Motivation is one of the very most heavily researched areas within modern psychology. Dawson 1986(cited in Thomas & McHugh, 2009, p. 307) expresses that inspiration "refers to the mainspring of behaviours; it points out why individuals expend a degree of effort towards achieving particular goals". Throughout the years, many psychologists have looked at desire and created an array of theories to try and explain what drive is and what in truth motivates us as individuals. Looking further into these theories, nearly all theories will come under two headings; content ideas and process ideas. These headings express what the target of the theory will in reality be. The concentration of content ideas is that everybody has the same group of needs; this is why they display certain behaviours. Contrastingly, Process theories look at the individuals cognitive functions. This article will compare and contrast two of the very most influential ideas of motivation thus far; Abraham Maslow's 'hierarchy of needs' and Fredrick Herzberg's 'two factor theory'. This article will use these theories to explain how a team head might use these to inspire their associates.
Abraham Maslow specified one of many theories of desire; the 'Hierarchy of needs'. This hierarchy included five needs that determine most of our behaviour. This theory claims that an specific must fulfil certain basic needs within their lives before they can 'climb' the hierarchy and look to fulfil more advanced needs. These needs start from physiological needs; basic needs for food and shelter and culminate with self-actualisation needs; the more advanced needs to develop our potential. (Fincham & Rhodes, 2005). Maslow explained that we do offer an innate want to automatically ascend the hierarchy once a lower order need is satisfied. (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007).
Looking at how team market leaders may use this theory to motivate employees, the internal needs of the average person need to be looked at. That's where each individual starts off within the hierarchy. The nature of possessing down a job fulfils our primal needs of success. By offering a person a job and subsequently a salary or income, it allows these to fulfil these basic needs by providing themselves among others they are accountable for with food, shelter and comfort. (Wilson, 2003). By completing this team market leaders have effectively encouraged their workers and they are rewarding this need and people have to be motivated by this need before they can move onto the second rung of the hierarchy; security needs.
Looking further into Maslow's hierarchy of needs, there are a great many other ways that a team innovator could effectively utilise this theory to inspire their team. For example, after people have achieved physiological needs, they'll look for security needs. (Fincham & Rhodes, 2005). Team leaders can look at these security needs and look at what techniques they can utilize to ensure that the individual is motivated by these needs. One thing they could do is by creating a protected climate. Working environments have become safer over time thanks to a variety of different factors including legislation. In case a team head deploys initiatives that help the average person feel they can be safe at the job, their safeness needs will be fulfilled and this will be an effective motivator.
Even though Maslow's work has been highly influential in the area of motivation, it could be criticised on many matters. Firstly, it isn't backed by a huge amount of empirical research, which is needed for a theory to gain validity. Furthermore, his theory can be criticised for human population validity, his theory is dependant on American, white, middle class individuals, even though his theory was proposed as a widespread theory. So this can't be generalised to the wider population. (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007). Contrastingly, Herzberg's theory will try and offer some information to rear up its cases. Primarily, his theory might have been criticised for inhabitants validity, as he only interviewed 203 Pittsburgh accountants and technicians. Wanting to verify his theory was universal and also to eliminate these criticisms, Herzberg went on to draw samples from a further 1, 685 participants who ranged in job. (Wilson, 2003). Eager to help expand reduce these criticisms and show that his theory is at fact universal, he undertook research in many other countries, including: Hungary, Italy, Israel, Japan & South Africa. (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007).
The other theory this article can look at is Fredrick Herzberg's 'two factor theory'. Just like Maslow's theory, Herzberg's two factor theory, it has had a profound effect on organisations over time. Compared to Maslow's theory, one similarity that may be stated is that they both place motivation on a level. Maslow places his theory over a hierarchal size, whereas similarly, Herzberg uses two factors; motivators and hygenes as the scales upon which inspiration is looked at.
Herzberg developed a 'two factor theory'. This broke down two lists of factors that impact an individual in the office. These were 'motivators' and 'hygenes'. Motivators were placed under this proceeding as they appeared to offer some satisfaction to the employee and as the title advises these were in truth motivating. (Fincham & Rhodes, 2005). Contrastingly, Herzberg mentioned that 'cleanliness' factors were merely to prevent job satisfaction and not actually there to inspire and individual (Doyle, 2003). Motivators included factors such as; accomplishment, recognition and also responsibility. In addition, 'health' factors include factors such as; salary, work conditions and relationships with co-workers. (Wilson, 2003).
Looking at what sort of team leader could use this theory to inspire their workers, the set of motivators may help them to create initiatives that catered for these needs. For instance, they could offer employees more responsibility. Responsibility is one of the 'motivators' that offers individuals job satisfaction. In case a team leader recognises this, they can utilise this and motivate workers to work more effectively. So, for example, they could offer individuals more responsibility within the certain portion of their job, individuals will feel satisfied by this and in turn be determined. One way in which team leaders could do this is by job enrichment. Job enrichment was utilised effectively by experiments in the 1960's and 70's. American mobile company AT & T showed the effectiveness of this by employing job enrichment. In turn, they found a '27% reduction in the termination rate and a development cost saving of $558, 000' (Wilson, 2003).
Another way, when a team leader might use this theory to stimulate their team members, is to ensure that cleanliness factors are present within the working environment. Health factors are those which have the potential to cause dissatisfaction. They do not motivate the average person; these are just required so that the specific can be encouraged by the motivators. During his research Herzberg discovered that company policy and administration; that happen to be hygiene factors, was at least partially to be blamed for 31% of reported dissatisfaction' (Wilson, 2003). This shows how significant hygiene factors are in a organisation. A team leader could use this theory, by ensuring that all the hygiene factors are set up for an associate. For example, salary, work place and company regulations. When a team member enforces many of these factors, an employee can feel satisfied and then can get determined by the motivators that are also associated with Herzberg's theory.
Comparing both theories, it could be said that there are distinctions between Maslow's and Herzberg's ideas. Maslow started out that there is a hierarchy to check out, and for a person to 'climb' in the hierarchy, they need to first complete the lower order needs. The needs will not be effective motivators until they may be completed. If an individual doesn't complete a level, they can't improve to their ultimate goal; self-actualisation. Maslow stated that very few people actually reach self-actualisation. ( Huczynski & Buchanan 2007). Contrastingly, Herzberg theory does not give attention to this. There is absolutely no level to complete in his theory. Hygenes and motivators are not positioned in a structure where one must be performed before another. This illustrates the actual fact that both theories have a new structure and exactly how they place emphasis on different things. Maslow's theory seems a rigid structure, whereas, Herzberg's does not have any order in which factors are completed which shows flexibility, for an extent.
Further comparing the two ideas, one similarity are available between the two. Herzberg's ' Motivators' can be seen as the most notable two factors of the hierarchy of needs and also the ' hygenes' is seen as the other 3 factors of the hierarchy of needs. This can be seen to correspond to the other person and Herzberg's work was inspired by Maslow and this is clearly visible within his theory. (Montana & Charnov, 2008). Furthermore, another similarity that may be found between your two theories is that they both have specific standards that an person must fulfil to be determined. With Maslow, this is a 'hierarchy' of needs, whereas with Herzberg it is just a set of two factors. Maslow's hierarchy includes; physiological needs, protection needs, owed needs, esteem needs and finally self-actualisation. (Preziosi, 2008). Herzberg theory also offers a specific conditions relating to motivation. The basis of the theory is two factors; hygenes and motivators. Specific hygenes and motivators include salary and responsibility. What is seen in these theories that there is a lot of focus on higher order needs. Self-actualisation sometimes appears as you of the most important things to achieve and Maslow argued that it's one of the best goals. (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007).
When considering these theories another similarity is plainly apparent; they have both been criticised and the validity of both these ideas has been questioned many times. For example, both theories don't extensively look at motivation and appearance at the differences between males and females. Research into these areas shows that males and females are motivated in a different way and not in the same way as where these theories propose. For instance Betz 1984, (cited in Fiona M Wilson, 2003, p 113) analysis demonstrates homemakers are much more likely to focus on the low levels in comparison to working women. This shows how even within females, the way in which needs motivate are different, so there is definitely a difference between men and women. Research regarding Herzberg's theory shows that males and females differ when it comes from what they are worried with at the job. Donnell & Hall 1980 (cited in Fiona M Wilson, 2003, p 116) discovered that females focused on opportunities for growth, autonomy and concern. Whereas, males viewed work environment and pay. This research shows how there's a clear difference between males and females in regards to motivational factors and how any theory must always be studied with caution. However, it requires to be known that both these theories have been highly significant within psychology and have stood the test of time.
In conclusion, when looking at these theories there are clear similarities and dissimilarities. These have been talked about at length throughout the article. One of many similarities is the fact that both have clear conditions of what motivates individuals. However, it is also important to consider the variations. With regards to the differences, one which sticks out is the fact that the theories differ in the manner they identify how a person progresses and achieves these needs. Maslow areas that an individual must progress through the hierarchy, whereas Herzberg just claims that there are two factors of motivators and can be achieved anytime, without necessity for doing other needs. In addition to this, the essay also looked at what sort of team innovator would use these theories to motivate their team members. For example, a team innovator could use Maslow's theory by looking at a certain need that they could fulfil e. g. security needs. In addition to this, a team leader could use Herzberg's theory by deploying techniques that use 'motivators', which in turn will offer job satisfaction and motivate their associates. Maslow & Herzberg's ideas have both provided valuable insights into inspiration and will will have certain relevance in organisational psychology.
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