Managing Variety in Global Organizations. A Case Study of Managing Variety in Tesco and Asda
2. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
As organizations progressively more become global in their functions and business activities, there is apparently a need to come quickly to terms with the issue of having to deal with a diverse labor force. A global corporation is more likely to translate into a diverse labor force. Managing diversity is mostly typical of multinational organizations. Globalization has managed to get essential for organizations and multinational organizations as well to effectively deal with a diverse workforce in that manner which it translates to improved organizational performance. To raised understand the far reaching implications of labor force variety, Hofstede (2001) noted that close to half of the labor force in the United Kingdom now consists of immigrants, minorities, and women. This shows that organizations are significantly faced with the task of having to cope with the problem of managing specific differences. Furthermore, variety of workforce also arises when organizations extend into foreign marketplaces. In such a case, Millmore et al. (2007) observed that using a diverse workforce can present organizations with the wherewithal to understand the type of foreign marketplaces.
Different explanations have been provided to help summarize what variety management is focused on. Holden (2002) known that effective variety management is principally centred on the necessity to create an egalitarian work place where employees, regardless of their variances, can feel free to go to town. Millmore et al. , (2007) advised that diversity management edges on the need to take proper good thing about social pluralism which is the consequence of the internalization of the organization. Before, variety management was generally seen as a being a individuals resource function. This is not really the circumstance as Harvey and Allard (2009) observed that the main topic of diversity management within organizations transcends normal human being resource functions. With this regards, everyone within the business has a responsibility towards effective variety management. As cited preceding, diversity management is based on the necessity to allow for and harness individual differences in such a manner which it contributes to achievement of organizational goals and aims. Friday & Friday (2003) were of the thoughts and opinions that variety management can be an integral facet of the change management process. In this particular context, the need for variety management comes as a result of having to cope with the changing demographic profile of workforce. Owning a diverse workforce is something that most organizations cannot avoid; this is specially the truth with multinational organizations. The workforce generally in most global organizations is a representation of the changing demographic put together in the organization's exterior environment. Cultural pluralism is something that organizations have to cope with (CIPD 2005). Worman (2005) observed that organizations can leverage on specific dissimilarities in manner that stimulates creativeness and innovation in the workplace. Generally in most multinational organizations, the workforce profile usually consists of different ethnic teams, women, different intimate orientation, different religious orientation etc. Specific dissimilarities, from the perspective of employees, ought to be an advantageous to the organization concerned if harnessed properly. For just one, Turnbull et al. , (2008) known that effective diversity management encourages imagination and innovation in a organization especially bearing in mind that employees are permitted to freely go to town. That is why McCarthy (2004) observed that variety management is central to appealing to and retaining ability within an company.
3. PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE
The concept of variety management has its foundations in the subject of equal opportunities (EEO). Snape & Redman (2003) observed that the concept of equal occupations (EEO) begins externally and it is usually enforced by regulations while diversity management starts off within the organization (internally). This is good earlier observation that variety management is based on the need to develop an egalitarian environment within the organizations. An egalitarian work place is on where specific differences, from worker perspectives, are tolerated and therefore, employees feel absolve to express themselves. When employees feel free to express themselves, they tend to take full advantage of their innate potentials. Turnbull et al. , (2009) recommended that a free and tolerant work environment can be encouraged through increased worker inclusiveness. Increased employee inclusiveness in a organization involves a variety of variables like presenting employees a fair chance at job progress, increased staff participation in the decision-making process, good reward deals etc.
In range with the observation that diversity management has its origins in the main topic of equal employment opportunities (EEO), additionally it is important to note that EEO is a backdrop of the civil privileges movement which was aimed at eradicating discrimination and stereotypes. In this particular context, a free of charge and fair work place is the one that is devoid of any form of discrimination and stereotypes; employees are cured based on their religious orientation, intimate orientation, gender, cultural and racial dissimilarities. Thomas (2002) observed that diversity is not synonymous with distinctions, but includes dissimilarities and similarities. Inside the context of the particular observation, diversity refers to the collective mixture of differences and similarities along a specific dimension. Variety management focuses on the broader picture hence, it is seen as a strategic function. This is why most multinational organizations have a corporate diversity strategy in place to deal with the changing characteristics of labor force especially based on the issue of bringing in and retaining key talent. Friday & Friday (2003) known that, "given the immense 'dash for expertise' in today's global and competitive business environment, there's a need to evaluate and do a corporate diversity strategy utilizing a planned approach to not only value variety, but to also systematically manage and include diversity as part of organizational culture". Again, Worman (2005) added that effective diversity management is assured when corporate variety strategy is a significant aspect of corporate and business culture.
There are many benefits that can be produced from the implementation of any workable diversity insurance policy and strategy within an organization. Fri & Friday (2003) highlighted some benefits that are derived from the effective execution of variety management; improved imagination, improved innovation, improved upon employee-employer relationship, and better decision-making. The lack of an effective variety management strategy in a organization can lead to certain pitfalls. A number of the pitfalls of non-implementation of any workable diversity coverage within an group include reduced employee involvement, increased employee turnover, reduced employee commitment and poor employer-employee relationships. One of the reasons why organizations have to have a workable diversity policy is to remove all varieties of discrimination in the workplace especially considering that creativity and skill is constrained in that scenario. The fact that diversity management transcends normal individual resource functions does not get rid of the role that real human resource management takes on in the effective implementation of variety management in a organization. Among the starting points of diversity management in organizations is at the recruitment level. In today's fast-paced global environment, recruiting and owning a diverse labor force is crucial for success. McKernan (2008) known that recruitment and selection procedures within organizations should echo their determination to variety as this is actually the consideration for getting and retaining ability within the organization. Furthermore, while writing for the Harvard Business Review, Williamson (2001:189) observed that building variety centres on the need to cultivate effective relationships especially in relation to employer-employee relationships. In this particular regards, an organization that makes the reputation to be a 'diversity-friendly business' will probably attract a huge array of skill both in its applicant pool and worker profile. Retail-oriented organizations like Tesco and Asda place high grade on variety management. Tesco, for example, provides of its diverse labor force thus reflecting its dedication to eradicating discrimination at work. Tesco has a Diversity Advisory Group which convenes semi-annually to screen and ensure that Tesco's labor force at every stage, reflects the composition of inhabitants at every instant. To overcome discrimination against disabled people, Tesco was the first company in britain to establish targets for the recruitment of disabled people; this is the reason why Tesco was presented with a two-tick symbol by Remploy (Tesco-careers. com).
The need to conduct this particular research is enlightened by one of my academic modules; human resource management to be exact. Evaluating the implications on globalization on the labor force diversity within organizations will offer you useful insights how organizations can leverage on staff differences in that manner it leads to improved organizational performance.
4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. ) What is the partnership between workforce variety and organizational performance?
2. ) How do diversity insurance plan and processes be inculcated effectively into organizational culture?
3. ) How can employee variations be leveraged upon by organizations it engenders a work environment that encourages imagination and innovation?
5. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1) To see if workforce variety can lead to effective organizational performance.
2) To critically analyze the sustainability of the diversity management strategy of Tesco and Asda.
3) To establish how diversity management can be effectively inculcated as part of organizational culture.
4) To establish how individual variances, such as different cultural background and competition, can be leveraged in that manner which it contributes to increased employee output and better organizational performance.
5) To generate workable conclusions and recommendations based on results from the study.
6. RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
In researching the issue of diversity management in organizations, the interpretivist research paradigm will be employed especially when taking into consideration the fact that almost all of the data which will be gathered will be largely qualitative in nature. Millmore et al. , (2007) observed that the problem of managing diversity in organizations is mainly concerned with creating a free and environment within the office; such an environment engenders creative imagination and creativity. Furthermore, Collis & Hussey (2005) observed that the interpretivist research paradigm mainly handles the knowledge of variables as opposed to the measurement of variables. The actual fact that the interpretivist research paradigm will be used in the carry out of the research also features the fact that research will be mainly inductive in aspect and therefore, the qualitative research strategy will be employed. Collis & Hussey (2003) mentioned that the qualitative research approach has its attendant constraints; one which is the actual fact that the qualitative research approach is usually apt to be subjective in character since it is largely reliant on the analytical perspectives of the researcher concerned.
7. RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design is an integral facet of any research. There a bunch of reasons for this, one which is the actual fact that the research design gives focus and way to a study (Collis & Hussey 2005). The study design enables the researcher to fulfil the main requirements of a study without undertaking needless work. For the purposes of the particular research, the case study research design was used. Regarding to Jewell (2010:4. 9), "this research study research design as a result aids in the removal of decisions, why and where such decisions are taken, that they are completed and with what result regarding both the indie and dependent parameters under investigation". Inside the context of using the case study research design, the research study for this particular research is the critical examination of diversity management in Tesco and Asda. Again, the comparative research design will be utilized in this particular research. The comparative research design will involve comparing the variety policy and operations in Tesco using what obtains in Asda.
8. DATA COLLECTION METHODS
To meet the objectives of this research outlined earlier, data will be accumulated from both most important and secondary resources.
8. 1 Principal Data
Collis & Hussey (2005) identified major data as 'raw information'. Saunders et al. , (2003) advised that main data is data that is collected through the work of the researcher following a particular research. Major data is a good way to obtain information for any research especially bearing in mind that it offers complicated insights on a particular subject material. The logistics involved in the gathering of key data makes primary data an expensive form of gathering information. For this research, main data will be sourced through three open-ended interviews; two interviews will be conducted with employees at Tesco and one interview with an employee of Asda. I currently have a job as a part-time shop floor worker at Tesco Arena in Coventry and also have been guaranteed an interview with my shop floor team leader. I have been promised with one of the brand professionals at Tesco World. My past part-time job was at Asda; I have been in touch with my former lines manager at Asda and she has assured me that she'll be available after obtain my proposed interview program. These three open-ended interviews provides useful insights on effective management of your diverse labor force within organizations, especially global organizations. Your choice to use the open interviews is up to date by the wealth of information that can potentially be obtained. The interviews will be analysed using content examination; in this respect, feedback from the interviews will be analysed in line with information collected from secondary resources.
8. 2 Extra Data
Secondary data is another important way of gathering information for any research. Extra data is generally known as complementary information. Collis & Hussey (2005) advised that supplementary data is information that is collected by other people. Most research studies always use extra data and supplementary data will be play a significant role in the carry out of the particular research. Supplementary data will be utilized to develop the theoretical construction because of this research. Supplementary data because of this research will be sourced from books, peer reviewed educational journals like the journal of managing diversity, company accounts (media relations reports of Tesco and Asda about their diversity guidelines), company websites (Asda and Tesco), other published and unpublished materials. The peer assessed academic publications to be used in this particular research will be sourced popular academic databases like Emerald, Ebscohost and Sage. Again, articles from the Chartered Institute of Workers Development (CIPD) will also be found in the conduct of the research.
9. LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
Every research will probably have its attendant limits. Among the limitations of the research is that only 1 research approach will be used; in this case, only the qualitative research way will be utilized. One of the key restrictions of the qualitative research methodology is the fact that it's usually subjective in its mother nature and scope. Again, the subjectivity attribute of the qualitative research way is also highlighted by the actual fact that it's usually dependent on the views or viewpoints of the researcher. In times where in fact the qualitative research is not used properly, it might provide a research an uncomfortable tone. Another limitation of this research is due to the test size of interviewees; in this framework, the test size of just three interviewees may be viewed as too limited by create sufficient data because of this research. To cope with this particular restriction, use of both supplementary data and major data will generate essential information to carry out this research. Another restriction of this research is the actual fact that it will be problematic for the researcher to determine the frame of mind of the interviewees especially considering that the best responses from the interviewees will be obtained when they are in an effective mindset.
10. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The conduct of this particular research will maintain compliance with the laws of Coventry College or university especially in relation to plagiarism. All external information found in this research will be correctly recognized using the Harvard referencing style. Coventry University's ethics form will be loaded before the carry out of any interviews. The interviewees will never be compelled into disclosing any information they wished not to disclose. Again, all data compiled during this research is only going to be used for research purposes no other purpose.
Carrying out an efficient research is basically dependent on creating a workable plan set up. In terms of the necessity for an idea in this research, a Gantt Chart will be used showing necessary timescales and milestones for this research.
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