Groups And Group Development Commerce Essay

Many people used the word team and group interchangeably, but there are actually a differences between your word team and group. It really is much better to form a group than a team. In group, they could be grouped according to gender, experience, age or other common factors. Although the potency of the group may be variable, but forming an organization just based on a certain commonality is not particularly difficult. A group's strength may come from sheer volume or willingness to carry out an individual leader's commands. Alternatively, a team can become more difficult to create. The members will selected for their complementary skills, not a single commonality. In a very team, each member has a purpose and a function. Therefore the overall success depends on a functional interpersonal dynamic. When working together in this way, there is usually not as much room for conflict. A team's strength is determined by the commonality of purpose and interconnectivity between individual members.


Although most groups aren't formed for such dishonest purposes, the success of the group at its task was impressive (Stephen and Mary, 2007). Managers want their groups to be successful at their tasks and the first rung on the ladder is understanding exactly what is a group and exactly how its develop.

2. 1 Group Definition

According to Stephen and Mary (2009), a group can be defined as two or more interacting and interdependent people who come together to achieve specific goals. . Although a groups frequently have goals, but there's not declare that group members must share a goal or motivation.

2. 2 Types of Group

There are two types of group which is formal group and informal group. Formal group will designated work assignments and specific tasks directed at accomplishing organizational goals and defined by an organization's structure. There are four examples of formal work groups ( Sidin J. P, 2011)

Command group - groups that are dependant on the organization chart and made up of people who report right to confirmed manager.

Task group - groups made up of individuals brought together to complete a particular job task.

Cross-functional teams - groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals various work regions of groups whose members have been trained to do each others' job.

Self-managed teams - groups that are essentially independent and this, in addition to their own tasks, undertake traditional managerial responsibilities, such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and evaluating performance.

While informal groups are group-based social elements. These groups occur naturally at work and it is more concerned with friendship and common interests. A friendship group is friend who do many activities together which is relatively long lasting and informal, and its own benefits from the social relationship among its members. Meanwhile, the normal interest such as bowling group and women's network is relatively non permanent and is organized around an activity or interest shared by its members.

2. 3 Stage of Group Development

http://gmx. xmu. edu. cn/ews/business/management/ABrobbins4_15_09. gif

Exhibit 2. 1 - Stage of Group Development ( Sidin J. P. , 2011)

2. 3. 1 forming

Forming stage is the first stage in group development. This stage has two phases. Inside a formal group, people join because of some work assignment. The next phase starts when the people joined the formal group. Then these people define the group's purpose, structure, and leadership. This stage is complete when members commence to think about themselves within a group.

2. 3. 2 storming

When group members become familiar with one another better, the storming stage begins. This storming stage named as a result of intragroup conflict that occurs over who will control the group and the actual group must be doing. This stage is seen as a a bid for power. You will discover six characteristics of the storming stage which is competition, strained relationships, leader is challenged, tension and disunity, distinctions are uncomfortable, and the issues of autonomy vs. control support vs. competition influence decision-making. When this stage is complete, there is a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership and agreement on the group's direction.

2. 3. 3 norming

The norming stage is one where close relationship develop and the group become cohesive and has begun to be effective. There's now a solid sense of group identity and camaraderie. This stage will be complete when the group structure has been assimilated as the group of expectations about behavior and become solid. There are some characteristics relating to this stage

Issues of strengthening relationships, open communication, positive/constructive feedback.

Increased cohesion

Emerging trust

More collaboration

Appreciation of differences

2. 3. 4 performing

The fourth stage of group development is performing. Many groups never reach the performing stage. This is the stage of which would be an excellent customer service and also to create an extraordinary examples. The group structure is in place and accepted by group members. In such a stage, characteristics include productivity, full development of the potential of the group and the individuals in the group, harmony and effective problem-solving. That is actually the last stage of development for long lasting work groups.

2. 3. 5 adjourning

The final stage is adjourning. In this particular stage, the group prepares to disband. Group members will react for some reason that is independent of your confident and excited about the performance of the group. While, others may be sad over the loss of camaraderie and friendship. That's why more attention is focused on wrapping activities rather than task performance.


A work group is include the organization's strategy, authority relationships, formal regulations, the option of resources, employee selection criteria, the performance management system and culture, and the general physical layout of the group's work area. That's mean a work group was afflicted by external conditions (Stephen and Mary, 2009). Exhibit 3. 1 - Group Performance Satisfaction Model (Sidin J. P. , 2011)

3. 1 Group Member Resources

Group member resources is a group's performance potential that depends upon a sizable extent on the resources each individual brings that group. These resources include personality traits, knowledge, skills, and abilities. They'll determine what members can do and exactly how effectively they perform in that group. There especially conflict management and resolution, communication, and collaborative problem solving in interpersonal skills. It's consistently emerge as important to perform well in a work group. The group performance also damaged by personality traits because they strongly influence how an individual will connect to the other group members.

3. 2 Group Structure

Work group aren't unorganized crowds. They may have an interior structure that shapes members' behavior and influences group performance. The structure defines roles, norms, conformity, status systems, group size, group cohesiveness, and leadership.


A role identifies behavior patterns expected of someone occupying confirmed position in a social unit. In an organization, managers aren't the only person person that play the many roles. In an organization, individuals are likely to do certain things for their position in the group. Besides that, different expectations of the roles, make the employees face role conflict.

3. 2. 2 Norms

All groups have norms. A norm is a standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group's members (Stephen and Mary, 2009). Norms that exist within the group structure emphasizes specific things like punctuality, work output, absenteeism, speed to complete the task, and the amount of socializing at work. Norms that exist within the group structure will enhance the action of antisocial individuals.


Each individual wish to be accepted by the society around. As well as those who are in an organization in the business. However, they may be too afraid not accepted by other group members, then your vulnerability pressure to conform. Early experiments done by Solomon Asch demonstrated the impact of the conformity has on an individual's attitudes and judgment. Next, people have a tendency to think it is more pleasant to agree than to be disruptive even it will increase the group's effectiveness. So we conform. But conformity can go too much when a person's judgment differs significant from the others in that group. When this happens, a phenomenon that known as groupthink will appear. Groupthink will occur when there is a clear identity, group perceives a collective threat to positive image and members will hold this positive group image that they want to protect.

Exhibit 3. 2 - Types of Asch's Cards ( Sidin J. P. , 2011)

Status Systems

Status systems are a significant factor in understanding groups. Status is a posture, rank within an organization and a prestige grading. Status can be formally and informally. Status is formally and it's really important to employees believe the organization's formal status systems is congruent. There's consistency between the status symbols he or she receives from the business and the perceived ranking of a person. While, the informally of the status systems is may be conferred by characteristic such as skill, education, or experiences. Anything can have status value if the members of the group evaluate it this way. Group members have no problem to inserting into status category. Usually the group members will agree about who may have low or high status.

Group Size

According to Moorhead and Griffin (2001), group size is the number of members of the group and have an important effect on performance. Group size will affect the number of resources open to perform the task, but the effect is determined by the actual group is supposed to perform. One important research finding related to group size concerns social loafing ( Stephen and Mary, 2009). Social loafing is the tendency of some members of groups to put forth less effort in a group than they might when work alone. The implications of social loafing are significant. When managers use groups, they need to identify the individual effort. If not, group productivity and individual satisfaction may decline.

Group Cohesiveness

According to Moorhead and Griffin (2001), group cohesiveness is the extent to which an organization is focused on remaining together. Group cohesiveness very important because its related with a group's productivity. Some research has generally shown that cohesive groups are far better than less cohesive ones (Stephen and Mary, 2009) and the partnership between cohesiveness and effectiveness is complex. The more the members follow its goal, the more cohesive for that group. A cohesive group is more productive than a less cohesive group when the goals are desirable. But, the productivity will decrease when the cohesiveness is high and attitudes are unfavorable. In this case, there's no significant influence on productivity when cohesiveness is low and goals aren't supported.

Exhibit 3. 3 - Group Cohesiveness and Productivity ( Sidin J. P. , 2011)

Group Processes

Group processes are essential to understanding work group because they'll influence the performance and satisfaction positively or negatively. The synergy of four people on marketing research team who can generate more ideas than work individually is an exemplory case of positive process factor. While, the group that contain negative process factor such as social loafing, poor communication and high levels of conflict, which may hinder the effectiveness of the group. There are two important group process

Group decision-making

It's a business that doesn't use task forces, review panels, study team or other similar groups to making a decision. In group decision-making, there are such of advantage to do it. A few of that is groups can generate more knowledge and compete information for his or her work. Besides that, they will have an event when work in group to make a decision process that an individual cannot. In addition, groups will increase legitimacy. Decision made in an organization more legitimacy than decisions that made by self. While, the disadvantage to do this group decision-making is the fact almost group always take additional time to reach a remedy than would a person. Another disadvantage is the critical thinking that group think can determine will harm the quality of ultimate decision. If you want to determine whether groups work at making decision, it depends upon the criteria that used to determine effectiveness. The group decision may work best when its creativity, accuracy, and degree of acceptance are important. Beside of that, the decision effectiveness is influenced by the group size.

Exhibit 3. 4 - Creative Group Decision Making ( Sidin J. P. , 2011)

Conflict management

Conflict is perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition (Stephen and Mary, 2009). Incompatible management, there are three different views such as traditional view of conflict, human relations view of conflict, and interactionist view of conflict. The traditional view of conflict is the view that conflict is bad and must be avoided. Meanwhile, the human relations view of conflict is the conflict that is natural and inevitable outcome in any group but has potential to maintain positivity force in adding to a group's performance. The interactionist view of conflict is the newest view. Its proposes that not only be considered a positive force in an organization, however, many conflict is completely essential for the group to perform effectively.

Exhibit 3. 5 - Conflict and Group Performance (Sidin J. P. , 2011)

There are usually more conflict such as functional conflicts, dysfunctional conflicts, task conflicts, relationship conflicts, and process conflict because the interactionist view doesn't suggest that all conflicts are good.

Exhibit 3. 6 - Conflict- management Techniques ( Sidin J. P, 2011)

3. 3 Group Task

Group task are either simple and complex. Simple task are standardized and routine. While, complex task tends non-routine or to be novel. Its appear when the greater group benefits from group discussion about alternative work methods, therefore the more complex of this tasks. In this example, group members will rely on standard operating procedures and no need to discuss such options for an easy task. Thus, the tasks are complex and interdependent when effective communication and handled conflict are most relevant to group performance.


From group there will embracing teams. In teams all the members will working together to attain the common goals. A team is not simply a people who work at once in the same place. A lot of people that work in a team are not all equal in talent, education, or experience, however they are equal in a single vitally important way. Team relationships fulfill that basic needs.

4. 1 Teams Definition

According to Williams (2007), work team is a little number of folks that interact with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually in charge of pursuing a purpose, enhancing interdependent work processes and attaining performance goals. In many industries, teams are importance because they help organizations respond to challenges and specific problems.

4. 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Work Team

In are a team, there will have a lot of advantages and disadvantages. The advantages when work as a team is

Improved customer satisfaction

Improved product and services quality

Improved speed and efficiency in product development

Employee job satisfaction

Better decision making and problem solving

Meanwhile, the disadvantages of work as a team is

Initially high employee turnover

Social loafing

Disadvantages of group decision such as groupthink, inefficient meetings, domination with a minority, and lack of accountability.

4. 3 Groups Versus Teams

Work teams

Work groups

Leadership role is shared.

One leader evidently in charge.

Accountable to self and team.

Accountable only to self.

Team creates specific purpose.

Purposed is same as broader organizational purpose.

Work is performed collectively

Work is done individually.

Meetings seen as a open- ended discussion and collaborative problem-solving.

Meetings characterized by efficiency; no collaboration or open-ended discussion.

Performance is measured directly by evaluating collective work output.

Performance is measured indirectly according to its influence on others.

Work is decided upon and done together.

Work is decided after by group leader and delegated to individual group members.

Table 4. 1 - Source: J. R. Katzenbach and D. K. Smith. "The Wisdom of Teams, " Harvard Business Review, July-August 2005, p. 161.

4. 4 Types Of Teams

Teams can do all of things. They can design products, coordinate projects, offer advice, provide services, negotiate deals, and make decisions (William, 2007). Work teams is a groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goals, individual and mutual accountability, using their positive synergy, and complementary skills. There are several types of teams

Types of team


Problem-solving teams

A team from the same functional area or department that's involved in efforts to solve specific problems or improve work activities.

Self-managed work team

A type of work team that operates with out a manager which is responsible for a total work segment or process.

Cross-functional team

It is a work team composed of individuals from various specialties.

Virtual team

It's a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members to be able to achieve a common goals.

Table 4. 2 - Types of team ( Sidin J. P. , 2011)

4. 5 Creating Effective Work Teams

Teams aren't always achieve high degrees of performance and also not always effective. However, research on teams provide insight into the characteristics typically associated with effective work teams. You will find nine of characteristics of effective teams

Exhibit 4. 1 Characteristics of Effectiveness Teams (Sidin J. P. , 2011)



Clear goals

It is a higher performance team that has clear knowledge of the target to be performed. The members in the team will know very well what they're likely to accomplish, focused on the team's goal, and understand how they will work together to achieve these goals.

Relevant Skills

Effective teams are comprised of competent individuals that contain the necessary interpersonal and technical skills to attain the desired goals while working well together. This is important because not everyone who's technically competent gets the interpersonal skill to work as a associates.

Mutual Trust

The effective teams are characterized by high mutual trust on the list of members. The members must have confidence in each other's ability, integrity and character. It is because trust is fragile. So, maintaining trust requires careful attention by the managers.

Unified Commitment

This characteristic is seen as a dedication to a team's goals and a willingness to expend extraordinary levels of energy to accomplish them.

Good Communication

All of the effective teams will seen as a the nice communication. Members convey messages, verbally and non-verbally, between each other with techniques that are readily and obviously understood and the feedback will helps to guide associates and correct misunderstanding.

Negotiating Skills

Effective team will making adjustments to would you what which requires associates to posses negotiating. It is because the issues and relationships are regularly changing in teams, and members have to be able confront and reconcile differences,

Appropriate Leadership

By clarifying goals, demonstrating that change is possible by increasing the self-confidence of associates, overcoming criteria, and helping members to more fully realize their potential.

Internal Support

The team should have sound infrastructure, this means proper training, a and reasonable measurement systems that team members can use to judge their overall performance, a supportive human resources system, and a motivation program that recognizes and rewards team activities.

External Support

In external support, managers should supply the team with resources had a need to complete the job.

Table 4. 3 - Characteristics of Effective Teams and THE REASON (Stephen and Mary, 2007)


Managers can build effective teams by understanding what influences the satisfaction and performance. But, manager will also face some current challenges in managing team, mostly to the ones that associated with managing global teams and with understanding organizational internet sites ( Stephen and Mary, 2007).

5. 1 Managing Global Teams

There are two characteristics of today's organizations are clear such as global and work is increasingly done by teams. Which means that any manager would like to manage a worldwide team. You will find drawbacks and benefits in using the global teams.



Disliking associates.

Greater diversity of ideas.

Mistrusting associates.

Limited groupthink.


Increased attention on understanding others' ideas, perspectives, etc.

Communication problems.

Stress and tension.

Table 5. 1 - Global teams (source: based on N. Adler, International Dimensions in Organizational Behavior, 4Th Edition, pp. 141-147)

In addition, by using our group model as a framework, we can see some of the issues associated with managing global teams such as

Group Member Resources in Global Teams.

In global organizations, understanding the partnership between group performance and group member resources is particularly challenging because the initial cultural characteristics represented by members of a global teams (Stephen & Mary, 2007). In addition, managers need to be familiar with the associates abilities, skills, knowledge, and personality to obviously understand the cultural characteristics of the group members that they manage.

Group Structure.

Some of the structural areas where we see variations in managing global teams include social loafing, cohesiveness, status, and conformity. "Social loafing has a Western bias"(Stephen & Mary, 2007). It's consistent with individualistic cultures, including the U. S. and Canada, which is dominated by self-interest however, not steady with collectivistic societies, in which individuals are motivated by group goals ( Sidin J. P. , 2011). Cohesiveness is another group structural factor with which managers will face the special challenges and its own often more difficult to achieve due to higher levels of "mistrust, miscommunication, and stress". For status, it's important in France and depends upon social origin as well as the countries which have differ on the standards that confer status. Besides that, to manage global teams, conformity also findings generalizable across culture. As might needlessly to say, conformity to social norms tends to be higher in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures ( Sidin J. P. , 2011).

Group Processes.

The process that global teams use to do their work can be particularly challenging for managers and for one thing communication issues often arise because not all associates may be fluent in the team's working language (Sidin J. P. , 2011). This particular situation will lead to inaccuracies, inefficiencies, and misunderstanding. However, managing conflict in global teams isn't easy, particularly when those teams are virtual teams because conflict can hinder how a team uses information (Stephen & Mary, 2007).

The Manager's Role.

There are things that managers can do to give a group with a host in which effectiveness and efficiency are enhanced. To begin with, because communication skills are vital, so managers should concentrate on developing those skills (Sidin J. P. , 2011). Also, managers must consider cultural variations when deciding the kind of global team to use. Finally, it's essential that managers be sensitive to the initial differences of every member of a global team ( Stephen & Mary, 2007).


As a conclusion, work as a group will have a solid, plainly focused leader who had individual accountability and also have a purpose that's the same as the broader organizational mission. While, work as a team have some following characteristic such as, shared leadership roles, specific team purpose and so forth.

From this chapter, we realize that group is several interacting and interdependent people who come together to accomplish specific goals ( Stephen & Mary, 2007). While, team is a small number of folks with complementary skills who are committed to common purpose, common performance goals, and a strategy for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Griffin, 2006).

Ginny V Lee in his article "From Group to Team" have said that in teams, they will shared the common purpose and goal. Besides that, team members also are interdependent because they understand that they need to work well as a unit inorder to complete their task. Ginny also said that skilled facilitation moves an organization from a collection of individuals to an efficient team.

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