Unitary Perspective: A Unitary point of view has one way to obtain authority and one concentrate of loyalty, which is why it advises team analogy. Each allows his place and his functions gladly, following the authority of the one so appointed. Fox (1966) ( pg 2).
Pluralistic Point of view: A Pluralist body of research recognises that the legitimacy and justification of trade union in our modern culture rests not after their protecting function in labour market segments or upon their success, real or supposed, in bringing up the share loved by their associates, but on social ideals which recognise the right of interest-group to combine and have a powerful tone of voice in their own destiny. This means using a tone of voice in decision making.
Marxist Perspective: the Marxist point of view sees the process and establishment of joint rules as an improvement rather that reduction in management's position; at best they provide only limited and temporary accommodation of the inherent and important department within capitalist based work and public structure.
In the article we would be concentrating more on unitary perspective and pluralistic point of view as they may have closer relevance to the statement/argument. The article gives the outline of how various perspective effect your choice making process. The consequences of varied factors on factors like worker relations, employee deal, job laws, and perspectives have been mentioned representing them with a few instances.
The organization is the "master", the staff is the "servant". As the corporation is the owner of the means of production without which the employee could not earn a living, the employee needs the organization more than vice versa.
Peter Drucker - Business - Capitalism - Work
Management regards its own unilateral decision-making over Individual Resource concern as authentic and rational; any opposition to it, either external or internal to the company, sometimes appears as irrational.
Managements unilateral decision making over Individual Resource concern is genuine and rational can be accepted only if the employer and employee feel that they may be one big family (unitary point of view). As fox has summarised that the unitary point of view can be justified when employees and employers have a goal and objective i. e. , to increase the success of the company and staff willingly recognize to obey your choice used by the management. Armstrong (1999) says that the school of thought of Human Source Management with its emphasis on dedication and mutuality is based on the unitary point of view. fox also suggests that in unitary point of view 'there are no clubs. Nor are they any outside it; the team stands by itself, the participants (employees) own an obligation of devotion to their leader' Fox (1966) (p. 03).
Therefore from the above sources it is clear that your choice considered by the management is reputable and rational and it's the duty of the employees to follow it without opposing it. The employers are accountable for the effective functioning of the company and they could have a permanent strategies of the organisation and the decisions would be taken based on the company eye-sight and targets. The employees need to understand that the employers would always think to better the business and maximize the gains, opposing decisions used by them wouldn't normally only be disloyalty shown on the organisation but also unethical practise to not in favor of the individuals who have provided them with food and shelter which will be the basic needs (Maslow's hierarchy). These statement is very strong in countries like India where in fact the trade unions have significantly more politics view than the welfare of the associates of the trade unions. The trade unions go on strikes merely to overpower the management. State governments like Western world Bengal where the trade unions hold the upper palm to the management. That's the main reason why no multinational company wishes to set up their bottom part in western world Bengal. Whereas says like Karnataka where in fact the unions are discouraged attended up because the IT industry does not encourage trade unions. 'It may not impact the Industry, but there would be change in the conception and image of the industry if trade unions are introduced. We must seriously consider whether it's the right time to get trade unions in the IT sector. It could injure the industry' Kris Gopalakrishnan, CEO & MD, Infosys Technology (Forbes scored Infosys on the list of 5 best carrying out companies in the program and services sector in the world). The success of the organisation has been unitarist approach. Unitary perspective also overcomes the issues of disputes between rivalry unions. In this technique the accountability becomes clear because many people are assigned a responsibility.
Unitary perspective procedure towards job legislation is unilateral in interior laws. A unitary strategy manager will take all the decisions without the consultation of the employees as the workplace would know best for the employees. If the decision would be put ahead to the employees there would be issues of interest. For example during the recent tough economy period, when the companies had to place off employees it could not be a good idea for the company to talk to its union about whom and just how many are to be removed. The union which is developed for the welfare of the employees wouldn't normally agree to such decisions and therefore it would cause strikes (Aircraft Airways employees contacting for a strike because 150 of its employees received the pink slide. The company was going through huge deficits and the only path it could reduce its reduction would be by reducing its man vitality that was not accepted by the Union, hence it resulted in strike). It is therefore essential for an company to limitations the power of trade unions in decision making. When the Theory X and Theory Y- Mc Gregor's is taken into consideration it shows that employees of Theory X would oppose any decision taken by the management as the employees under theory X dislike work, nor value the company goals. Thus it is needed for the management to consider the decisions and employees opposing it are seen as irrational. However the organisation does not have any control over the exterior Job Laws because exterior job regulation includes forces which can be partially outside the enterprise. Therefore, the company doesn't have complete control over the exterior job legislation.
In context with the labour deal, the unitary perspective supervisor recruits the employees for a particular assignment so when an employee enters into a agreement with the employer it's his/her work/responsibility to follow instructions distributed by the employer, as the affirmation relates anyone opposing it sometimes appears as irrational would be true because when an employee moves against the agreement it is irrational or not gratifying the conditions of the deal. The technique of discussions and bargaining is not prompted in unitary perspective because the organisations face the situation of firstly knowing the right union (multiple amounts of unions in an company has increased). Which means only way to resolve this issue would be non acknowledgement of unions. In the event the management needs to make unilateral decisions which has to be accepted by the employees' the decision makers need to have a few characteristics in them. First of all they should have a problem solving ability and how they can match the wider program. Secondly they should have a strong desire to attain the goals, they should be self positive and self disciplined, they must have the ability to listen and talk effectively. Finally they should be analytical and clever (never to brilliant). Robert. H. & David Wilson. Handling organisations. (Pg198)
When Unitarism relates to the labour process it becomes clear that the management has the whole power to make all the decisions because in it is recognized that all the raw materials, means of development and the product of labour belongs to the management. Which means decisions taken by the management are authentic and logical as they own everything and anyone opposing would be considered as irrational. The assertion holds true in this example because once a person/company are the owners of a specific thing, he/they should have the independence to do what he/they wish to accomplish with it, without anyone's disturbance. When there's a problem with the organisation it is the management that is performed accountable for it. For example even if an employee has faulted in his work and the customer may involve some problem with it is the organisation that must pay the compensation to the clients not the employee.
The statement is only suitable for a unitary strategy organisation but they have its own pull backs which are low worker morale, low production and absenteeism, negative attitude towards work/ job, management rivalry, disagreement, incompatibility, incongruence. There may be various known reasons for the following. But to avoid the next there should be a two way communication between your staff and the workplace. These theory can be accepted but to a certain degree as the exterior factors can't be handled by the company. Factors like source, demand, government insurance policies all play a significant role in the working of any organisation. Therefore exterior factors can't be regarded as irrational. The company must be flexible and change appropriately to the change in exterior factors. Regarding to Dunlop (1950) industrial relations system consists of three real estate agents - management organizations, staff and formal/casual ways they are really organized and authorities firms. The Dunlop's model provides great value to exterior or environmental causes. In other words, management, labor, and the federal government possess a distributed ideology that identifies their jobs within the partnership and provides balance to the machine. The Dunlop's theory jobs that all the actors have to a understanding; they can not work without each other's support. The effect of a decision taken will impact the other celebrities; therefore considering there disturbance is irrational won't help in the smooth operating of the company. This is why why trade unions were shaped which presents the employees. Trade unions have been recognized by all the government authorities. In a free market unions are prompted as it is symbolic of democracy that allows the employees the right of manifestation. In the modern day business there are new techniques like Delphi method; Quality Circles are unveiled for the betterment of the company. This shows worker participation in your choice making process of the management is becoming very important; therefore the management considering any opposition from the employees as irrational will be wrong.
A unitary approach becomes really hard when the business is a Multi Country wide Company, because the business market would be different in different countries therefore possessing a unilateral approach might not suite the company. To gain a competitive border the organisation needs to make the best use of its resources and there are more chances of mis communications in unitary approach, which may end result into issues.
A pluralistic perspective completely will abide by the aforementioned said affirmation as a pluralistic manager believes conflicts are inevitable. It really is something that can't be avoided. The only way the conflicts can be fixed is by collective bargaining. Within a collective bargaining, it's a Win-Win situation for both the employers and the employees. It continues the morale high and even the productivity high. Therefore considering any disturbance of the employees of the organisation as irrational cannot be justified, it is the right of the employee to truly have a say in your choice considered by the employer as it'll be the employees who would be pursuing those decisions. Ex lover. If an employer decides to increase the switch (working time) it should be consulted with the employees as it'll be them who would be working for extended hours. If your choice is considered without consultation it would result in conflicts. Every organisation has a member representation of the employees because the organisations have comprehended the value of staff satisfaction. Which means above statement can't be agreed on if the company follows pluralistic methodology. Workers in various countries have been opposing the unilateral decision making process. They have the managers have been mis using their powers. Despite the fact that the management is the owner of the company it can only buy the labour ability it cannot buy labour because labour is not saleable, which means management can limit its decisions to labour electricity not labour. Therefore any decision taken which impacts the labour can be opposed and it would be considered as rational.
When pluralism relates to job regulation as explained by Bean (2000) (p. 370) 'it is generally conceded in the liberal democratic world that employees should have the to take part in the making of decisions that critically impact their working lives'. From the above price it shows the value of employee participation in your choice making process. The employers need to understand that employees play a significant role in performing of the company, by concerning them in to the decision making process not only increases the drive of the employees but also improve the production of the employees. In the present day techniques there are several methods adopted prefer to increase employee involvement in the organisation. It may sometimes lead to new fresh ideas which may work in favour of the company. Therefore considering ideas from the employees while making decision can be quite useful. Sometimes these ideas may contradict the decisions of the management, the management needs to analyse the advice and put into action it if it is for the betterment of the organisation. The management cannot examine these ideas as irrational.
While making rules for the organisations various factors effect them, factors like Point out, the option of labour. Supply and demand etc. play a crucial role and none of them can be viewed as as irrational when they oppose the decisions made by the organisation.
The pull backs with pluralistic methodology would be rivalry between the trade unions, it makes it hard for the company to negotiate whenever there are several trade unions' and therefore the unions and the management would loose precious time and money in negotiating the issues. It's the work of the unions to do something as a mediator between the employees and management, but the unions have grown to be so politics that they just see how the party(the political) party they symbolize is benefitted. Example. TATA Nano job was shifted from Singhur (Western world Bengal, India) to Gujarat (India) because the opposition party wanted to put the ruling federal down. There was loss of career for their state (west Bengal) when the company made the decision to move out, and the union did not achieve any gain from it. So that it can be concluded that the unions no longer benefit the welfare of the employees, they have diverted themselves to benefit the political party that is assisting them.
The Marxist procedure areas that the management makes profit by exploiting the labourers, i. e. by paying them low income set alongside the work they did.
From the above arguments and evaluation it becomes clear that the debate can be an Management regards its unilateral decision-making over Human being Resource concern as legitimate and rational; any opposition to it, either external or internal to the company, does apply only in Unitary Point of view but this is implemented in very General public/Private sectors. Some organisations have been successful after implementing such approach but this method cannot be implemented in all sectors as in this fast growing business community and the pace of attrition increasing it becomes very needed for an organisation to manage its employees and other concerns that are attached to the company, considering their opposition as irrational can be quite easily be considered a reason for the downfall of the company. An company may enjoy supreme authority when they have a unitary approach but the organisation to decide its transfers and promotions meticulously. It could play a major role because if a manager is recruited from outside the organisation might not be able to adapt to the organisations culture and there would be regular oppositions for his decisions.
From the above mentioned essay we can argue that no person type of point of view is ideal for all organisations. Some companies may followed a particular point of view and been successful but it generally does not confirm that all companies will be successful by pursuing such a perspective. An company may have both Theory X category employees' and even Theory Y category employees, it's the responsibility of the managers to make use of the resources available and make the best use of them.
To conclude from the above article it could be concluded that an organisation needs to be versatile but must also have specialist over its employees. The management needs to take advice from its employees but the final decision must be studied by the management and it's really the work of the employees to follow the decisions as they are under deal/agreement with the employer to render there services to the company. The management can have complete control over its inside part of the company and anyone opposing it might be going from the contract therefore can be considered as irrational but this is said the same into the external causes, the management does not have complete control over them, and considering their opposition as irrational would not be appropriate. Both perspectives have their own advantages and disadvantages, it is the responsibility of the management to balance their business and make profits after all- 'The only and only social responsibility of an business is to make revenue'- Milton Friedman (Noble Prize in economics).
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