Jill Thompsons Proposal To Decentralise THE GUIDELINES Commerce Essay

I surely assume that his activity of decentralization can influence on company significantly. His first step was amazing, to analyze what is incorrect, what he has to do to solve the problems, why the business research productivity and manufacturing output had steadily dropped. After he had found the problems he started out decentralization. I believe decentralization of rules is a first step for recovering Bosco Clear plastic. It is because the previous one was made wrong, unplanned and haphazardly. In addition the guidelines and strategies of the company was the same for every employees and time desk on their behalf was too adaptable. For instance labor could come whenever they needed between 8:00 and 10:00 and leave after 9 time. It is uncommon for company which includes 400 employees. Time table needs to be strongly made separately or split into groups. You will find should be the time when labor must arrive and the time when they leave. This details also breaks. Enough time table of employees straight connected with output.

By the way the situation on expanding area was also even worse. There have been not excellent conditions for engineers and chemist. The punching machine was shattered and even if there was possibility to make something new it was too difficult to put on production.

To summarize, to make decentralization better Jill can make a research and analyze the situation more carefully. It is vital to make rules by using supervisors, managers and employees.

1. 1 Compare and contrast different organizational structures and cultures

Organizational composition is a common concepts on which the organization's management framework is built and the process controlled. That means organizational framework illustrates schematic discussion between different labors. There is always a dependence on a people in the business to know who's in charge, what's their role and who use if there is any problem. Many of these questions could be answered by organizational composition. It is important to know that different organizations have structured in different ways. A framework of enterprise relies on the organization's strategy and objectives.

Types of organizational constructions:C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\ob. jpg

Line organizational structure (body 1) is the simplest hierarchical management composition, also called a bureaucratic. Collection structure contains chief and many subordinate employees, large companies can likewise have up to 3 to 4 4 or even more levels of hierarchy.

Fifure 1 Source (http://www. bscdesigner. com/setting-up-balanced-scorecard-concept-for-business-hierarchy. htm)

Functional Composition is explained in figure 2. Even as we see from the name the main notion of the structure is to separate company into several specialised group, ie each controller is specialized in the implementation of specific activities or departments. Each group has own obligations, duty and they are not connected directly. For example financial controller struggles to influence to customer support. However customer service manager can effect to planning manager because planning director is one of the section of customer support. . C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\0790550803004. png

This structure is most effective for companies which produce standardized goods or services at low priced and large volumes.

Product - Structured Composition C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\design5. gif

In this type of structure firms divided by products, assignments or geography. This enables a company to truly have a particular concentrate on specific items in its business functions. Each group focused on own product or help. This method is currently gaining surface in large companies, which are broadening the range of products, where the other method would only complicate the framework of the business.

Source(http://www. revisionguru. co. uk/business/design. htm)

The Divisional structure. This sort of structure is more difficult alternatively than product established or functional. In the composition company is split up into several personal - contained sections which can be called division, each of which operates as a earnings center. Division may engage in production of specific types of products, work in a specific area or on a particular market. C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\Department. png

Source(http://www. bscdesigner. com/setting-up-balanced-scorecard-concept-for-business-hierarchy. htm)

Matrix structure is a most complicated organizational structure. Matrix the first is combination of two different structures usually series and functional framework. In matrix framework, knowledge and skills of the skilled employees could be shared between the useful departments and the task management clubs, as needed. In this organization structure, usually employees have two professionals to whom they may have to record. Which manager is more powerful-it depends upon the sort of matrix structure. C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\Organization Structure3. jpgSource(http://sameh. wordpress. com/2006/05/13/a7/)

Organizational culture is a coordinate system that helps employees build their patterns both inside the business and beyond it. This is what unites them - values, business philosophy, which include the mission, perspective, general purpose, values and habits. It really is an atmosphere which is produced within the group, the guidelines that a newbie should figure out how to be accepted by the team, norms and traditions that occur over time in the team.

Charles Handy's organizational culture types.

Power - a culture that is dominated by the head of the business has a solid influence in the people. These organizations have a straightforward structure, few guidelines and steps but with well -understood, implicit codes about how to respond and work. They are authoritarian, tightly managed workers. This type of culture can quickly respond to changing situations, make decisions quickly and set up their implementation.

The big drawback of ability culture is the size of the business. Therefore, it could be effective limited to relatively small businesses. The success of the business with the energy culture is completely determined by talents and qualifications of brain of organization

Role - in cases like this members' activities are formalized and standardized in details. It is the culture of the bureaucratic type, predicated on official capacity, a definite system of regulations, the circulation of rights, responsibilities and obligations of the participants of the organization, which ensures its effective lifetime for a long time. However, the potency of the role culture firstly is determined by the rational department of work and responsibility, and not on specific personalities.

Task culture - culture, which focuses on successful execution of responsibilities or projects. The potency of the organization mostrly connected with a high professionalism of employees and cooperative group. Process culture will try to connect the appropriate resources and appropriate personnel at the right level and to enable them to do the job well. This culture is seen as a: a higher degree of autonomy, evaluation the job by results, casual working connections within the group, mutual respect based on personal skills. C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\elle-smart-fig-2 (1). jpg

Person - a culture where the central point is the average person. The culture exist primarily to serve and help their customers. Power in this organization is based on proximity to resources, professionalism and capacity to make a deal. It is only a coordinating mother nature. Examples of person culture can be law firms, small consulting businesses, unions, journalists and architects, etc.

Source (http://www. ivoryresearch. com/elle-smart. php)

1. 2

What sorts of guidelines and procedures do you consider the department professionals will come up with? Which departments will be more formalised? Why?

Firstly I want to notice that Jill Thomson made a fantastic decision to ask office managers to make new rules and procedures with their area. The first great changing I believe will touch the whole procedures. Also the guidelines will be not similar entirely each section will have different rules. Except this time stand for employees will be not adaptable as it was. For example employees won't able to come wherever they need between 8:00 and 10 am. Managers have to generate time table for each member or split them for a number of groupings as it shown in the table and breaks as well.









Mon, thue, sat






Thur. Sunshine. Wen





Developing department



14:00 - 15:00



Mostly changes need in producing department as the business is an creativity company which is produces toys. The sale is determined by new product the more new products the greater the sale. So the profit directly connected with this office. Jill has to mansion it and gives focus on this section more. First of all the punching machine should be transformed. Also the going down to the local dime store must be delivered. Moreover the implementation new playthings should be simpler.

Supervisors and Professionals should give regular monthly statement about their stuff and work.

1. 2

Explain how the relationship between an organisation's structure and culture can effect on the performance of the business enterprise.

Organizational framework can be compared to a base of management system, which was created to ensure that the processes occurring in company carried out in a period and accurately. That's why there is the gigantic attention from market leaders of organizations, focusing on the ideas and ways of building constructions of the business, selecting types and kinds, the study of fads and analysis of relevant responsibilities of the business - it shows the urgency and importance of the topic in the current conditions.

The structure of the organization includes all of the tools that is completed

-Distribution of activities between the components of the Organization;

-Coordination of the actions of these components.

Indeed, without the buildings employees would simply be unmanageable masses, or, at best, a set of independent groups, no organization. Structure - one of the primary characteristics of the organization regardless of whether it is a tennis golf club or charity, individuals' cooperative or a multinational company.

The main characteristics of the organizational structure is divided into sections (departments, industries, etc. ), as well as accountability and subordination. But there are other features (for example, information systems and numerous steps for coordination), which can't be shown in this structure.

Organizational culture is something for which folks have become participants of the business, how are relations between them, what guidelines and key points of life they promote, what they think is good and what's bad, and much more of what pertains to the ideals of and norms. This not only differentiates one group from another, but also significantly can determine the success of the operation and survival of the organization in the long run.

As the culture performs an essential role in the life span of the organization, it ought to be the subject of attention from management. Management isn't just consistent organizational culture and is also highly reliant on it, but may subsequently impact on the creation and development of organizational culture. To get this done, managers must have the ability to analyze the organizational culture and impact on its formation and the change in the required direction.

Organizational culture creates "internal, spiritual center" of the company, promotes team building, creates a sense of awareness among the list of staff and responsibility because of their work.

The organizational culture of the team increases and solves problems as personal development of personnel and the introduction of the organization. It really is a prerequisite for the forming of stable and efficient working team, a definite eye-sight of the objective of the business.

1. 3

What dangers will the business face if it establishes different steps for different areas? Explain your reasons by analysing the merits and demerits of 'organic' and 'mechanistic' buildings with regard to changes suggested by Jill Thompson.

I think that the company will not face serious problems with it, because in my opinion Thompson does not want hugely changes, he will try to put the company on right way. To begin with if we think about this situation by changing firm structure from organic to mechanistic one we must really know what are they.



Individual specialization

Employees work separately

and focus on one task

Joint Field of expertise

Employees work together and

coordinate tasks

Simple integrating mechanisms

Hierarchy of authority well-defined

Complex integrating mechanisms

task makes and groups are primary

integrating mechanisms


Decision-making kept of up to possible.

Most communication is vertical.


Authority to regulate responsibilities is delegated.

Most communication lateral


Extensive use made of guidelines & Standard

Operating Procedures

Mutual Modification

Face-to-face contact for coordination.

Work process tends to be unpredictable

Much written communication

Much verbal communication

Informal position in org based on size of


Informal status predicated on recognized


Organization is a network of positions,

corresponding to duties. Typically each

person corresponds to 1 task

Organization is network of persons or

teams. People work in different capacities

simultaneously and over time

Source (http://www. analytictech. com/mb021/organic_vs_mechanistic_structure. htm)

The previous composition was mechanic composition. This structure seen as a using formal rules and procedures. In this case all employees of the business must act purely in line with the instructions, nor deviate from them. So in Bosco Plastic material all employees experienced the same rules and types of procedures.

However organic is not formal, guidelines can be improved, better modified to quick changes in external conditions and the emergence of new solutions. Also employees are treated as certain patterns of behavior, therefore the emphasis is on desire, various highly complex systems of remuneration and bonus deals, benefits package and so forth. If you're a good employee and executes corporate or development levels, will give you a benefit to the salary, medical health insurance, pensions, canteen, mobile pool with a gym.

Mostly Bosco looked like a mechanic one for me. The company didn't pay attention to employees. The top problem will touch I think supervisors and managers because they will have more tasks and responsibilities. For instance they need to find different methods to each worker. Employees will face problems as well. They need to change their patterns which they used. Sometimes there are will be misunderstanding but the changings need to this company.

1. 3

Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at the job.

According to Michael Mattson and John Ivancevich, the most factors that effect on individual dissimilarities in behavioral habits are abilities and skills, understanding, demographic factors, attitudes and personality.

Personality usually refers to uniqueness of every person and personal features that produce him or her differ from other people. Actually, personality is based on predictability how a person will take action or behave under different circumstances. Thus, personality affects other people within an organization through conversation. Sometimes mixture of different characters can lead to conflict between two or more people which after may decrease success of team. That's the reason, leaders of teams should provide teammates with quizzes that can identify their personality. After that individuals with the same personal features will be work in one group in order to avoid misunderstanding.

Perception - is the cognitive process by which a person interprets the environment. It is an activity of knowing of what is occurring around us, through selection of interpretation of information from the exterior environment. It is a way of forming ideas about themselves and the planet. Notion is a filtration which really helps to assess information before it will have an impact on people. Everyone is an musician that paints a picture in their heads of the world, which shown his personal vision of reality. Because of individual dissimilarities in tastes, personal qualities, beliefs and passions people often "see" the same things in different ways. Managers should take into account the differences in perception.

Attitudes and worth are main factors that effect individual habit. Actually, personal attitudes are an intrinsic part within the organization that can affect on positive and negative tendencies. Brooks (2003) claims that, attitudes based on direct experiences can be very strong and incredibly hard to break. To begin with, an attitude includes some psychological elements such as mood, beliefs, thoughts and other aspects. You can also get four types of attitudes such as: organizational citizenship action (OCB), job satisfaction, job participation and organizational commitment (Brooks, 2003). Many people demonstrate that attitudes are not entrenched inside our persona as deeply as values. For instance, ideals give us a sense to understand what's bad and the good or right and wrong (Brooks, 2003). Besides this, ideals in company can create and develop specific corporate culture. Therefore, certain established ideals will differentiate organizations using their company competitors. Regarding to Rockeach and Ball-Rockeach (1989) principles can be terminal and instrumental. Essentially, terminal values derive from peace, security, collaboration and other elements. Whereas, instrumental prices expressed in a form of behaviour to be able to attain these terminal values. On the other hand, attitudes and values can result in discord between individuals and communities. Thus, it will be difficult to determine a certain culture within the business.

Abilities and Skills: Capability is a physical capacity of an individual to do something. Skill can be termed as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well. Capability and Skills have great impact on the individual habit and performance. An employee can perform well in the company if his skills and talents are matched up with the job need. The managers are of great relevance in coordinating the abilities and talents of the employees with the specific job requirement.

How can you describe the organization culture at Greenscape? Under the several types of culture, which kind of culture, do you think, functioning in Greenscape? Justify your views with information.

The Greenscape acquired produced from a one-person organization into large company with twenty full-time employees employed in six to eight crews. The founder of Greenspace, Lita Ong stored organization culture open up and friendly. She was alert to employees' problems and tried help them. For example, she got up each morning at five-thirty to be able to arrange schedules so that Johnson could easily get his child out of daycare. By paying attention to needs and problems of employees, she was able to become friends of employees alternatively than their manager. This helped her to keep its employees faithful to company. When Greenscape gone in big trouble because of not opened mall, employees did not left organization and they were ready to work without payment.

The organization culture in the Greenscape serves as a job culture. It focuses on successful execution of responsibilities or tasks and efficiency of the organization mostly connected with a high professionalism of employees and cooperative group. This type of organization culture requires high degree of autonomy and informal working human relationships within the group which was present in Greenscape. The employees from it could actually concentrate on job fulfillment because their employer was ideal for them. Since it was stated in the case review, Lita Ong understood how to deal with her worker Emily when she was depressed because of her boyfriend's tendencies. This support from Greenscape creator, helped to keep employees in company's hardship.

How large can such an organization get before it needs to change its culture and framework? And why it's important to change culture and framework? Discuss briefly the huge benefits and complications that Greenscape have to cope with changing its culture and composition as the company gears because of its growth.

It can be challenging to improve the culture of an existing organization than to create a culture in a brand new company. If organizational culture is already established, people must unlearn the old prices and behaviors before they can learn the new ones. The small companies will often have to adopt their culture when they expand bigger. Furthermore, business should properly develop future framework than it because one supervisor cannot handle way too many employees. It is essential to employ certain organizational structure such as matrix or divisional.

In case of Greenscape, Lita Ong concentrated mostly on short-term problems like worker absenteeism or their problems. Lita Ong had to get up early on to make schedules which could be delegated to other staff. Lita Ong should more consider business's permanent goals and employ other staff which will offer daily issues. The creator of Greenscape created friendly atmosphere within company which helped keep employees loyal. This was good for organization because employees of Greenscape were prepared to work month without payment. Alternatively, Lita Ong acquired difficulties in handling business and employees in once. To avoid this kind of challenges, Lita Ong should more concentrate business development and delegate controlling employees to other person.

2. 1 Compare the potency of different control styles in different organizations.

In our contemporary society, every group of people led and inspired by leaders. Atlanta divorce attorneys corporation, there are market leaders who help meet organization's goals. According to Greenberg and Baron (2003), leadership is process when one individual influences other participants of group toward success of specific group or organizational goal. . Besides, management has a whole lot of ideas that describes style of management. One of these is behavioral theory. Actually, this concept is targeted on what leaders do and exactly how they react in a certain situation. Matching to Mullins (2005), good management includes effective combination of empowerment and delegation. This means that good head have to in a position to control and delegate tasks effectively. Review of leadership styles helps to managers of organization avoids many issues like job hits. There are four leadership styles: Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez-faire and Paternalistic. Autocratic leaders do not advice with other their decisions and them but their decision made quickly (mindtools, 2010). C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\leadership(5). jpg

Source(http://www. leadershippost. com/)

In Autocratic style market leaders try to be a part of every activity which are happening in the company and try to control everything. All important decision made by them as well. The leader decides how the work needs to be done and by whom. The style is most reliable in situations where in fact the company, or followers, seem to be to be drifting aimlessly. Corresponding to Dogra (2011) "Authoritarian command style examples can be found in the real world in people like Monthly bill Gates and John F Kennedy. Expenses Gates used the authoritarian style and steered Microsoft towards incredible success. Regarding to Monthly bill Gates, he previously a eyesight when he needed reins of the business and then used all the resources open to make that perspective possible. His success can be judged from just how personal computers industry has advanced in America today"C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\leadership-styles. jpg

Paternalistic style is similar to autocratic but here market leaders can be consulted by some of their employees prior to making decision. A famous exemplory case of a participative head can be an American business magnate, tv personality and creator - Donald Trump who handles The Trump Group. Relating to :" Donald Trump is well known for his eccentricity and unconventional businesses routines. He exhibits an unconventional command style, which is characterized by many characteristics. One particular is the necessity for power. That is exhibited by every piece of real property Mr. Trump owns. Every gambling house, building or course has his name on it. He is eccentric, powerful, yet somehow he makes very smart business decisions. He is also a risk taker but He always check with along with his staf before making decisions "

Democratic style is characterized by the syndication of powers, effort and responsibility between your director and deputy, head and subordinates. Market leaders make decision with consulting their staff. Regarding to Dogra(2011): "Example is a supervisor has newly became a member of a firm. He's still learning how various things function in the business. In that situation, he depends on the recommendations and thoughts of his associates and enables them do the things the way they are being used to, till enough time he is able to gain sufficient knowledge and can suggest even more feasible changes. "

Laissez-faire style is seen as a a lack of active contribution in the management of any team innovator. Such a innovator, "drifting", waiting for instructions from above or requires or is considered under the collective. Prefer not to take hazards, "low account" shirk the urgent resolution of conflicts, trying to reduce their personal risk. Work drive, rarely manages it. This control style is recommended in creative teams, where employees are different indie and creative specific.

C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\leadstyle. jpg

Source(http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadstl. html)

2. 2 Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management.

Organization theory is the analysis that analyzes the key points, laws and guidelines of the organization, its development, the mechanisms, the conversation of its parts, impacts of external and interior factors to achieve new goals.

Scientific management

Scientific management or Taylorism is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, increasing labour production. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first printed in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) plus the Concepts of Scientific Management (1911).

Frederick Taylor thought that decisions established upon tradition and guidelines should be substituted by precise steps developed after careful study of an individual at work. Its application is contingent on a higher level of managerial control over employee work methods. In medical management the useful execution of specific activities preceded by an intensive scientific evaluation of work operations and conditions because of their implementation, as do practical measures predicated on the successes of modern technology and best practices.

An essential part of the methodical management is division of labor. For proper procedure of the company or organization, you must first assign employees to specific jobs and assign each a concrete job functions. That is achieved by selecting the best department of labor and division of the entire opportunity of work into different parts, each of which performs a specific employee.

According to vectorstudy. com (ND)
"The four targets of management under scientific management were as follows

1. The introduction of a science for each element of the man's work to replace the old rule-of-thumb methods.

2. The clinical selection, training and development of employees instead of permitting them to choose their own responsibilities and coach themselves as best they could.

3. The development of a nature of hearty co-operation between workers and management to ensure that work would be completed relative to scientifically devised strategies.

4. The section of work between employees and the management in almost equivalent shares, each group taking over the work that it is best fitted rather than the former condition where responsibility essentially rested with the workers. Self-evident in this school of thought are organizations set up in a hierarchy, systems of abstract guidelines and impersonal relationships between staff. "

According to psylist. world wide web (ND): "Taylor was main who began to utilize psychological exams in job and used observation, interviews and questionnaires as well. He first lifted the question about the bond process with the activities and the psyche of people. "


Bureaucratic management serves as a "a formal system of business based on plainly defined vertical hierarchical levels and jobs in order to keep up efficiency and performance. " German sociologist Maximum Weber was the first who shown the features of the bureaucracy as a management system. Matching to Weber, bureaucracy is the most efficient form of company. The organization has a well-defined line of authority. They have clear regulations which are firmly followed.

Characteristics Of Bureaucratic Organizations

Management by rules

Management by rules and regulations provides a set of standard operating types of procedures that facilitate uniformity in both organizational and management procedures. The activity of each and every member of the business subject to regulations targeted at streamlining the process of management. Ultimately, these guidelines should make the predictability of every employee and the organization. Although the rules can be changed, but, in general, they should be stable as time passes.

Division of labor

Every employee has certain obligations and opportunity of work, which cannot duplicate the opportunity of the powers of other customers.

Formal hierarchical structure

Bureaucratic structure of the organization can be compared to a pyramid: the majority is in its foundation, and a minority - at the very top. Each person included in this vertical hierarchy, led by lower people and, in turn, is at the mercy of a higher. Because of this it can help to monitor the actions of each member firm.

Written documents

All actions, rules and decisions taken by the business are produced and recorded in writing. Written documents ensure that there surely is continuity of the organization's plans and steps.

2. 3

Evaluate the various approaches to management used by different organizations.

Approach to the management includes goals, laws and regulations, rules, methods and functions, management technology and practice management.


human relations approach;

systems strategy;

contingency approach

The Human Relations Approach emphasizes the importance of individual needs in the workplace, and the factor of management practice and job design to meet those needs. Could be best explained as a function of interpersonal factors and the satisfaction of the real human needs of workers

This procedure was inspired by the Hawthorne Studies, a research conducted to European Electric Company's plant's employees in Illinois

The Hawthorne Studies

Elton Mayo from Harvard School and a research team studied how changes in work environment on production of factory personnel (9years)



Work environment

Work hours

Social and mental needs

Explanations of Findings

Worker outcome increased as a result of attention from professionals.

Hawthorne effect-attention to staff triggers changes in behavior

Social connection in the group and available communication between workers and managers increased productivity

The systems approach emphasizes that professionals should consider the business as a couple of interrelated elements, such as people, framework, goals, and technology that try to achieve various goals in a changing environment. The entire system can be damaged into three parts namely - suggestions, process and end result.

Input consists of the raw materials, money, technology, etc.

The process refers to activities related to management, technology, functions, etc.

Output will be the products, results, etc.

The response or feedback in something focuses on the info and data which is applied for executing certain businesses. These inputs aid in correcting the problems within the processes.

C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\input-ouput. jpg

A Source (http://www. buzzle. com/articles/systems-approach-to-management. html)

System contain different subsystems. They are internal and external. These subsystems are interconnected and impact each other. Each of the subsystem interacts with the adjacent subsystem plus they work in synergy for the betterment of the entire system. The restrictions, within that your inside subsystems function, are dependant on the system boundary. The external subsystems, on the other hand are those that lie outside the boundary limits, but still influence system

For example: In the supermarket, the various subsystems will be the advertising, sales, admin and finance department. These are the internal subsystems that rest within the boundary. The exterior subsystem here will be the buyers or the customers who visit the store. Only when all these subsystems work together, the system is said to function effectively C:\Users\†˜˜·\Desktop\OB\elements-of-a-system. jpg

Source(http://www. buzzle. com/articles/systems-approach-to-management. html)

Contingency (sometimes called the situational) methodology believes that there surely is no single system that can connect with all workplace obstacles. Managerial personnel work to find out specific answers to handle workplace issues and fulfill customer needs. This means assigning employees to an activity based on relevant skills, expanding situational ways of meet deadlines, and integrating these initiatives to give a fully realized course of action. Managers using the contingency procedure only offer with challenges and risks as these situations occur for the business. In other phrase the situational method of management is based on the idea that there surely is no one easiest way to manage and that to work, planning, organizing, leading, and handling must be designed to the particular circumstances experienced by an organization. The manager must systematically make an effort to identify which approach or approach would be the best answer for a problem which is accessible in a particular circumstance or framework.

For example, when professionals at Taco bell dealt with the question of what would work best for its restaurants they redefined business based on the simple premise that customers value food service and the appearance of the restaurant. To execute the clients focused goals, the company recruited new professionals who were committed to creating or providing goods that customer value and who could mentor and support personnel in the new course. To concentrate on customers, Taco Bell outsourced a lot of the assembly-line food preparation, such as shredding lettuce, allowing employees to give attention to customers. As a result it has relished a 60 percent development in sales at company owned or operated stores. Other junk food restaurants might base their business on different situational factors, by the contingency view.

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