History Of Oxfam: Non Income Organisation

(Oxfam International was created in 1995 by several impartial non-governmental organizations. Their goal was to interact for greater impact on the international stage to reduce poverty and injustice.

The name "Oxfam" originates from the Oxford Committee for Famine Alleviation, founded in Britain in 1942. The group campaigned for food resources to be dispatched through an allied naval blockade to starving women and children in enemy-occupied Greece through the Second World War.

As well as learning to be a world head in the delivery of emergency comfort, Oxfam International implements long-term development programs in vulnerable communities. Our company is also part of a worldwide movement, campaigning with others, for occasion, to get rid of unfair trade guidelines, demand better health insurance and education services for any, and to fight weather change.

Today, there are 13 member organizations of the Oxfam International confederation. They can be located in: Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, THE UK, Hong Kong, Ireland, HOLLAND, New Zealand, Quebec, Spain and america.

The Oxfam International Secretariat is situated in Oxford, UK. The Secretariat runs advocacy office buildings in Brussels, Geneva, NY and Washington DC) (www. oxfam. org/en/about/history).

Oxfam Ireland

(It works with people across the world to end the injustice of poverty. They are really an independent and secular not-for-profit organization. Oxfam Ireland is a member of Oxfam International, a confederation of thirteen unbiased members. The customers work together to attain higher impact by their collective attempts). (www. oxfam. org/oxfamhome

Oxfam is many various things. It's the company which helps poor people to build an improved future to them. It's the comfort organization which brings help when disaster strikes. And Oxfam is the campaigner for a fairer world. Through our work in long-term development, emergencies and campaigning, Oxfam helps people to achieve their right to a life clear of poverty, troubled and injustice) (www. oxfam. org).

I'm doing my workplacement in the Oxfam shop of Rathmines-Dublin 6. this shop considers among the Oxfam International branches. In this particular shop, they get various donations from the public. The work completed by this shop, they sell good quality bric a brac, cds, books, homewares, clothes, shoes etc.

They shop's costumers those people who wish to buy good quality and different thing at the same shop.

Organisation Chart

Oxfam shop- Rathmines's Chart

The framework of the shop as the thing is in the diagram is smooth. That's means the shop has relatively few levels in the hierarchy. The framework looks like period of control that the volunteers straight reporting to the administrator.

The description of the Chart

The role of the manager

The manager is fully accountable about the shop, how to make the cover example about (purchasing, offering, rates, coding, and sorting the donation which he/she gets it from the public.

If the donators make a problem whe/she will

investigate fully

do her/his better to explain what gone wrong

try to place things right

At this shop, she's own office, and she works together with volunteers helping instructing them how to get on.

Deputy Manager

She/he is completely in charge about the shop doing the same role when the administrator is off.

The staff (The Volunteers)

The Volunteers in this shop will be the personnel of the shop, they are 45 volunteers, I put them in the diagram regarding to their presence in the week. On Monday, the shop has 6 volunteers, some of are pupil from second and third Level doing their Workplacement. On Tuesday, there are 10 volunteers. On Thursday, there 8 volunteers. On Thursday, there 9 volunteers. On Friday there 9 volunteers. Finally, on Saturday, there 5 volunteers.

Those volunteers are working alongside one another at very peaceful atmosphere and working very difficult. After they know what they should do, they do costs, sorting, coding the donations, so they help the administrator a lot.

My obligations in this shop

I come every Thursday night and Fri (full day), I sometimes just work at the Right up until, sometimes pricier, coder, sorter of the clothes and interacting with customers.

(B) Scanning the inner Influence on company:

There two affects on the organisation (the Oxfam shop)

Resource Basic View

(Typical answers might refer to :

Excellent service

Technical know-how

Responsiveness to advertise needs

Design and engineering capability

Financial resources

Basic guidelines of the RBV model

RBV of the organization provides a strenuous model for analysing firm's advantages and weaknesses

Basic assumptions of RBV :

Resource and/or ability heterogeneity : different companies own bundles of different resources and capabilities

Resource and/or functionality immobility : A few of these resources and capacities are inelastic in source or costly to copy

RBV posits that the sources of value creation are resources and capabilities

Value = Consumer surplus + Developer profit

To outperform industry norm, a business must create more value than its competitors

Value Chain Analysis has two basic activities

Primary Activities

(Inbound logistics, goods or donations from the general public of the shop being extracted from the shop suppliers prepared to be used for producing the finish product). (Records given in the school).

Operation, the raw materials and goods obtained are made into the last product. Value put into the product at the level as it goes through the creation line.

Outbound logistics, after the product have been manufactured they will be ready to be distribute to distribution centres, wholesales, store or customers. )(Notes given the school).

Marketing and Sales, Essentially an information activity - informing clients and consumers about products and services (benefits, use, price etc. )


All those activities associated with maintaining product performance.

(2) Extra Activities

Procurement, his concerns how resources are acquired for a business (e. g. sourcing and negotiating with materials suppliers)

Human Learning resource Management, Those activities worried about recruiting, growing, motivating and fulfilling the workforce of an business.

Technology Development, Activities concerned with managing information processing and the development and coverage of "knowledge" in a business

Starting point for a unifying proper framework :

THE RBV of the firm

The RBV of the firm is grounded in economics

RBV views companies as different series of physical and intangible resources and functions, which regulate how effectively, how effectively a firm performs its functional activities

Attributes competitive benefits to ownership of valuable resources and capacities that enable a corporation to execute activities better or even more cheaply than competitors

Combines internal examination with external analysis


Are defined as stocks and options of firm-specific assets

Cannot be easily duplicated

Cannot be easily purchased in well-functioning markets


Patents and trademarks

Brand-name reputation

Installed base

Organizational culture

Workers With specific experience or knowledge

Contribute either directly (e. g. , reputation) or indirectly (e. g. , through providing as the foundation of capacities) to value creation

Are converted into final products or services using bonding mechanisms such as IT, motivation systems, trust, etc.

Sometimes non-specific resources (like buildings, raw materials, unskilled labor, etc. ) are included in the definition of "resources"

Resource categories

Financial capital

Physical capital

Human capital

Organizational Capital


Are thought as cluster activities a firm does especially well in comparison with other firms

o May reside within business functions (e. g. , AA produce management)

o May be linked to technology, product design (e. g. , Honda motors)

o May have a home in firm's ability to manage linkages between components of value chain, i. e. , coordination skills (e. g. , Ford product development)

o Make reference to a firm's capacity to deploy resources, usually in mixture, using organizational operations to influence desired ends

Information-based, firm-specific procedures which are created over time through complex relationships between resources

Key characteristics

o Valuable across multiple products and markets

o Inserted in organizational regimens (well-honed habits of executing activities)

o Tacit (i. e. , difficult to lessen to algorithms, method guides)

Resources and functions are specific from key success factors

Key success factors (KSF)

Refer to the skills and assets a firm must have to achieve profitability in a specific market

Market-level alternatively than individual characteristics

Necessary, not sufficient for attaining competitive gain (e. g. , KSF in athletic shoes or boots are development of new designs, management of your network of suppliers and distributors, creation of marketing promotions)

Predictors of organization success (like resources and features)

Resources and capabilities

Are conceptually different from KSF

Sometimes overlap with KSF

A Construction FOR ANALYSIS : VRIO

Resource-based examination of the firm decides which resources and capabilities result in which strengths or weaknesses

Strategies are to be integrated which exploit (or build) advantages and prevent (or eliminate) weaknesses

What takes its strength or weakness is partly a function of the external environment

Framework for evaluation: VRIO - resources and features should be

o Valuable

o Rare

o Inimitable

o Business can effectively exploit them

VALUE of resources and capabilities

A VALUABLE resource or potential (or a combo thereof) must

Contribute to fulfillment of customer's needs

At a price the buyer is ready to pay, which is determined by

Customer preferences

Available alternatives (including alternative products)

Supply of related or supplementary goods

Thus, value is partly a function of exterior environment (product market, demand forces)

changes in consumer preferences, industry composition, technology, etc. can bring about changed value

Resources of different firms can be valuable in different ways (e. g. , Timex versus Rolex)

Value = Lowered costs or increased revenues or both

SCARCITY of resources and capabilities

Resources and capabilities must be in short supply to produce competitive benefits (and exceed competitive parity)

What would happen if this were not the situation?

An research of the firm's resources and features must include critical examination whether they are unusual when compared to those of competitors

How rare does a resource have to be in order to acquire potential for creating a competitive advantages?

Example of an rare reference: Wal-Mart's point-of-purchase inventory control system

To be a source of continual competitive benefit the rarity of the reference must persist over time

INIMITABILITY of resources dans capabilities

Requirement for suffered competitive advantage

Ease of imitation depends on

Cost asymmetries ("Do organizations without a tool or functionality face an expense disadvantage in obtaining it compared to organizations that already possess it?")

Capabilities of competitors

Sources of cost asymmetries / cost drawbacks fall under two categories

Impediments to imitation : Impede competitors from duplicating critical resources and capabilities

Early-mover advantages : Set in motion a powerful that increases the magnitude of that advantage relative to other companies over time

Impediments to imitation
Legal limitations on imitation

Patents, copyrights, trademarks

Governmental control over entry into marketplaces (licensing), qualifications, quotas on functioning rights)

Superior usage of inputs or even to customers

Market size and range economies

Intangible barriers to imitation

Causal ambiguity

Dependence on historical circumstances

Other way dependencies

Social complexity

Degrees of reference and potential imitability

Source: C. Montgomery, "Resources: The substance of Corporate Advantages", Harvard Business College Circumstance N1-792-064.

· Can't be imitated : Patents, unique property, unique locations

· Difficult to imitate : Brand loyalty, staff satisfaction, reputation for fairness

· Can be imitated (but might not be) Capacity preemption, economies of scale

· Easy to imitate : Cash, commodities

ORGANIZING to exploit competitive potential of resources and capabilities

The next elements must maintain place to be able to effectively exploit the resource(s) and/or capability(s)

o Structure

o Management and control systems

o Compensation guidelines Business processes

o Complementary resources and capabilities)(www. ecofine. com/strategy.

(C) External affect on organisation

This consist of PEST Examination and Five Causes analysis

PEST Analysis

(A scan of the external macro-environment in which the firm performs can be indicated in terms of the following factors





Political Factors

(Politics factors include federal government regulations and legalities and establish both formal and informal rules under that your firm must operate. A few examples include

tax policy

employment laws

environmental regulations

trade limitations and tariffs

political steadiness)

Economic Factors

Economic factors have an effect on the purchasing vitality of potential prospects and the firm's cost of capital. The following are types of factors in the macroeconomy

economic growth

interest rates

exchange rates

inflation rate)(www. quickmba. com/strategy/pest)

Social Factors

(Social factors are the demographic and cultural areas of the exterior macroenvironment. These factors impact customer needs and the size of potential markets. Some social factors include

health consciousness

population progress rate

age distribution

career attitudes

emphasis on safe practices)

Technological Factors

(Technological factors can lower barriers to admittance, reduce minimum reliable development levels, and affect outsourcing decisions. Some technological factors include

R&D activity


technology incentives

rate of technical change)(www. quickmba. com/strategy/pest).





Environment legislation and protection

Exchange rate

Income distribution

Government research spending

Tax policies, may affect on Oxfam as a whole


Labor, public mobility

New inventions and development

Employment laws

Economic recession

Lifestyle change

Rate of technology transfer

Competition regulations

Consumer confident for example: the Oxfam shop has many devotion because of it


Energy use and costs

Safety regulation

Inflation rate, when the federal government wants to lessen it.

Fashion, hypes

(Change in) Information Technology

Political Stability

Stage of the business cycle

Living conditions

(Change in) Internet

Employment laws

Interest rates

Demographics, Population expansion rate, Age group distribution

(Change in) Mobile Technology

Five Pushes Analysis

"Porter's five causes" is a framework for the industry examination and business strategy development produced by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business College in 1979. It uses concepts developing Industrial Corporation (IO) economics to derive five makes that determine the competitive depth and therefore appeal of a market. "(en. wikipedia. org)

Supplier Power

The Five Forces

The risk of substitute products

The living of products outside of the world of the normal product boundaries increases the propensity of customers to switch to alternatives

Buyer propensity to substitute

Relative price performance of substitutes

Buyer turning costs

Perceived degree of product differentiation

Number of substitute product available in the market

The threat of the admittance of new competitors

Profitable markets that produce high profits will draw organizations. This ends in many new entrants, that may effectively decrease success. Unless the access of new organizations can be blocked by incumbents, the earnings rate will fall towards a competitive level (perfect competition).

The life of obstacles to entry (patents, rights, etc. )

Economies of product differences

Brand equity

Switching costs or sunk costs

Capital requirements

Access to distribution

Customer loyalty to proven brands

Absolute cost advantages

Learning curve advantages

Expected retaliation by incumbents

Government policies

The depth of competitive rivalry

For most business, the power of competitive rivalry is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry.

Sustainable competitive edge through improvisation

The bargaining power of customers

The bargaining power of customers is also described as the market of outputs: the ability of customers to put the firm under great pressure, which also influences the customer's sensitivity to price changes.

Buyer concentration to firm focus ratio

Degree of dependency after existing stations of distribution

Bargaining leverage, specifically in market sectors with high fixed costs

Buyer volume

Buyer switching costs relative to firm switching costs

Buyer information availability

Ability to backward integrate

Availability of existing replacement products

Buyer price sensitivity

Differential advantage (uniqueness) of industry products

RFM Analysis

The bargaining ability of suppliers

The bargaining electric power of suppliers is also referred to as the marketplace of inputs. Suppliers of recycleables, components, labor, and services (such as know-how) to the organization can be considered a source of electricity over the organization. Suppliers may refuse to use the organization, or, e. g. , fee excessively high prices for unique resources.

Supplier switching costs relative to firm switching costs

Degree of differentiation of inputs

Presence of replacement inputs

Supplier focus to firm amount ratio

Employee solidarity (e. g. , labor unions)

Criticisms of the 5 Pushes model

Porter's platform has been challenged by other academics and strategists such as Stewart Neill. In the same way, famous brands Kevin P. Coyne and Somu Subramaniam have stated that three dubious assumptions underlie the five pushes

That buyers, rivals, and suppliers are unrelated and do not socialize and collude.

That the source of value is structural advantage (creating barriers to entry).

That doubt is low, allowing members in a market to plan for and react to competitive behavior.

(D) Internal and Exterior affect on organisation

SWOT Analysis


(1)Oxfam Good Trade (OFT) is one of the greatest UK reasonable trade organisations(Oxfam as a whole)

(2)Oxfam is currently moving towards a broader market access programme.

(3)Oxfam bookshop where I work has a good reputation among the clients and neighbours, because Oxfam all together was founded in 1948, so everyone wishes to become listed on it as volunteer, customer and donator. Cheaper and quality and tidy

(4)This shop has a strong brand, because the donators contribute evaluated things plus they get donations from strong brand companies.

(5)The shop's location is fantastic, it is neighbour to Rathmines University and it locates among Dublin 6's town amenities.

(7)The atmosphere in the shop is of interest.

(8)OFT has been very energetic in capacity building activities. It has led to new skills and better access to international marketplaces, created by fair trade organisation.


Lack of patent protection

Lack of marketing knowledge, because of these are volunteer, few of them well-educated, the other lack of expertise.

The goods in the shop rely upon the donations, sometime there is no donations so the shop insufficient goods then lack of costumers.

Lack of Imagination / ability to build up new products.

Oxfam aims to utilize disadvantaged poor companies, typically from the casual sector, which is characterised by low pay, poor cultural benefits, insufficient usage of investment and credit and consequent poor working conditions, home-working etc.



(1)Unfulfilled customers need

(1)There are numerous charity competitors about the shop

(2) Appearance of new technologies, for example: in Oxfam shop, the customer takes very long time when he/she would like to pay cash, the shop has old-fashion Till

(2) Price wars in those competitors

(3)New regulations

(3)Loosing of regulation

(4)Increase trade barriers

(4)Removal of international trade barriers

(5)Technological developments may make the shop's offerings outdated. Market changes may result from the changes in the client needs, competitors'moves, or demographic shifts. The politics situation determines government coverage and taxation

(5) Market led with a weak competitors

Value Chain Analysis

(Value Chain Analysis describes the activities that happen in a company and relates them to an research of the competitive strength of the business. Important work by Michael Porter recommended that the actions of a business could be grouped under two headings

Primary Activities - those that are directly concerned with creating and delivering something (e. g. component set up); and

Secondary Activities, which whilst they aren't directly involved with creation, may increase effectiveness or efficiency (e. g. human resource management). It is rare for a business to undertake all most important and support activities.

Value Chain Research is one way of figuring out which activities are best performed by way of a business and that happen to be best provided by others ("out sourced") (http:tutor2u. net/business/strategy/value_chain_analysis. htm).

Linking Value Chain Research to Competitive Advantage

(What activities a company undertakes is immediately linked to reaching competitive advantage. For example, a company which hopes to outperform its competitors through differentiating itself through top quality will have to perform its value string activities better than the opposition. By contrast, a strategy predicated on seeking cost control will require a decrease in the costs from the value string activities, or a decrease in the total amount of resources used). (http:tutor2. net/business/strategy/value_chain_analysis. htm)

Value Chain Evaluation has two basic activities

Primary Activities

(Inbound logistics, goods or donations from the general public of the shop being from the shop suppliers ready to be used for producing the finish product). (Notes given in the category).

Operation, the recycleables and goods obtained are made into the last product. Value added to the merchandise at the level as it goes through the creation line.

Outbound logistics, once the product have been manufactured they are ready to be distribute to distribution centres, wholesales, retailer or customers. )(Notes given the course).

Marketing and Sales, Essentially an information activity - informing potential buyers and consumers about products and services (benefits, use, price etc. )


All those activities associated with maintaining product performance.

(2) Extra Activities

Procurement, his concerns how resources are acquired for a small business (e. g. sourcing and negotiating with materials suppliers)

Human Source Management, Those activities concerned with recruiting, developing, motivating and satisfying the workforce of a business.

Technology Development, Activities concerned with managing information handling and the development and security of "knowledge" in a business

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