Absolute And Relative Ethics Commerce Essay

There are extensive approaches to ethics. I'll briefly put together two types of theoretical method of ethics and their implications: principle-based solutions, and personality and relationship-based solutions.

Principle-based methods to ethics

It is important to understand this concept. This approach has often been based on two different ethical traditions - Kantianism and utilitarianism. Immanual Kant, was a German philosopher (1724-1804) in the eighteenth-century. He developed a theory of ethics.

This method of ethics is known as 'deontological' or duty-based. It plays a vital role in moral viewpoint and also in professional ethics. 'Folks' are believed to have logical and self-determination - it means they are capable of making choices and acting upon them. For deontological ethics, the important thing isn't the result or result of the action, however the action itself. When the action is wrong, in and of itself, then don't undertake it.

This strategy mainly has its give attention to esteem of the service consumer and also that he is able to make his own decisions. The primary principles in this approach are to keep confidentiality, obtain knowledgeable consent, no discrimination or offering misleading or incorrect information. For Kant, it would be morally wrong to perform any action which is dependant on false information even though the end result is beneficial. According to this approach, we should all respect individual's selections.

Utilitarianism, on the other hand, is a teleological theory. It really is particularly associated with two British philosophers, Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) (Mill 1863/1972). Also known as the consequentialist theory of ethics. The main difference lies in the concept which is in striking contrast when compared with the Kantian ethics. The moral worth (rightness or wrongness) of your action is thought to lay in its consequences; hence if we must decide if an action is right or incorrect, we have to weigh pros and cons and also assume. According to this concept, if lying leads to great outcomes, it would probably be good to lie. This theory relies on the fact that whether something is right or wrong depends on the result or end of this action. Ideas that are enthusiastic about ends are called teleological. The name has originated from the Greek term for 'end' - telos. For a teleological moral thinker, the finish justifies the means. The believers of the theory claim that the rightness of any action is judged by the finish it produces.

In my opinion, people consider both types of honest principles in making decisions. We must make a view that ensures that we are looking at individual's best interest or the welfare of the world at a greater scale.

Absolute and comparative ethics

Absolute ethics contains that there is one widespread moral code which is last and applies similarly to all men of most ages, which changing situations or changing views make no difference whatsoever to the total moral code. Relative or relativistic ethics holds that the moral standard varies with different circumstances. There are so many ethnic and religious distinctions and in a few circumsatnces, it can be ethically appropriate to do certain things however in other situations it might be completely immoral. For instance it is right for Muslim visitors to have four wives but also for a Religious man this might be considered immoral.

Examples of honest issues which can affect the operational activities of a business.

The advantages of ethical behaviour include

Higher earnings - demand from positive consumer support. This can also lead to better brand and business consciousness and popularity. If the business in running in an ethical manner, it could also lead to raised employee inspiration and recruitment. And lastly the business will increase because of new sources of finance.

But sometimes the situation is difficult and there are some ethical issues confronted. It can be difficult to decide as to what is right and what's wrong.

Certain examples are

Use of child labour and forced labour: It is against the law to work with children for work or even to employ someone to do the job against his / her will. They might need the money but it is unethical. Even though the kid or his parents acknowledge and provide their consent, it is unethical and illegitimate to use child labour and do forced labour.

Production in sweatshops is also unethical. Sweatshop is a manufacturer or production place where in fact the working environment considered to be unacceptably difficult or dangerous.

Employee Working Conditions: employers should be aware of the protection of their work place and must ensure that they pay their employees adequately. An employee should take ethics under consideration while giving an extremely difficult task or asking an employee to stay for long hours outside the working times.

Violation of the basic rights of workers: All workers have the basic rights. Everyone is entitled to an escape when they been employed by continuously for extended hours. Even if there is a deadline to meet or there may be great deal of work to be completed, we must ensure that the basic rights are given to all the personnel.

Ignoring health, basic safety and environmental expectations: Sometimes due to financial restraints the workplace is not able to cater for medical and safeness and it generally does not meet up with the required standards. There is absolutely no excuse because of this type of behaviour. This would be looked at unethical.

Employee behavior: This is often a matter of question. Should an employer allow his employees to read their personal email messages at work? In the event the staff makes any issue of harassment at work, how will the supervisor offer with it? They are few types of ethical problems with respect to employee tendencies.

Supplier/Customer Relations: must consider whether it's ethical to work with other business staff who have unethical practices.


Ethical Studies Second Release, Bob Bowie, Robert Bowie, Edition 2, illustrated, Publisher Nelson Thornes, 2004

Ethical Issues in Children Work, Professional ethics, Sarah Finance institutions, Taylor & Francis, 2010

Ethical Issues running a business: Inquiries, Circumstances, and Readings, Peg Tittle, Broadview Press, 2000

Current Issues running a business Ethics, Peter W. F. Davies, Routledge, 1997

Task 2

An objective serves as a particular future condition of what to be performed by the business enterprise. This could be referred to as a destination or result. In business, as well as expressed in conditions of profit.

There can be business or long term objectives and efficient or short term objectives.

Market standing, efficiency, innovation, money, profitability, administrator or other worker's performance and also open public and communal responsibility will be the business or permanent objectives.

While profit, customer orientation, survival and growth, upsurge in the sales, upsurge in the market show and efficiency are functional or short-term objectives.

How far the company or a small business will go to accomplish these aims varies from one business to the other. There are so many legal and moral issues to understand. For example, the business wants to increase and make more revenue. They may have found a defect in the merchandise they are available but people are buying it and have had no complaints so far. It is against the moral and ethics to keep providing that product.

Another example can be if a business offers expert help like discussion to the public. If the person is not properly trained rather than authorised to provide that help, this is also unethical. This can be bringing in the required profits and also the company is booming with clients. But is the employer's responsibility to comprehend that this carry out is contrary to the ethics.

Stakeholder groups range both in terms of the interest in the business activities and also their power to influence business decisions.

Shareholders are essential as their interests would be earnings growth, talk about price progress, dividends. They may have the power to elect the directors. It could be a practice to keep them happy with materialistic gift ideas and rewards but it is unethical and a good business should be staying away from such practices.

Banks & other lenders are essential as stakeholders. They help the business by providing the money. We must take into account the ethical concern while dealing with the banking institutions and other lenders. There job is to note that interest and primary to be repaid, maintain credit history. They can enforce loan covenants and withdraw bank facilities.

Directors and professionals as stakeholders have important role to experiment with. They deal with salary, show options and job satisfaction. They also make decisions, have detailed information about the company.

Employees are a big area of the group as stakeholders. To promote ethical behaviour, earnings & wages, job security, job satisfaction & desire should be appropriate. If it's ethical, the effect would be good turnover, professional action and better service quality.

Suppliers would be thinking about long term deals, prompt repayment, and growth of purchasing. We should take ethics into consideration while deciding charges, quality, product availability

Customers play indispensable part as stakeholders. They will always expect reliable quality, value for money, product supply and customer service. That is when ethics come into play. Many businesses is going to any limit to please their customers because they will generate earnings. If the customers are happy, they will spread person to person recommendation.

Community is also important as a stakeholder. Business people must ensure that the business enterprise is safe and it is in accordance with health and security rules and regulations. It really is unethical to perform an enterprise which will not adhere to these rules. Environment must be safe. An enterprise should make local jobs which will help to provide career to the people in the region.

Government is also a stakeholder as the bigger authorities can make the regulations and these must be followed at all times by the business people.

For building an ethical standard for business it's important that we have more than only a written policy. So that we can ensure that honest standard is being met, we must comply with adherence to and enforcement of this standard by everyone. That includes who have written the guidelines and who run the business enterprise. More than long written documents and regulations passed out to each and every employee, our action, techniques, and deeds will be the base for creating an honest standard.


Marketing Programs: How exactly to Prepare Them, How to UTILIZE THEM, Malcolm McDonald, Hugh Wilson, John Wiley & Sons, 2011

Introduction to Travel and Tourism Marketing, J. Alf Bennett, J. W. Strydom, J. A. Bennett, Juta and Company Ltd, 2001

Task 3

A "moral agent" and could it be true to state a business is a moral agent?

A moral agent is a being that is with the capacity of acting with regards to right and incorrect. We can also explain moral agent as whatever can be organised responsible for tendencies or decisions. Moral providers have privileges and responsibilities. If we do not believe that anything or anyone should ever be blamed or gets the responsibility, then we are going against the idea of moral agency, and not accepting the concept of responsibilities and privileges.

A moral agent must be considered a living creature, as they must be able to understand the basic moral concepts and utilize them to make decisions. They must have self-consciousness, capacity to memorize, moral guidelines, values and the ability for reasoning and making judgments.

In my estimation, increasingly, companies are being seen not merely as profit making entities but also as moral realtors. They are accountable for their conduct to the employees, customers, investors and suppliers. Companies are chartered as residents of the state or the nation so they have got the same responsibilities and rights as individuals. Population holds the companies in charge of the habit of their workers. When certain business advertises about them, they make reference to benefits, reimbursement or competitive tactics; they earn a reputation as a moral agent. Companies must obey rules and regulations that define acceptable business do.

Though obviously not really a person, a small business can be viewed as as a societal moral agent. In case a business is not run ethically, it might face huge penalties or fines from the regulatory physiques.

Businesses should try to get their employees involved, especially with regards to the ethical performance of the business enterprise.

Employee participation and participation are aimed at boosting employee's performance and determination. There should be nice policies discussed for every single business and all the employees should be well alert to those regulations and guidelines. Every individual in the company must have clear understanding of their roles and therefore be able to work ethically.

There should be regular meetings and conversations between the company and the employees. Any issues which are unclear or employees are in doubt about their role in moral consideration; they must be able to get help all the time. Full training should be provided to people so that their role in the business is clear and they know what identifies their job tasks.

In order for the business to perform well and sustains high ethical specifications, employees should be totally involved. This shouldn't be limited by one or few individuals but it necessitates teamwork. Each worker should be the part of the team which is working towards the normal goal of a profitable business however, not at the expense of ethics.

Recent business scandals have drawn general population attention toward the ethics of businesses. Although researchers have shown a small correlation between your moral activities and solid financial performance, it isn't clear how the process works. When people see their company is retaining higher ethical specifications, they become more committed to the business. This determination in turns starts organizational citizenship behaviors toward other employees, and these conducts in turn eventually lead to raised financial performance.

The level of an individual's engagement along with his or her workplace is the strongest mechanism by which business ethics contributes to financial rewards. When a company produces and adheres to strong honest recommendations, this offers employees a idea of what's expected of these face to face. Less job ambiguity contributes to greater efficiency.

Employees should help each other. Employees going far beyond their job information to help each other, such as aiding other people who are behind on the work-is one of the key process that will lead to good productivity. This sort of behaviour proves beneficial as this means key activities have finished, irrespective of who's doing them.

We must use a code of ethics and suggestions relative to legal and professional expectations in addition to individuals resource routines such as ethics training. Employer should always be patient and calm. They must realise that a few of the new employees will take a while to get modified to the new environment. After full training, they will all be working towards the common goal of financial success. So that it is essential that employees get involved and empowered in relation to the moral performance of the business.


Business Ethics: Moral Decision Making & Instances, O. C. Ferrell, John Fraedrich, Ferrell, Cengage Learning, 2012

Ethical Issues in Modern Human Reference Management, Diana Winstanley, Jean Woodall, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000

Task 4

The business I have chosen is an exclusive learning centre or an academy. This academy offers many vocational courses to different students. The centre is no longer working ethically. They get to know the question papers well beforehand and they feature help the students during their final tests. Students aren't complaining because they're getting excellent results because of the help being provided. An added main cause for moral consideration is that the teachers are not fully experienced to be able to deliver the lessons.

Business is working successfully and also making lot of cash. It is not hard to attract tons of students who wish to cross their exam in an easy manner with no hard work included.

Under qualified professors are charging less overall to the workplace so in this situation, the employer, employee and the service users are all happy.

But let us discuss this by taking ethics into consideration. For example students has done first aid course and today he's the very pleased owner of your license too. But the key question is that'll be able to manage the situation in case of a crisis.

To improve the ethics of its functions and also ensure that the centre is meeting objectives and making sure good company/employee romance, a lot needs to be achieved at the centre. Company must realise that is unethical. Tests should be presented in stringent conditions no help should be wanted to the students at all. It really is unethical and illegal. If any inspection firm is aware of it the complete business could face serious charges and risk closure. Then your students' future would also go through.

This business could improve a great deal by considering each facet of their business ethically. Offering help the students and using under qualified professors is against the law. This won't lead to brighter students. Which private company is not doing worthwhile. These serious issues have to be considered and thought over and tight action needs to be taken against this company.

Teachers should be fully experienced and suitably trained. The examinations should be in a transparent manner with no help provided. Practice classes should be offered to the students, if needed. In the event the students are able, they should be offered help with their syllabus and practice sessions.

What is a "code of ethics"? Design the right ethical code for an organization of your choice.

A business should set high specifications of professionalism, ethical behavior should be promoted, behaviour and judgments.

Code of ethics should give attention to multiple connections - where the employer owes an allegiance to different stakeholders;

Personal human relationships should be effectively emphasized in code of ethics.

Code of ethics should established adequate benchmarks of practice.

Breaches of confidentiality should be explained evidently and rules should be complete accordingly.

Competence - where high or claims are made or people endeavoring to mislead, this will form a clear part of code of ethics and how to approach such situations running a business.

I have designed the right code of ethics for a company called ABC Learning Academy. It really is an exclusive institute which gives vocational classes to the students. Largely adult learners and the personnel constitute of director, panel members, managers, educators, administrators, cleaners and helpers. This code of ethics would guide the staff members in times of difficulty and lays a strong groundwork of ethics which need to be considered while making any decisions at work environment.


Personal behaviour - it is expected that all workers will

Act ethically and integrity, in the best interests of ABC Learning Academy all the time;

Take individual responsibility to add actively to keep up adequate teaching and administrative standards.

Honesty is a good policy all the time,

Not to inappropriately to effect or discriminate amidst the employees.

Must adhere to at least 75% attendance;

In circumstance of any uncertainty, always require help from your co-workers or senior people of the staff,

Treat fellow workers with esteem and courtesy.

Not to discriminate against fellow workers, members of the general public or employees. These issues would be dealt significantly;

professional work environment atmosphere to maintain harmonious, safe and profitable environment;

Conflicts of interest - it is expected that workers will

Not disclose any personal or business pursuits at ABC Learning Academy;

To take honest decision rather than getting influenced by the issues of pursuits,

If there exists any conflict, there must be right policies to consider appropriate action.

Public interest ought to be the priority if such conflicts appealing do arise, .

Communication and established information - it is expected that staff members will

Communicate between them so that there are no gaps in information available about students and their data.

Not disclose established information or documents like students records, assignments, individual learning plans, other than as required for legal reasons or where agreed by decision of the mother board;

the business of ABC Learning Academy should have all data dealt as confidential information;

All decisions of the ABC Learning Academy will be last decisions but people should have the right to appeal.

Respect the confidentiality and privateness of all information of students and personnel.

Use of general population resources - it is expected that panel members will

An financial materials that comes prior to the ABC Learning Academy should be confidential and personnel should take action with responsibility and understand this concept; and

ABC Learning Academy credit cards, transport or miscellaneous expenses should be documented with receipts to be produces and available at any point of time.

In addition, staff members must commit to

If any employee is aware of any misconduct, they should be able to survey it to the right team,

Good management should be achieved at the centre and it should work towards improving the reputation of the plank of ABC Learning Academy.

Data shouldn't be copied and personnel should not replicate or distribute the data and understand the idea of copyright and plagiarism.

Health problems should be reported effectively because they can have significant impact on the task efficiency.

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