The Maslow hierarchy of needs

According to Maslow, the foundation of motivation is certain needs. Needs are biological or instinctive; they characterize humans in genera and also have a generic base. They often affect behaviour unconsciously. What can cause people to behave as they do is the procedure of fulfilling these needs. Once a need is satisfied, it no longer dominates behaviour, and another need increases to adopt its place. Need fulfillment is never ending.

Muchinsky(1993)

The five types of needs from Maslow's theory are discussed below
Physiological needs

The physiological needs include the basic needs for food, drinking water. These needs can't be ignored for long and must be satisfied before others. To the individual in a state of virtual starvation or normal water deprivation, matters other than food or normal water are of little concern.

Security needs

Once the physiological needs are relatively well attained, a new set of needs, categorized generally as protection needs, emerges. They are concerned with security against risk, threat and deprivation. In an industrial contemporary society the safeness needs may make a difference to the centered romantic relationship between employees and employers. The safeness needs may serve as motivators in such circumstances as arbitrary management actions, behaviour which arouses uncertainty of continued job, and unpredictable administration of policy.

Social needs

Once the physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied, the interpersonal needs become important motivators of behaviour. Included in these are needs for belonging, for connection, for love, for popularity by one's fellows, and for giving and acquiring friendship.

Self esteem: the self-confidence needs are those needs that relate to one's self-esteem, that is, need for self-confidence, for success, for competence, for knowledge

Self-actualisation

Self actualization needs are those needs that relate to one's reputation, needs for status, for acknowledgement, for gratitude, for the deserved esteem of your respective peers. In contrast with the low order needs the self-esteem and do it yourself actualization needs are hardly ever totally satisfied.

Maslow presumed that the hierarchy was characterized by some aiding aspects or features, some of which are given here

The higher the need, and the less imperative it is good for sheer survival, the longer gratification can be postponed and the simpler it is designed for the need to disappear once and for all.

Living at the bigger need level means increased biological efficiency, greater longevity, less disease, better sleeping, better appetite, and so forth.

Higher needs are less urgent, subjectively

Higher need gratification produces more desired subjective results, more profound contentment, serenity and richness of the internal life.

Pursuit and gratification of higher needs stand for a general pattern towards well being.

Higher needs require better outside conditions (economic, educational, etc) to make them possible.

Mc Corwick(1987)

(Ernest J. Mc Cormick and Daniel Ilgen, 1987, Industrial and organizational psychology, eighth model, Routledge Co Ltd, London, pg 270-271)

Figure 3. 1: Maslow's hierarchy of needs applied in the current work environment

Source: Luthan, F, (2008), Organisational behaviour, eleventh edition, pg 170)

Frederick Herzberg's Dual factor theory:

The dual factor is dependant on considerable proof. It is built on the basis that people are encouraged towards what makes them feel good, and from what makes them feel bad. His research identifies motivators as factors producing good feelings in the work situation. By contrast he shows that hygiene factors arouse bad feelings in the task situation.

Hygiene factors are evidently concerned with the work environment as opposed to the work itself. They differ significantly from motivators in approximately they can only just prevent illness but not bring about good health. Quite simply, lack of adequate "job hygiene" will cause dissatisfaction, but its existence will not of itself cause satisfaction, it is the motivators that do that. The absence of the motivators will not cause dissatisfaction, presuming the job hygiene factors are good, but there will be no positive drive. It really is axiomatic in Herzberg's way that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction aren't opposite. The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction; it is not a job satisfaction, while the opposite of job dissatisfaction is insufficient job dissatisfaction

Adopting Herzberg's procedure, a administrator should build motivators into the job so as to promote job satisfaction favorably; in order to reduce dissatisfaction, cleanliness factors should be advanced. In the desire of sales staff, the motivators and cleanliness factors talked about in the pane overleaf might be looked at.

McKenna(1994)

Motivators

Hygiene factors

Achievement

Company policy and administration

Recognition

Supervision

Work itself

Salary

Responsibility

Interpersonal relations

Advancement

Working conditions

Growth

Status

Security

Table 3. 1: Dual factor theory

Source: McKenna, 1994, pg 78

(Eugene McKenna, 1994, business psychology and organizational behavior, a student's handbook, 2nd modified edition, UK, BPC Wheatons Ltd, pg78)

NEED Success THEORY

The need for accomplishment was one of the twenty needs motivating behaviour recommended by henry Murray. Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), as a means of gauging the effectiveness of these needs. David Mc Clelland then used the TAT to concentrate on the need for accomplishment, which he labeled n Ach, and tried to find both historival and cross-cultural research for its collective importance to societies.

People high on n Ach, Mc Clelland maintained, have a preference for particular situations, where

The degree of risk involved is neither high nor low but moderate

Feedback on the performance is provided

Individual responsibility is recognized.

Moderately risky responsibilities would give a reasonable probability of success for folks high on n Ach whereas low risk situations would be unchallenging and improbable to activate their interest. However tasks that look too daunting would also be avoided for fear of faltering at them. Thus it isn't making the try out that counts however the outcome. Inability would evidently be too harmful to self-esteem, whatever the worth and need for the target.

Mc Clelland also investigated two other, and related specific needs, the need for affiliation (n Aff) and the necessity for vitality (n Pow). These other two advised needs have not been looked into to anything like the same magnitude as n Ach nevertheless they are interesting ideas.

Statt(2004)

(David A. Statt, 2004, psychology and the world of work, second edition, NY, Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, pg 253)

The 3 received needs theory established by Mc Clelland are the following

Need for accomplishment (nAch):

It is the desire to accomplish high in terms of quality and accomplish challenging responsibilities in ones work.

Need for affiliation (nAff):

It is the desire to keep up warm, friendly connections with others. High nAff individuals are captivated in organizations which entail a large amount of connections with others. Dependence on power (nPow)

It is the desire to influence others and control one's environment. The need for electric power can be divided into two forms namely personal vitality and institutional ability.

Akinson and Feather (1973 cited Ghosh P. K, 1991, pg 356) proposed that the tendency to deal with or continue a task relies both on the issue of the problem and on the individual's inspiration. Based on the theory the characteristics which differentiate individuals with high and low achievement need (n-ach) are as follows
A person with a higher n-ach

Seeks accomplishement because of its own sake;

Wants to be challenged, models moderately difficult(however, not impossible) goals for himself and takes a realistic approach to risk;

Is not highly money eager, although may acquire wealth in his drive to achieve;

Is not a gambler but, somewhat, prefers to analyse and evaluate problems, assume personal responsibility so you can get a job done and likes to prompt feedback about how he's doing

Tends to be restless, likes to work long hours, does not unduly worry about failure if it can occur and is rather independent.

A person with a low n-ach

Tends to address jobs of intermediate difficulty but a comparatively lower degree of difficulty, as his standard of difficulty is defined at a smaller level than the high n-ach person

Mc Clelland through expanded studies of his postulates, found along with others that accomplishment motivation is not a stable personality feature determined solely by childhood experiences as he formerly thought it to be. Further investigations and experimental applications established that achievement inspiration can be learned. Such learning has been brought about through special training programmes. It is also recognized a person's achievement inspiration may increase because of being placed ready in which some degree of achievement desire is expected and rewarded.

(Ghosh 1991)

Dr P. K Ghosh, (1991), Industrial and organizational mindset, first release, Bombay :Himalaya publishing house, pg 356)

Vroom's expectancy theory:

Victor Vroom developed the first formal explanation of expectancy theory. The theory's basic idea is simple

The strength of these expectation that the behavior will be followed by a given results.

The anticipated value of this outcome.

Expectancy theory, as explained by Vroom, includes two related models. The first of these is the valence model, which can be used to predict the valences that staff place on various outcomes. Within the terminology of expectancy theory, an end result is an event that may follow a worker's behaviour, such as praise, consequence or increased efficiency. The valence associated with an result is the satisfaction that the employee expects to see should he or she receive the end result.

First model

According to the valence model, an results will have a positive valence for an employee if she or he believes so it has positive instrumentality for obtaining other appreciated final results. Instrumentality is the magnitude to which a person is convinced that attaining one outcome is associated with attaining other benefits, and can range from +1. 00 to -1. 00. quite simply, an instrumentality is the identified relationship between two results.

Second model

The second model in Vroom's expectancy theory predicts the motivational force to perform a particular behavior. This model expresses that the make or strength of motivation, to engage in any behaviour depends upon the expectancy that various outcomes will derive from performance of the behaviour and the valence of these outcomes as defined in the valence model. Vroom described expectancy as the identified probability that an results would follow a behavior, so that it can range between 0 to +1. 00.

Saal & Knight(1995)

(Frank E. Saal and Patricj A. Knight, 1995, professional/Organisational psychology, research and practice, 2nd model, United states, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 252).

The valence style of expectancy theory

outcomes and instrumentality

valences of PPP

internship

+. 40

High pay in future jobs

High valence

Developing new skills

High valence

+. 70

Valence of a PPP consumer research internship

+

+

Flexibility in job choice

High valence -

-. 50 0

Making business contacts

Low valence

+. 30

Figure 3. 2: the valence mode of expectancy theory

Source : Saal & Knight(1995)

(Frank E. Saal and Patricj A. Knight, 1995, commercial/Organisational psychology, research and practice, 2nd edition, United States of America, Brooks/Cole Posting Company, pg 253)

Figure 3. 2 illustrates the way the valence model predicts the valence of executing well by using an internship for one of PPP's Consumer research interns. Four possible results of executing well, along with their valences are detailed on the kept aspect of the body. The particular intern, Keil Hardy, places positive principles on generating higher pay in later jobs, producing new skills and having higher overall flexibility in choosing careers in the future. However he places little value on making "business connections " through the internship. In the center of the shape are Mr Hardy's estimations of the instrumentalities of having a PPP internship for attaining each one of the four benefits. He perceives positive associations between the internship and increased pay in the foreseeable future jobs, learning new skils and making business connections. The recognized instrumentality of the internship for obtaining flexibility in job choice, however is negative.

Combining this information, the valence model predicts that he prospect of higher pay and imporoved skills will boost the valence of the internship for Mr Hardy because

He values these outcomes

The internship is seen by him as a way to attain them

The chance to develop business associates will haven't any effect on the valence in this case because even though Mr Hardy believes that connections can be produced through the internship(positive instrumentality), he thinks that getting a PPP internship will reduce the likelihood of this happening(negative instrumentality), which reduces the valence internship.

Saal & Knight(1995)

(Frank E. Saal and Patricj A. Knight, 1995, professional/Organisational psychology, science and practice, 2nd model, United States of America, Brooks/Cole Posting Company, pg 252)

Implications of the Vroom Model for Organizational behaviour:

Although the Vroom model does not directly add much to the techniques of motivating employees in an organization, it is of value in understanding organizational behaviour. It can clarify the relationship between individual and organizational goals. For example, suppose workers are given a certain standard for production. By calculating the workers' outcome, management can determine how important their various personal goals (second-level results such as money, security and acknowledgement) are; the instrumentality of the organizational goal (the first level results such as development standard) for the attainment of the personal goals; and the individuals' expectancies that their work and capability will complete the organizational goal. If productivity is below standard it may be that the workers do not place a higher value on the next level benefits; or they could feel that their efforts won't complete the first- level result.

(Luthan, 2008)

Luthan, F, 2008, Organisational behaviour, eleventh edition, Singapore, Mc Graw Hill international model, pg 177

EQUITY THEORY:

The collateral theory, built by psychologist J. Stacy Adams, argues that a major suggestions into job performance and satisfaction is the amount of equity(or inequity) that people perceive in their work situation. Quite simply, it is another cognitively based mostly determination theory.

For illustration inequity occurs when a person perceives that the percentage of his / her final results to inputs and the ratio of a relevant other's benefits to inputs are unequal. Schematically, this is represented as follows

Person's results < other's outcomes

Person's inputs other's inputs

Equity occurs when; person's results = other's outcomes

Person's inputs other's inputs

Both inputs and the outputs of the person and the other are based on the individuals perceptions. Age, gender, education, social position, organizational position, qualifications and exactly how hard the individual works are types of perceived input variables. Outcomes consist generally of rewards such as pay, status, campaign and intrinsic interest in the job. Essentially the ratio is based on the person's perception of what the person is presenting (inputs) and receiving (outcomes) versus the ratio of the actual relevant other is presenting and acquiring. This cognition may or might not exactly be exactly like someone else's observation of the ratios or the same as the actual fact.

(Luthan, 2008)

Luthan, F, (2008), Organisational behavior, eleventh edition, Singapore, Mc Graw Hill international model, pg 179

REINFORCEMENT THEORY:

The reinforcement theory, pioneered by psychologist B. F Skinner argued that our behaviours can be discussed by repercussions in the environment. In fact the theory relies closely on a thought called rules of result, which expresses that behaviours having pleasant or positive results are more likely to be repeated and behaviours having upsetting or negative results are less likely to be repeated.

The argument is that people perform certain work-related functions that are at the mercy of encouragement contingencies. People work with a certain amount of effectiveness and when particular behaviour brings about an incentive, performance rises.

Types of reinforcement:

There are four types of encouragement available to assist in behaviour modification. They are positive reinforcement, negative encouragement, extinction and punishment. Skinner argued that positive support and extinction encouraged individual growth whereas negative encouragement and punishment are likely to encourage irresponsibility in individuals and eventually contaminate the entire organization.

Positive encouragement

Positive reinforcement develops when organizations compliments employee for satisfactorily completed work. It does increase desired behaviour. It will involve providing a enjoyable rewarding effect to encourage that behaviour.

Negative support

Negative reinforcement focuses on optimizing desired behavior. However it involves providing unpleasant motivation so an individual will engage in the desired behavior in order to avoid the unpleasant effects. The desired behaviour is strengthened in a negative way because an individual must take part in the behaviour in order to remove a distressing condition.

Extinction

Extinction occurs when positive encouragement for a learned or previously conditioned response is withheld. Under such non-reinforcement, undesired behavior reduces until it disappeared.

Punishment

Punishment is a technique that involves negative consequence in order to decrease or discourage behaviour. Consequence is usually applied after a worker has involved in undesirable behaviour. For instance, managers may increase worker workload every time work is handed in later. Punishment will lower desired behaviour.

(Bartol, 1998)

Bartol K. M & Martin, D. C. 1998, Management, 3rd model, McGraw-Hill, New York pg 400)

JOB SATISFACTION:

According to Muchinsky(1993), like any sense of satisfaction, job satisfaction can be an psychological, affective response. Impact refers to thoughts of like or dislike. Therefore, job satisfaction is the extent to which a person derives pleasure from a job.

Muchinsky P. , 1993, mindset applied to work, fourth edition United States of America, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company Ltd, pg290)

According to Fred Luthan(2008) there are three generally accepted dimensions of job satisfaction. First satisfaction is an emotional reaction to a job situation. Therefore it cannot be seen, it can only just be inferred. Second, job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or go beyond expectations. For example, if organizational members feel that they will work much harder than others in the office but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative frame of mind towards their work, employer, and/or co-workers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand if indeed they feel they are really being treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely to have a good attitude toward the job. They will be job-satisfied. Third, job satisfaction symbolizes several related attitudes. Through the years five job measurements have been identified to stand for the most important characteristics of a job about which employees have affective attitudes. These are:

The work itself: the scope to that your job provides the individual with interesting responsibilities, opportunities for learning and the opportunity to admit responsibility.

Pay. The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this can be regarded as equitable vis- -vis that of others in organization

Promotion opportunities. The chances for advancement in the organization

Supervision. The capabilities of the supervisor to provide complex assistance and behavioural support.

Co-workers. The degree to which fellow workers are technically efficient and socially supportive.

Luthan, F, 2008, Organisational behaviour, eleventh release, Singapore, Mc Graw Hill international edition. Pg 140

The work itself

The content of the job itself is a major source of satisfaction. Cooper (1974)

proposed a platform of intrinsic job characteristics which makes an attempt to deal with job satisfaction. The platform outlines four unique intrinsic job dimensions namely

1. Spatial variety

2. Skill discretion

3. Goal characteristics

1. Spatial variety:

Spatial variety is exemplified by the variety of operations performed, their pattern times, as well as by features outside the task itself like the number of people available for public relationship in the immediate work area. It seems likely that performance and satisfaction will be damaged mainly by 'stimulus satiation' (a kind of boredom made by continued contact with the same stimulus design) which may be dissipated by perceptual alternation among the many elements in the problem.

Limitations of variety

It is doubtful if Variety is a true motivator. Its value is most likely limited to tedious, repetitive-type jobs which characteristically stimulate feelings of boredom; a rise in Variety simply means a decrease in boredom.

Skill Discretion:

Discretion means being free to exercise choice. Corresponding to Robert Cooper (1974) discretion in work means the ability to individually choose appropriate knowledge in the perfect solution is of problems.

Skilled occupations are more complex and varied than unskilled and semiskilled occupations. They require more training time and frequently a higher educational attainment. Abstract thinking in special fields may be required.

Examples of skilled jobs are

chemists

architects

school group directors

physicians

attorneys

CEO of any business

Satisfaction and job-commitment from discretion

The motivational value derived from the previous form of discretion, that is autonomy and responsibility is the fact that one is in charge of one's own job behavior and the knowledge of being free from externally-mediated pressures, in so doing enhancing job commitment and satisfaction. Skill Discretion is of course a key feature of skilled-work. For example when faced with employment problem, the staff identifies his store of appropriate knowledge and from it chooses a set of replies which he is convinced will lead to a remedy; this is the fact of Skill Discretion. The decision of an appropriate response is usually done through the exercise of logic or trial-and-error. A high degree of Skill Discretion in employment produces an enthusiastic sense of problem which leads, after successful performance, to a sense of accomplishment.

Goal characteristics:

Employees pursue goals because they value a great deal the rewards they will be offered after having achieved the goals, that is, to gain food, shelter, money, promotion, love etc Robert Cooper gives that in addition to goal content, goals own a certain composition or form which is constituted by

1. The clarity of the goal

2. The level of difficulty of the goal

He further adds that it's these structural features which directly affect task behavior. Goal clarity performance may differ based on the clearness or specificity with that your performance conditions are identified.

For example if a person instructs a student to create a newspaper and presents him with a goal of low quality; he's unclear concerning how long the paper should be and when he should complete it by. The clarity of his goal is increased when he provides more information to the university student. Goal Difficulty which is either too easy or too difficult is less motivating than those of medium difficulty - the latter provide a controllable degree of obstacle to the worker and thus draws on his motivation.

Pay

According to Luthans(2008), money not only helps people attain their basic needs but is also instrumental in providing upper-level need satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a representation of how management views their contribution to the organization. Fringe benefits are also important, but they aren't as influential.

Ref: Luthan, F, (2008), Organisational behaviour, eleventh model, Singapore, Mc Graw Hill international edition, pg 140

Promotion

According to Luthans(2008) promotional opportunities appear to have a varying effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take a quantity of different varieties and have a variety of accompanying rewards. For example, those who are promoted on the basis of seniority often experience job satisfaction however, not approximately those who find themselves promoted on the basis of performance.

Ref: Luthan, F, (2008), Organisational behavior, eleventh release, Singapore, Mc Graw Hill international model, pg 140

Supervision

Autocratic

According Kossen (1931) autocratic leaders believe that they know very well what they want and have a tendency to express those wants as direct orders with their subordinates. Autocratic usually keep decisions and handles to themselves, given that they have assumed full responsibility for decision making. Autocratic leaders usually structure the complete work situation because of their employees, who merely do what they are informed, that is, follow purchases.

Advantages of autocratic style

Many autocratic market leaders have prevailed in completing their goals. To reach your goals, however, autocratic leaders must have extensive and varied backgrounds. They must likewise have subordinates who expect and want their market leaders to give them strong guidelines. Staff who are either somewhat submissive or choose never to be responsible for participating in planning and decision making tend to respond favorably to boss-centered command. Also, a far more directive command is often welcomed by employees whose job obligations are not plainly described or who lack sufficient knowledge and training to execute their jobs without assistance.

Disadvantages of autocratic

Managers who use this approach frequently feel that the individual staff lacks the capability of providing constructive source. Autocratic leadership gets the potential for creating problems of both morale and creation over time. It also fails to develop the personnel' determination to the objectives of the company. Employees on the acquiring end of autocratic command frequently lack information about their functions and dread using their own initiative in their work. Furthermore, specific development and development are far more difficult to realize in a autocratic construction.

Participative management style

This style of leadership assumes that individual members of an organization who take part personally in the decision making process will be more likely consequently to have a far greater determination to the targets and goals of the company.

Advantages of participative

Workers prefer to believe that their ideas are important and have a tendency to feel considerably more committed to changes where they may have participated. Staff also develop higher feelings of self-esteem. Often the blended knowledge and connection with the participants of a group go beyond that of the first choice. Furthermore problems done collectively often give birth to new ideas, created therefore of interpersonal exchange.

Disadvantages of participative

This strategy assumes a considerable commonality of interest between the managers and employees. However, in any group some individuals may be really bored with their careers, especially those who understand their position basically as means to other, as pleasing, needs.

The participative strategy also assumes that workers have the necessary knowledge and skill to participate in your choice making process if knowledge and skill are lacking, managers may find that they need to either be bound by bad decisions or override the decision of the group, thus detracting from the participative procedure.

Another potential problem with the participative procedure is the fact that group people whose ideas have been rejected may feel alienated.

Kossen( 1931)

(Stan Kossen, 1931, the human side of organizations, fourth release, United states, Harper & Row Web publishers, NY, pg 220-223)

Work group

The mother nature of work group or team will have an effect on job satisfaction. Friendly, cooperative coworkers or team members are a moderate source of job satisfaction to specific employees. The work group, especially a "tight" team, acts as a way to obtain support, comfort, advice and assist with the individual associates. An excellent work group or effective team makes the work more fun. However this factor is not essential to job satisfaction. On the other hand, if the reverse conditions are present- people are difficult to get along with-t his factor may have a negative effect on job satisfaction.

From the task of Jon P. Briscoe and Douglas T. Hall (cited Fred Luthan, 2008, pg 142) the validity of the five dimensions of job satisfaction have been trusted and a recently available meta-analysis established its validity.

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