This chapter provides a brief format of motivation, types of desire, major motivation ideas and leadership ideas on increasing staff motivation. Last but not least this chapter recognizes the impact of worker desire on the productivity of the business.
2. 2 Motivation
The degree of performance of employees relies not only on their actual skills but also on the level of motivation each person exhibits (Burney et al. , 2007). Inspiration is an inner drive or an external inducement to react in a few particular way, typically a means that will lead to rewards (Dessler, 1978). Over-achieving, accomplished employees will be the driving force of all firms so that it is vital that organizations strive to motivate and hold on to the best employees (Harrington, 2003).
The success of any business will depend essentially on the inspiration of the employees. Every person has their own set of motivations and personal incentives to work hard or much less the situation may be. Some are determined by recognition while others are motivated by cash incentives. Motivation can be external or internal. Deadlines are a good example of external motivation. The fear of dropping a agreement or of not finishing a job you started is an example of inner motivation. Both internal and external drive can be similarly powerful.
Financial Determination is money, bonuses, bonus, commission, popularity and recognition which can be Exterior and Monetary benefits or Non-Financial Motivators like take great pride in, sense of achievements, responsibility, belief, concern and interesting job, Respect that are Internal. Possibly the most significant impact of increased employee determination is that of increased efficiency. That is a central target when adopting an incentive program. When you can increase employee desire, productivity will observe and recover the inevitable increased important thing.
Table 1 Four most effective types of motivation
Type of Motivation
Satisfaction in the task itself (pleasure, arousal, learning etc)
Rewards for doing the work (money, promotion, perks etc)
Individual worth (a love of knowledge, ability, security, self-expression etc)
The affect of other folks (competition, collaboration, commitments etc)
Human beings are multifaceted creatures, and we are typically motivated by an assortment of all four elements. This diagram can help make sense of this complexity
The types of desire combine to produce four key areas to focus on when wanting to motivate people.
For example, prior to taking a work, employee will most likely to truly have a minimum anticipation in conditions of pay and opportunities for profession improvement (personal rewards). You'll also want to be certain that it includes you an opportunity to use your skills, learn and stretch yourself in search of a meaningful concern (personal satisfaction). Possibility are you will also want to be given due acknowledgement for your involvement (public acknowledgement). And given the length of time you are going to spend in the group of your co-workers, you will probably want them to be interesting and interesting company (social interaction). Incorporating different kinds of determination will have the largest impact on performance. Taking a more balanced approach to drive will also help you develop better romantic relationships with everyone on your team.
http://www. wishfulthinking. co. uk/2009/02/11/motivation-during-a-recession/
Deci and Ryan (2000) conducted and replicated an experiment that demonstrated the negative impact of monetary rewards on intrinsic drive and performance. A group of college students were asked to focus on a fascinating puzzle. Some were paid plus some were not payed for the task. The students that were not being paid worked much longer on the puzzle and found it more interesting than the students being paid. When the analysis was helped bring into a office setting, employees noticed that their tendencies was being managed in a dehumanizing and alienating manner by the rewards. It had been learned that rewards would significantly decrease an employee's determination to ever before perform the duty being compensated, or one comparable to it, anytime soon.
Another observation of the study was that employees would expect a reward every time the duty was to be completed if the reward was offered by one time. Employees would require the prize in order to carry out the job and would probably expect the prize to upsurge in amount. In the event the rewards were not increased or if indeed they were recinded they actually offered as negative support.
2. 2 Major Ideas of Motivation
Motivation is not only in one route i. e. downwards. In today's scenario, where the workforce is more knowledgeable, more aware, more informed and goal oriented, the role of inspiration has remaining the restrictions of the hierarchy of management. The Fig below shows the major ideas of motivation that may be applied in the working environment as well on the employees to see the impact of determination on the business all together.
Fig shows Major ideas of Motivation
2. 2. 1 Need Approaches
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Fig Shows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
If determination is powered by the lifetime of unsatisfied needs, then it is advantageous for a administrator to comprehend which needs are the more important for specific employees.
http://www. netmba. com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
By applying Maslow's theory of desire, modern market leaders and managers find way of worker motivation for the purpose of employee and labor force management. The basis of Maslow's theory of desire is that human beings are encouraged by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs need to be satisfied before higher needs can be resolved. As per the teachings of Abraham Maslow, there are general needs (physiological, basic safety, love, and esteem) which have to be satisfied before a person is able to work unselfishly. These needs were dubbed "deficiency needs. " While one is motivated to satisfy these basal dreams, they continue steadily to move toward expansion, and finally self-actualization.
http://www. abraham-maslow. com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs. asp
As a result, for adequate place of work motivation, it is important that authority understands which needs are energetic for individual worker determination. In this regard, Abraham Maslow's model implies that basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and basic safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. As depicted in this hierarchical diagram, sometimes called 'Maslow's Needs Pyramid' or 'Maslow's Needs Triangle', when a need is satisfied it no longer motivates and another higher need took its place.
http://www. abraham-maslow. com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs. asp
Table 2 shows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Biological and Physiological needs
Air, food, drink, shelter, ambiance, sex, sleeping, etc
Protection from elements, security, order, regulation, limits, stableness, etc.
Belongingness and Love needs
Work group, family, love, associations, etc.
Self-esteem, accomplishment, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc
Realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal progress and peak activities.
Source: http://www. businessballs. com/maslow. htm
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Fig: Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory Needs
Source:http://www. envisionsoftware. com/es_img/Alderfer_ERG_Theory. gif
If the ERG theory keeps, then unlike with Maslow's theory, managers must recognize that an worker has multiple needs to satisfy all together. Furthermore, if expansion opportunities are not provided to employees, they could regress to relatedness needs. If the manager can recognize this situation, then steps can be studied to concentrate on relatedness needs before subordinate can pursue development again.
http://www. netmba. com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
Fig: Cleanliness and Inspiration Factors
Source:http://www. biomedcentral. com/content/figures/1472-6920-9-49-1. jpg
The psychologist Fredrick Herzberg asked the questions from employees in the year 1950s and 60s for understanding staff satisfaction. He set out to determine the effect of attitude on determination, by asking visitors to summarize the circumstances where they experienced really good, and really bad, about their jobs. What he found was that folks who experienced good about their careers gave very different responses from the folks who noticed bad. Herzberg's findings revealed that certain characteristics of employment are regularly related to job satisfaction, while different facets are associated with job dissatisfaction shown in Fig?
The conclusion he drew is that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction aren't opposites.
The contrary of Satisfaction is No Satisfaction.
The reverse of Dissatisfaction is not a Dissatisfaction
To apply Herzberg's theory, professionals need to look at a two level process to inspire people. Firstly, managers need eliminate the dissatisfactions the employees are experiencing and, subsequently, managers need to help them find satisfaction.
http://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newTMM_74. htm
McClelland's Discovered Needs Theory
One of McClelland's renowned theories is the fact that human determination is dominated by three needs. McClelland's theory, sometimes known as the three need theory or as the discovered needs theory, categorizes the needs as follows;
The need for achievement
The dependence on power
The dependence on affiliation
The importance of each one of these needs will vary in one person to some other. If the administrator can determine the importance of each of the needs to an individual, it can help the managers to decide how to influence that each.
McClelland asserted that a person's needs are affected by their ethnic background and life experiences. He also asserted that most these needs can be classified as the needs for affiliation, success or power. Someone's motivation and performance can be increased via an environment, which provides them with their ideal mixture of each one of the three needs.
http://www. learnmanagement2. com/DavidMcClelland. htm
2. 2. 2 Cognitive Approach
The expectancy theory says that individuals have different pieces of goals and can be determined if indeed they have certain expectation. Individuals choose behaviors' based on the final results they expect and the worth they ascribe to people expected benefits (Borders 2004). Vroom's Expectancy theory is situated upon the next three variables which he calling Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality valances (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Riston & Scott-Ladd 2006).
Valence identifies the value an individual in person places on the reward or upon the expected results of a predicament. The Valence is high if the reward available is of interest to us. When you have an increased valence you tend to have higher drive (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Riston & Scott-Ladd 2006).
Expectancy is the fact that your efforts will result in attainment of the required performance. This perception is generally based upon somebody's past experience, self-confidence. Expectancy would be zero if an individual believed it were impossible to attain a given performance level (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Riston & Scott-Ladd 2006).
Instrumentality is the belief that the success of the problem is from the expected result of the situation, e. g. it's removed effectively, so I'd expect praise. It is also the belief that if one matches the performance objectives, she or he will receive a greater prize. This reward may come by means of a pay increase, promotion, acknowledgement or sense of accomplishment. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Riston & Scott-Ladd 2006)
Equity Theory/ Community Comparison Theory
Source: http://www. businessballs. com/adamsequitytheory. htm
According to Equity theory the employees perceive what they get from employment situation (outcomes) in relation to what they placed into it (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes percentage with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others (Shown in Fig). If a worker perceives her proportion to be equal to those of relevant others, circumstances of equity is available. In other words, she perceives that her situation is fair-that justice prevails. However, if the proportion is unequal, inequity exists and she views herself as under rewarded or over rewarded.
Source: http://www. businessballs. com/adamsequitytheory. htm
Goal Arranging Theory of Motivation
Goal-setting theory "targets figuring out the types of goals that are most effective in producing high degrees of drive and performance and explaining why goals have these effects. " Goal-setting theory is found within the field of organizational patterns; however, it can be put on any standard area where goals may be performed. http://www. ehow. com/about_5382265_goalsetting-theory-motivation. html
Source: http://faculty. washington. edu/janegf/goalsetting. html
Clear (not hazy) and understandable, so we know very well what to do and what not to do.
Challenging, so we are stimulated and not be fed up.
Achievable, so we could unlikely to are unsuccessful.
If other folks established us goals without our participation, then our company is much less apt to be motivated to work hard at it than if we feel we've set or aimed the target ourselves. http://changingminds. org/explanations/theories/goals. htm
2. 2. 3 REINFORCEMENT THEORY
Reinforcement theory of drive overlooks the internal state of individual, i. e. , the interior emotions and drives of individuals are disregarded by Skinner. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he will take some action. Exterior environment of the organization must be designed effectively and favorably so as to motivate the employee. This theory is a solid tool for examining controlling system for individual's behavior. http://www. managementstudyguide. com/reinforcement-theory-motivation. htm
Table 3: Reinforcement schedule
positive reinforcement (increase above baseline)
negative reinforcement (increase up to baseline)
punishment (lower below baseline)
extinction (stay at baseline)
Source: http://motivationcentre. blogspot. com/2006/03/reinforcement-theory. html
Table 4 Types of Reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement
This implies supplying a positive response when an individual shows positive and required action. Ex lover. You make a sales, you get a fee. You do a good job; you get a reward &a campaign.
This implies pleasing an employee by detatching negative / unwanted consequences. Both negative and positive reinforcement can be utilized for increasing desirable / required behaviour.
It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies lowering the likelihood of undesired behaviour by detatching reward for that kind of behaviour. For instance - if a worker no longer gets praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behaviour is making no fruitful outcome. Extinction may unintentionally lower advisable behaviour
It implies getting rid of positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behavior in future. Quite simply, punishment means making use of undesirable outcome for showing unwanted behaviour. For example - Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules.
Source: http://www. managementstudyguide. com/reinforcement-theory-motivation. htm
2. 3 Management Style Influencing Motivation
Leadership style is the manner and way of providing course, implementing programs, and motivating people (Kurt Lewin, 1939). Management Style influences the amount of drive of employees. Different Market leaders have different style for handling the employees working under them. Fig clarifies the design of command influencing the motivation of employees.
Fig: Management Style Vs motivation
Source: http://www. motivation-tools. com/workplace/leadership_styles. htm
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