organization offers to the employee on situations. This is actually the security an organization gives to the employee for them to retain. Employees could be more confident to utilize security with their job and other benefits that are available for them. This is sometimes goes competitive to be able to retain talented and experienced employees to avoid them going to another companies.

Confidential advice to 'internal customers' about problems at work: - this allow the employee to have a communication with the organization in order to deal with the problems they are facing in the work place. The organization also enquire the welfares of the employees in order that they should feel themselves they are also on the eyes of the business on considerations. Negligence is the most negative part of human dissatisfaction.

Carrier development of employees:- individual development of employee develops and organization. The organizations must be always prepared with the rapid change of the surroundings. So they always allow employees to attain all the knowledge as they can in order to develop the company performance and standards. This enhances individual performance that is the backbone of the organizational overall performance. Organizations always conduct seminars and tests in order to keep their position on the market.

Competency monitoring (mapping):- work efficiency rating of employees. Organizations always monitor the efficiency of the employees to be able to understand the outcome of these productivity. This helps the organization to understand on which all segments they should improve in order to keep up its stability.

Time and motion study:- time and minimal motion gives more efficient and more productive organization. This technique is implemented in lots of the organization for better productivity of organization. Time and motion study is how a work is usually to be done on a given time frame with reduced effective motion of work for attaining high efficiency outputs.

Performance appraisal: - this handles the contribution of the employee to the business. This is actually the procedure for obtaining, analyzing and recording of information of the employee in order to understand the contribution of each employee within an organization.

Trends and Influences of Human Resource Management

A business procedure is mainly focused on the next major influences.

Demographics: - it could be defined as the characteristics of structure and size of population

e. g. : - age, work class.

Diversity: - it could be defined as the difference between the people in population

e. g. : - race, gender, sexual orientation. Disability, geographic origin

Skills and qualifications: - These are not no more than knowledge of an individual, but also the power of the average person in the organization as a worker.

e. g. : -. rewards, community investments.

Individual responses:- the employee attitudes of different geographical locations.

e. g. : - geographical spread, occupational structure, generational difference.

Framework:-creating a framework for human capital.

Structure: - this enhances individual developments and acquiring targets. Can be incorporate with human resource strategies.

Training: -this develops high level of work of individuals. Training gives more precise to the working environment and the employees get better knowledge and working attitudes with the environment they are dealing with.

Strategic human resource management model [2]

From the above Human Resource model we understand that an environmental analysis should be initiated. Then your company must manage the mission and goals. That is depended by analyzing the strengths and culture of the organization. Then analyse the strategies adopted by the business. Choose a quantity of Human Resource strategies like planning, attracting, placing, developing, evaluating, motivating, rewarding and maintaining recruiting. That is done using Human Resource tactical plans and Human Resource systems and procedures.

Harvard map of Human Resource Management [3]

Harvard map (Beer's map) outlines four regions of Human Resource Management

Human resource flows: - recruitment, selection, termination, promotion.

Reward system:- pay, motivation, promotion, recognition

Employee influence:- influence of responsibility, power, authority

Work system: - how people is arranged and defined to work in an organization.

The above walk into the four C's of Human Resource policies which are

Commitment:- an employee must deliver at its best for the organization

Congruence: - how suitable the employee is for the organization

Competence: - how competent the employee to realize target for obtaining organizational goals

Cost effectiveness: - could it be economically simple for the organization to keep the employee and position.

Key elements of Human Resource [4]

The crucial components of Human Resource are

Resource plan:- this contains all the Human Resource resources involved with a company. It contains which all human resources used in what all ways and how it is implemented.

Resource breakdown structure:- this is how the Human Resource differentiate according to their function. Thus giving a detail about how exactly the human resource work on each segment and on each levels like corporate, operational and functional levels.

Responsibility assignment matrix:-here the Human Resource is assigned specific tasks to get responsibility in each branch of function. With this each function has its responsibility, what everything to do for every single individuals and how should it be done

Resource over allocation: - this is actually the over allocation of Human Resource in order to do more work than in normal time. This is very expensive and needs over times. This isn't a usual function. It is done when the company has limited resources and must utilize well on critical stages in order to keep up and achieve its target on demand. Many organization utilize this in various ways based on the mode of function and facilities offering to the employee and also the functional structure of the business.

Resource histogram: - this is the graphical representation of over allocated resources and helps it be possible for the managers to allocate resources. This diagram gives a detail of which all resources is allocated and on what tasks and make the managers to decide the allocation frequency and dependence on each tasks in order to reallocate or schedule the resources.

Resource dependency:-if an activity is dependent a particular resource. Occasionally resources are purely dependent to one another. If one of the resource is allocated the complete function find yourself.

Resource leveling: - this is the redistribution of Human Resource to avoid imbalance. This is done for bettering the distribution of Human Resources to necessary tasks in order to keep up with the equilibrium of the functions. That is by identifying the unnecessary over allocations to the task which has highly scarce of recruiting.

Critics on human resource management

Critics argue that Human Resource Management does not have theoretical framework. Despite having this the efficiency of Human Resource Management still has an essential role in organization development.

Task 2


Human Resource Planning can be explained as the organizational strategies developed to be able to match the size and skills of the workforce for the organizational needs. Human Resource Planning assists the organization to recruit, retain and optimize needs for meeting the business objectives and respond to its environmental change. This might include man power forecasting and making certain the supply meets the demand. This involves training and retraining strategies.

Human Resource Planning-contemporary approach

This can be explained as the one which belongs to the world of ideas rather than action which has the potential to unsettle and can disrupt established thinking and hence practice.

e. g. :- ideas of our very own that aren't yet fulfilled.

This is principally based after two ways of sources

Post-modernism:-it highlights the importance of discourse which explained as a set of images, representations, meanings, metaphors, stories etc that can create some events.

New science:-it derives from the new developments in natural sciences that challenges a few of the key assumptions

Human Resource Planning-traditional approach

The priority of traditional Human Resource Planning can be involved with balancing of supply to demand. There are a number of key features in traditional approach

Investigation and Analysis:- this stage is not explicit u all models, but arguably those in charge of human resource planning need to know something about the current situation in order to evaluate the extent to which chances are to improve or be afflicted by future development

Internal labour market:- this deals with turnover, profiles skills audits

External labour market:- this deals with quality, availability, sources, prices, variation of demands

Corporate capability:- this is concerned with performance, productivity, structure, technology, skill change, rewards, promotions

Corporate strategy:- this is about growth, opportunities, key objectives, work methods, improvement plans

Forecasting: - this is regarding supply, demand and qualitative and quantitative imbalance of RECRUITING. , future plans

Planning: - this includes working patterns, organization structure and development, rewards, recruitment and selection, managing diversity performance management, training and development, employment relations.

Implementation and control: - this concerns about using HR techniques, utilizing technology, reviewing polices and practices.

Advantages of Human Resource Planning

Setting strategic directions:-this is to direct Human Resource Planning according to company needs and objectives

Designing human resource management system: - structure Human Resource according to the directed strategy according the structure and flexibility of the organization

Planning the total workforce:- align the workforce for Human Resource Likely to implement based on the strategy adopted to attain the goals of the organization.

Generating the mandatory human resource:-if the plan needs more human resource it should be acquired. This can be executing overtimes, reallocate satisfactory human resources to specified tasks,

Investing in human resource development and performance:-this increases the efficiency and effectiveness of Human Resource. Employee hiring on short-term or permanent connection with the potency of performance in order to deal up with the organizational needs.

Disadvantages of Human Resource Planning

It is expensive and time consuming: - the business cannot concentrate more on human resource planning as it might be more interested to invest on it goal than in planning more time and money.

It needs specialized consultant may be beyond your organization:- organizations must seek the assistance of specialized personal or organization of human resource planning in order to do it in the right manner.

Organization may well not be always ready to some opportunities before it comes into scene and also to allocate resources according to Human Resource Planning.

Supply of labour in labour markets

The number of people willing to work in different industries is referred to as supply of labour.

Key factors affecting the way to obtain labour

Barrier of entry:- It is the limitation allotted to the industry to restrict the labour supply to be able to maintain the level of salary and also to permit the salary to go higher. This is usually done giving some entry requirements like minimum requirements, qualifications, experience etc.

Overtime:- payments for overtime, payment criteria, schedules of overtime, availability of resources for the overtime.

Competitive wages: - This inspires visitors to come to the industry with good wages and other allowances given on an industry. This make the employees feel more secured and confident in their working sector.

Substitute industries: - The amount of substitute industries gives competitive wages depends upon the supply of labour on the market. When there is a scarcity of eligible employees then your salary competition will be higher otherwise the salary is going low as the industry will look limited to cheaper labour.

Monetary characteristics: - Some jobs are attracted by the amount of risk included on it. Like air force pilots, where they are really much be interested to be so dedicated for the job.

Migration of labour: - The free movement of men and women in various regions gives more way to obtain labour. The use of trade blocs are the exact example for this. People can in a position to move freely from one country to some other with no restrictions free of charge trade and globalization. This can make available of the human resource open to another area of the world.


It can be explained as a non permanent driving force that has been initiated for some behaviour to attain some goal. It can be affected by various factors like instincts, driving forces, arousal expected outcome.

Instinct: - This is an inborn behaviour which has its tendencies

Driving forces: - This is the influences of the needs of a person that motivates them.

Arousals: - This is actually the process on increasing our drives. As a standard human being we have to optimize our drives.

Expected outcomes: - The influence of some expecting rewards for the task will motivate a person to achieve the goals.

Theories of motivation

There are different theories that are developed for motivation like Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Hertzberg's two factor theory.

Hierarchy theory of needs

Abraham Maslow developed the needs of motivation of humans at different levels

Physiological Needs

This is the basic need for a human to survive. If this is not satisfied then they will be motivated to gratify them.

e. g: - air, water, sleep

Safety Needs

When the essential level is satisfied the other will take care of the security of living.

e. g. : - job security, life insurance coverage, residing in a safe area.

Social Needs

When the low levels are satisfied then the higher-level of needs are on interest to the people. This consists of interaction between the individuals.

e. g. : - friends, love and belongings


When an individual possess the sense of belonging, he might feel to get important to the society. It can be in internal or external.

e. g. : - self respect, reputation, achievement

Self actualization

This is the peak level in the hierarchy of needs. This is degree of one's quest to learn own potential. People who achieve this level are usually leaders and innovators.

e. g. : - wisdom, truth, justice

Herzberg's two factor theory

Fredrick Herzberg centered on the attitude of the employee that can motivate them. You will discover two factor namely motivation and hygiene factors that depends on the employee's motivation. He's explaining that employee's motivation have three stages namely satisfaction, no satisfaction, no dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction. This deviates two factor theory from the original view.

Satisfaction is when an employee is satisfied in its workplace. No dissatisfaction when an employee is not dissatisfied but is unhappy with its workplace. On this level employee work in an equilibrium level with no extra output. The third you are dissatisfaction where the employee is extremely unhappy.


  • Hygiene
  • Company policies
  • Way of supervision
  • Relations with others
  • Personal life
  • Rate of pay
  • Job security
  • Working environment
  • Achievement
  • Career advancement
  • Social growth
  • Personal growth
  • Job interest
  • Recognition
  • Responsibility


HRM and HRP are mainly based on the people who have in and around the organization. The far better HRP gives a clear vision about the future and well directed instruction for organization. The effectiveness of each step in HRP depends after the organizational structure and factors that affect the business.

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