Keywords: taylorism, relevancy of taylorism, fordism
The manifestation of Frederick Taylor's theory of medical management was a significant breakthrough in traditional approach to management process. Concurrently, as management theory developed little by little Taylor's theory was seriously criticised and its own role decreased dramatically to the extent that nowadays it is argued whether methodical management still exists. It isn't difficult to find types of Scientific Management in the current modern world; we can easily see the automobile industry which use a similar way as well as the computer making vegetation even some private hospitals, the vast majority of them function more proficiently due to the application of Scientific Management. However, as stated these organisations use a 'similar' way, so therefore, in this essay I will attempt to discover if or how much is Frederick Taylor's theory of technological management still employed by managers in its 100 % pure form.
Taylor's experience at the Midvale Material Company resulted in the beginning of scientific method of management. As he did the trick there he recognized that the labour productivity was generally inefficient scheduled to a labor force that functioned by "rules of thumb". He started his tests at the place of work in order to change the traditional "guidelines" by factual medical knowledge. The backbone of the activity was his "Time And Motion Review" where he worked out how they can reduce the volume of motions in carrying out a task to be able to increase production. This component of his theory continues to be widely used by managers today, which is evident in McDonalds, who use one standardised process e. g. to make a burger, which personnel have to follow. This standardised process and the 5 key points of clinical management* come up with have evidently been used and became the best way for such organisations to attain their ultimate productivity because they are the globe leading junk food chain. Places for example Dubai or India, customers are guaranteed their order within 60 seconds, and this promise can only attended from the use of Taylor's Time and Movement study. Taylor's test led him to believe, workers are motivated only by money and he marketed the idea of "A fair days purchase a fair times work" which I will get into later in this essay.
* The 5 rules of technological management:
- A clear section of responsibilities and responsibilities
- Use technological methods to determine the 'one best way' to do a job
- Scientific collection of best person for the newly designed job
- Ensure workers are trained to perform the job the 'one best way'
- Strict security of workers using a hierarchy of expert and close supervision
Every manager will have their own design of management; however, every manager has to use strategies which can be compatible with the organisations characteristics of work and the culture of the organisation. Taylor experienced his methodology was rebelled and criticised to be rigid and inflexible because simply staff did not want the change. Therefore professionals have to think deep about which strategy to use in their company and seek means of achieving greater overall flexibility in the labor force. Among the major giants nowadays Google do not apply Taylor's "machine" metaphor to their organisations labor force and concentrate more on the Hawthorne experiment where certain tests were completed by George Elton Mayo at the Hawthorne Works. His research conclusions were welcomed as it showed that the labor force is more of an asset to the organisation. This increased motivation and productivity appeared to boost as well as in quality because his tests lasted 5 years therefore, he had higher data to sketch conclusions from unlike Taylor. Therefore, Google allows their labor force to have the freedom to work at desired times and the environment is custom designed by the workforce. Google's organisational composition enables the labor force to work in clubs on jobs which showed in Mayo's experiments that employed in organizations can be highly successful.
The two organisations I've mentioned above are well forward in their business world using completely contrasting strategies. You can say that they both are in different market industries, where one requires high ground breaking and creative skills and the other requires hands and legs, well that is one finish this essay can make that Taylorism continues to be useful today with regards to the product and framework of an company. A piece rate system will not suit Google, therefore they will not have Taylor's theory put on their organisation. Moreover his "best method" idea will also not suit all organisations because to be impressive and creative there can't be just one best method.
Another interesting point is since 1960 enough time when the downturn of Taylor's theory had started, charitable organisations experienced began to increase, and this can be seen in the Fig 1. 1 below. The graph shows that folks were willing to work voluntarily without money being their main motivation. This proves that Taylor's thinking about money being the one factor was wrong. Therefore again charitable organisations which there are loads of today will not be using Taylor's methods in their work place. However, during a time of a crisis such organisations may apply Taylor's "most practical method" on the assembly line, to get to people in need at the earliest opportunity. Again we can easily see some of Taylor's theory being used but still not in its real form.
Fordism is another management theory which has its roots predicated on the theory of clinical management. The idea combined the idea of the moving assembly line together with Taylor's systems of department of labour and piece rate repayment. With Fordism, careers are computerized or divided into unskilled or semi-skilled jobs. The rate of the constant flow assembly lines dictates work. Although Ford led just how of development in the assembly of consumer goods, such as autos, his theory got the faults of Taylor's. Theory X management ensures a higher division of labour in order to effectively run mass production; this causes little office democracy leading to unsatisfied workforce (Nelson, 1980). Furthermore, equipment is given more importance than staff. Only the factor of piece rate can be employed in a few organisations today by professionals.
Overall clinical management appears to be an incomplete system, which managers make an effort to complete today by using some elements and integrate it with other theories for example Maslow's hierarchy and Herzberg's theory.
Employees now seem to be to become more brilliant then before, people have began to value themselves more but as observed in both the Metallic vegetable under Taylor's management and atlanta divorce attorneys McDonald's restaurant on the globe, labour is becoming "deskilled". As jobs are divided, and workers jobs are made easier, humans become little more than "machines" in the chain. They are not content with only fiscal compensation for their responsibilities. Under Taylor's Scientific Management system employees were seen as working exclusively for economic incentive. In current organisations, on the other side, it has been recognised that productivity and success is not merely obtained by money and control of workforce but by contributing to the interpersonal well-being and development of the average person employee. Every staff out there is there to fight and be promoted, not simply are machines.
In conclusion, it can be seen that Scientific Management continues to be very much a part of any company in the 21st Century. Its strengths in setting up a separate between management functions and work functions have been applied widely by any means levels and in every industries. Furthermore its strengths in making organisations efficient through substitute of "rules of thumb" with technological fact have covered with insurance its widespread program. Given that all modern organisations focus on a factual basis and most of them have managerial and worker buildings competition is controlled by other factors outside the boundary of Scientific Management. Modern organisations prioritise interpersonal factors such as employee initiative, devotion and adaptability alongside efficiency. For this reason, Taylor's declare that workers are only concerned with monetary reward and that each action of work needs to be manipulated from above seems outdated, untrue, and impractical.
It is perhaps then better Scientific Management theory in its pure form is not noticeable in modern organisations, however, elements of it are so relevant that they have become deeply ingrained in every modern organisations with other ideas mixed and matched. These are the very reasons why management has taken on new sizing in the 21st Century.
I believe that Taylor's methods in its natural form still can be found in developing countries. Simply because little organisations put their manufacturing facility where labour is cheap and it is in need of money. Therefore, Taylor's saying "A fair days purchase a fair days work" could work very well there, presenting organisations high production for cheap labour.
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