The connection between international relationships and biodiversity can be from the evolution of both as globalization will too, which have brought among others, the increasing in international trade throughout last years. It's a fact that countries experience economic interdependence and that it is not equally distributed; usually North developed countries demand raw materials or natural resources at low prices to create goods, which later are going to be sell to southern or expanding countries at higher prices; scheduled compared to that southern countries are required themselves to exploit their resources at the point that there surely is space for extinction rates and for biodiversity to decrease.
The financial interdependence that countries are experiencing nowadays have caused high loss of biodiversity not only in flora, because of the high rates of deforestation, but also in fauna, as people even more are destroying habitats and exploiting at high levels the benefits that they could take from pets. All of that is part of an evidence to state that international relations and biodiversity are linked and also we can say that the first one can define the course of the previous one; as international relations progress, biodiversity may decrease.
This is seem as problems as international relations increase, globalization and international trade does indeed too, and because of this, southern or commonly known as developing countries which have around 20% of the world's total biodiversity, have to exploit their natural resources, causing massive deficits of varieties.
Biodiversity is an important political concern because it depends upon the relations among the most powerful economies on earth, which can determine the levels of use or mistreatment on the natural resources available in the planet. Nowadays we have been communicating of interdependent capitalistic economies rivalling in the international industry, usually the most effective developed countries influencing the decisions of not developed ones. All those changes in the world's fact have generated changes in biodiversity too; the actual fact that specialization has increased as international trade does indeed, producing countries have chosen to exploit their natural resources to be able to provide developed countries the natural material they need for their produced goods. That to be able to growing countries to expand their economies at any price, the majority of the times without having conscience of the results it could bring to the surroundings, even if they have that conscience, they does not have the economical resources to put into practice sustainable procedures that let them exploit natural resources in an acceptable way, causing this way less extinctions or even more deficits on biodiversity.
Reducing the rate of global biodiversity damage depends on the well management of the safe areas in the world, which represents only across the 10% of the worlds surface, which include zones that were supposedly to be safeguarded but in the daily use it direct result not be because of this. The work of growing countries to conserve this zones usually seem to be compromise as a result of bad manage they give to the financial aid, that they receive from some developed countries. It's common to find that those financial assists even if indeed they represent some laws and commitments, tend to be found in other issues or even fall season in hands of problem which in keeping in those growing countries. The challenge for developed countries to build that kind of zones is that usually they don't have the space or they don't have the nature to protect. The issue from all the above if that the security from excessive use is not feasible as those natural resources stand for an important area of the country's economy. So the solution is by using biodiversity however in a modest way, creating shielded areas and providing other options for local users.
Some effective procedures of safeguard for those areas don't need many financial resources, it's enough to raise the security and enforcing rules on those shielded areas. But often that enforcement is insufficient because the local users usually don't know where the boundaries are and the penalties they would get for breaking the guidelines. One important element that can be useful is to generate local conscience and also adapting local constituency and effective enforcement.
Susanne Kleeman says in her article "voices for biodiversity management in the 21st century" that biodiversity management compensates inadequate focus on the value of governing organization, even if they're rules. Laws and regulations and policies are more likely to promote sustainable use and conservation of resources with the incorporation of corporations. Three factors are essential for an effective conservation program: making use of local values, making sure consistency or rules and maintaining adequate enforcement.
Due to the process of globalization, extinction rates are increasing worldwide because global warming and other individuals caused events; which is a reflection of the significant damage of the political and economical system has been resulting in. Many countries on the globe promote free trade and globalization without caring for the results or environmental results, but without ecological development plans; if it still going that way considerable trade and all so it brings into a country is going to end with all of the natural resources.
In order to contribute to solve some of environmentally friendly problems induced by international relationships there are a need to create a new multilateral diplomacy because, as said by Hill, J in his article "A fresh diplomacy for lasting development; the task of global change", the environmental problems and the programs for their mitigations transcend political boundaries. So that way, countries can get into negotiations to integrate long-term perspectives in international insurance policy more in a diplomatic environment that concerns about sustainability, co-operation and hazards to the environment. This new way of diplomacy has recently started, first with the UN convention on the human being environment in Stockholm in 1972, the with the Rio-Johannesburg process in 2002 and twelve-monthly conferences and summits that have been came to the realization to creating conscience and finding for alternatives to get more environmental friendly functions that can contribute with the global warming, which is a long term risk.
Another important international professional additional to the multilateral diplomacy, are NGO's which may have proven to be a very important actor when dealing with issues which may have no frontiers such as environmental and biodiversity issues. That's one of the most important explanations why NGOs must interact on redesigning the entire world order and put biodiversity and natural resources as hot subject areas on the international plan and also in the politics agenda of each country. Many international discussion boards are opened up for talking about biodiversity, where the actors are fighting to determine priorities and pick the best tools for management of genetic resources, which nowadays have been one of the most crucial inputs of world economies because those are the raw materials of biotechnology companies.
Two international agreements have emerged because of the insufficient environmental restrictions that is causing the extinction of those resources: the Outings and CBD convention on natural diversity. As coban said in his "caught between condition sovereign rights and properly rights: regulating biodiversity" Both consider the situation of regulating to biological resources as a concern related to the capitalist relationships however the difference is the fact that the second the first is a convention that looks for to protect the surroundings affirming that natural diversity is subject of national sovereignty, while the past one regulates biotechnology patents worldwide. The TRIPS says that intellectual property protection under the law of companies over genetic or biological resources are complementary in the process of capital deposition, while CBD has been a highly effective awareness-raising tool. The CBD was followed in 1992 during the Rio Summit and it identifies the need to do something in environmentally friendly issues, integrating the rules of equity and ethics in the utilization of biodiversity and also establishes that natural diversity is subject to countrywide sovereignty; this convention has been ratified in 177 areas and begin its activities in 1993, focusing on the hereditary resources and the access to them, technology transfers, financing of conservation plans and trade in genetically modifies organisms. Among the main contributions of the convention is the fact that poor countries can't invest in protect biodiversity unless developed ones supply them with technologies and school funding, due to the use of procedures that reduce abuses into the environment. This financial aid has been declining, and the international establishments and organizations that promote the cover of biodiversity has not shown to be an effective regulative construction.
Nowadays international contracts are not the only real included, the private sector somehow seem to become more and only that ecological development. International business coalitions also play a role in connections between environmental legislation and private sector interests. Mainly there are 2 coalitions directly related to environmental issues, the international chamber of business and the global industry coalition. The ex - handles biodiversity governance and environmental guidelines, and the latter want to do with biosafety discussions; both of them have space in the international area and the energy to help biodiversity abuses to diminish at the international level.
For international treaties and guidelines to work correctly, there should be a support at the national level. Local governments have to talk about and use the ideas that international treaties, insurance policies, conventions, NGOs and other stars promote. As mentioned by Susanne Kleeman, biodiversity governance must be adapted to local conditions but aligned with global, local and national frameworks and it calls for vertical linkages designed to local conditions. The nationwide government must buy into the international politics to be able to produce some consistency and to discuss the same goals.
In finish, biodiversity and international relations have important links because as more capitalistic becomes the globe, natural resources are going to be exploited at much in order to gratify the needs of trade of the developed countries. And in the other submit order to endure economically and enhance their position and living specifications, producing countries would still abuse of the biodiversity with the objective of selling recycleables for the creation of produced goods. If good conservation procedures and treaties aren't implemented, much of the variety and natural resources we have probably will disappear, and from then on there's very little to do. Finally unless environmental issues become central part in the international plan, the world are affected dramatic changes.
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