Theories of Business Ethics: Definite and Relative

Introduction to Business Ethics:

Business ethics is the critical study and evaluation of the ethical dilemmas and conditions that are lifted by business activity. This introductory workshop includes discussions of sensible case studies as well as some grounding in a number of ethical theories. The discussion-based format was created to encourage moral literacy in students by allowing them the chance to think about and question the types of ethical problems they could face in the world of commercial activity. Business ethics can be an applied branch of general ethics must be analyzed from the point of view of philosophy. This is because ethics is an integral part of moral guidelines; we won't know ethics without having to be philosophical.

Development and qualifications of theoretical moral approaches

Ethics have been part of drugs right from the start. Some statements in the Hippocratic Oath package with healthcare ethics. Ibn Sina published about ethics. Nervous about ethics before was not as intensive as it reaches the moment. It was assumed that doctors would be ethical and moral in their work and this was true to a large magnitude because religiosity was a leading characteristic of life in the past. Towards the previous one fourth of the 20thcentury honest considerations became a significant concern for two reasons. The first reason is the fact that developments in medical technology offered rise to problems such as life-support, in-vitro fertilization while others that possessed moral sizes.

European ethics is thought as other ways of understanding and evaluating the moral life. The approach to a moral problem in medicine is determined by the background culture, viewpoint of life and worldview. You will find three European methods to ethical research: normative or practical, and non-normative ethics. The normative is exactly what should be done. Applied ethics is what most people do. It seeks to find sensible solutions to genuine problems without necessarily theoretical considerations. Non-normative ethics will try to determine factually the actual real situation is. Non-normative ethics is a explanation of what is going on. It may also be related to language, concepts, methods, and meanings. (Sr. , 2001)

Business ethics is the frame of mind and ways in which a small business is made and the way in which a business deal with the entire world. Many businesses react in divert or different ways depend on just how it's made by the owners of the business enterprise. Business ethics serves as a process and standard that is guiding behavior of people available. Many business have different reputation is determined by the ways that they are shaped some business have bad reputation while some have bad reputation. Some businesses are formed for the money making venture although some are produced because they would like to generate income and at the same time want to give its customers maximum satisfaction. The way in which a business is formed results in ethical behavior. Ethics is a set of moral principles that a business should follow and values that a business should embraced in order for a business to reach your goals. Most business should have a code of ethics for the business to truly have a principle guiding the business enterprise so the business can be flourishing. (Matten, 1997)

Compare and contrast total and relative ethics.

Absolute and comparative ethics:

Personal and ethnic values are relative for the reason that they are different between people, and on a larger scale, between folks of different cultures. Alternatively, there are theories of the life ofabsolute values, which can be termednominalvalues(and not to be puzzled with numerical absolute value). A complete value can be described as philosophicallyand self-employed of individual and cultural views, as well as impartial of whether it is known or apprehended or not.

Relative value may be thought to be an 'experience' by subjects of the complete value. Relative value thus can vary with specific and ethnic interpretation, while total value remains constant, irrespective of specific or collective 'experience' than it.

In total ethics the belief that there is only one fact and code of do which people generally perception in, which everyone obey and it is the reality and everyone must obey it and folks should be aware of it. The general belief is that there surely is a general moral standard. There is certainly difference between what's right and incorrect.

In relative ethics the opinion of comparative ethics is bottom part on the actual fact that there is only solo moral standard which applies to all human being. The moral ideas and notion of human being differ from each other and also people belief in different area of the world is also different from one another which show that there is no secure moral standard on the planet. Relative ethics say there is absolutely no universal moral standard in the world. The comparative ethics says that there is no difference between what's right and what is incorrect. (Tibor, 1978)

Ethical issues which make a difference the functional activities of business:

Ethics identifies a prescribed or accepted code of carry out. Ethical issues are a set of moral values that require to be dealt with while undertaking business. Businesses operate in a contemporary society that is organised around moral ideals. Therefore, when executing its operations, an enterprise has certain obligations which are to supply the contemporary society with quality goods and services that will increase the people's living requirements.

In order to make it through, a business must maintain steadily its customers. Product packaging is one way of guaranteeing a business keeps its existing customers and also acquire clients. Some companies are recognized to allow underweight packaging of products that happen to be then highly listed and this is a rude way ofincreasing profits. However this negative craze will affect the business over time as customers will eventually come to discover that they are really being swindled. So that they can increase sales, some businessmen conform promotional methods that mislead customers as the concept conveyed might not give the exact details of the product. Businesses should desist from increasing prices without valid reasons. In doing this, they will be taking good thing about the customer and this is unethical. Businessmen should also desist from getting involved in corrupt methods such as reselling low standard goods while bribing administration officials in order to continue functioning. Entrepreneurs should consider the effects of their activities on the culture they provide.

In the long term, incorrect dealings and problem will tarnish the image of the business and have a negative effect on sales. Business people ought to comply with regulations requirements and observe laid down key points of morality in their dealings. They should seriously consider objectives of the community they serve. (Nyabwa, 2010)

Business targets are affected by the ethical consideration

Ethical Account:

Ethical things to consider help a small business to achieve its aims and goals of the business. Ethical considerations is very important in a company when business are done ethically the business will be profitable and meet up with the expectation of its stakeholders. For instance a good example is child labour in some cloth retailer in the United Kingdom where the development plant is at Asia, the workers are paid below the least income and also subject to poor working conditions. This is mentioned to be unethical to business and also to employees who are being paid below the lowest wages because in line with the labour legislations, all workers must be paid minimum amount wage and when workers are paid below the least wages it is termed to be unfair. Listed below are the business objectives.


The seeks and objectives of each business is to make profit although some company are shaped for charity purpose but most business are formed because they would like to make profit and meet the demand of its customers by any means time.

Ethical and interpersonal responsibility:

The reason for every business purpose is based on the perception and how to make its environmentally friendly to customers and safe. Some business also belief to be mindful or provide for the less privilege in our culture especially the disabled who need special care and attention, for instance in the UK the federal government provide special disable bathroom for all the disable and they can utilize the toilet in every the general public places.

Meet the stakeholder's expectation:

Every business is made by individuals who are responsible for the affairs and who has interest in all the activities of the company. There are various stakeholders who are part of the success and management of each business within an organisation. For good examples, customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders and communities are stakeholders within an organisation who contribute to all the activities in an organisation. The aims of each business are to meet the expectation of all the stakeholders because they're part of the decision maker plus they donate to the success of the business.

Sales Development:

The aims of most business are to increase its sales. Expand and start more branches and make brands because there are so many organisations that are contending with each other so most organisation want to offer the best customers service to all or any its customers and offer good customers satisfaction to all or any its customers all time because of strive market competition. (McDonald, 2003)

Implications of business and its own stakeholders to use ethically

Ethical Business:

Ethical companies do more than merely provide goods and services for customers. In addition they make a real contribution to the areas in which they operate by:

  • creating job and job security
  • providing products that provide consumers value for money
  • contributing to creating a more caring and cared-for community (Fishers, 2001)

All businesses have a number of stakeholder groupings, each with different interests in what the business enterprise does. Companies - perhaps the key stakeholders - want good financial performance off their investments. Business managers know that it is their first responsibility to provide good financial results. However, while it was always acknowledged that businesses are present in a diverse public, economic and political environment, today additionally it is accepted a business should be been able with the pursuits of all stakeholders at heart.


Stockholders are owners of the company. Stockholders invest money into an organization and expect the best return possible. Stockholders want professionals to do everything possible to increase returns, and that means trimming costs and nurturing revenue. Stockholders are generally averse to any measure that boosts costs, unless it also escalates the profit percentage. Stockholders want all revenue to be passed on to them, however the company itself may want to save those profits for just about any downturns.

Suppliers and Customers:

Holding on to supplier payments so long as possible damages romantic relationships with those suppliers, but it could add interest to the amount of money in the bank, therefore increasing company income and stockholder dividends. Suppliers expect devotion. Companies may choose cheaper products or parts from suppliers that may not be the same quality, but will be less expensive. Customers do not need inferior products, but they are price delicate and want personal savings passed on to them.

Employees and Population:

Giving pay boosts or paying severance pay reduces the profits of the company, therefore lowering the stockholders' results on the investment. Employees expect raises and bonus deals when the business is profitable. Outsourcing labour abroad influences both employees and contemporary society negatively, especially if the other country encourages child labour or poor wages. Outsourcing also triggers distrust, decreased motivation and low morale in employees. (Smith, 2007) Task 3

Role of company operating as moral agent:

Moral Agent:

A moral agent is a being that is "with the capacity of acting with regards to right and wrong". A moral agent is anything that can be kept responsible for behavior or decisions. "It is moral agents who have rights and duties, since it is moral brokers whom we take to have options and the power to choose". If we do not assume that anything or anyone should ever be blamed or considered responsible, then we are going against the thought of moral organization, and denying the idea of responsibilities and rights.

Role of Company:

When company is deemed a moral agent, it does not necessarily mean they are successfully making moral decisions. It means they are in a category that allows them to be blamed. If someone is unable to be blamed, then they don't have rights. Being a moral agent means that they can be held responsible for their decisions and behaviours, whether they are good or bad.

All of your business's decisions, whether honest or not, will have an impact on the world, starting with your employees and your customers and increasing to the bigger community. Low salary will likely lead to a low-skilled or disappointed work force. A poorly made or dangerous product could harm a customer. Monitor the brief- and long-term effects of your business decisions to ensure your organization impacts the earth in a positive way

In some sense, all customers of an organization are responsible for the effects of its initiatives. But top-level professionals often have usage of information that low-level employees do not, so they bear a larger part of responsibility for the organization's decisions. Low-rung employees have less knowledge and electricity, so they have less responsibility for the results of the organization's activities. (Mack, 2009)

Development of the device for achieving employee participation and empowerment

Employee involvement is a viewpoint practiced by companies that gives their employees stake in decisions that immediately affect their careers, while employee empowerment is a commercial structure that allows non-managerial employees to make autonomous decisions. Each is a distinct practice and is usually mutually exclusive to one another, though the benefits can be similar.

The main benefits of employee participation and empowerment are improved morale, more productivity and technology.

Enhanced Morale:

Involving employees in decisions and insurance plan changes that directly affect their job, while empowering employees to be more autonomous, greatly improves morale at large. When employees are treated as an asset and their insight is given consideration, confidence boosts among every team member, and the business sees significant gains in several facets such as efficiency and commitment.

Improved Efficiency:

Employee engagement and empowerment translates straight into increased efficiency. Employees with an investment in the company's best interest increase their role in the business, fostering a more robust work ethic.


Employee empowerment really helps to cultivate innovation. Employees which have a stake in the business's progress and sustainability will offer you more ideas and problem-solving solutions when obstacles come up. In addition, as the employee meets particular difficulties or finds improvements in policies, techniques or products, it will foster growth and much more critical and imaginative thinking. (Owen, 2001)

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