The Challenges Encountered In Employee Desire Commerce Essay

One question that is frequently asked by professionals in many organisations is "How do I stimulate my emloyees?" The idea of motivation is sophisticated with numerous researches carried out and different theories put forward in order to make clear and attempt to understand it. Many definitions exist for drive, however the common definition is the fact desire is a pychological process within an man or woman who drives a certain behaviour to achieve arranged goals. Currently, desire is a way to obtain recurrent debates and can be an problem of great value and concern for both employees and organisations. Whilst reliable information systems and the latest technology are important, in the current extending service industry, employees continue to be the most important assets in virtually any organisation. How well employees perform and their commitment at work are necessary factors to the success of their organisation; and in the current modern work, where there is increasing competetion worldwide, organisations just can't afford to truly have a demotivated workforce or even lose good employees to poor motivation. Therefore, desire of such employees is an essential role of any manager, yet additionally it is among the most challenging tasks to execute effectively. Professionals must plainly understand and be aware of the sort of factors define motivation of these workforce because, by doing this, they could focus employees' work to work successfully and effectively to attain desired goals of the business. Managers must also be aware of the fact that every employee differs and unique in their own sense, hence they have to take account of the versions when motivating them.

According to the 'Self-Determination Theory' (2), a good way to comprehend the idea of determination is to split it into extrinsic and intrinsic inspiration. Extrinsic motivation relates to motivation via others and the surroundings, where the specific behaves in a certain way in order to get something (e. g. pay) or because of external stresses (e. g. manager's instructions). Intrinsic desire, on the other hand, relates to inspiration coming from within onself (3), where the individual acts in a certain way because of and genuine interest in the take action itself (e. g. gratifying need for competence). Frederick W. Taylor, the father of 'scientific management', acquired greatly influential views about inspiration of personnel. He assumed that paying employees high salary, which is one of the resources of extrinisc inspiration, was a sufficient incentive to stimulate them to work harder and become more beneficial (find ref). This is possibly the case when organisations generally only looked for compliance from their workers, and extrinsic rewards provided by managers were a simple answer to problems with staff drive and guaranteeing they does their work and used the guidelines properly. However, in today's world and in the modern work area, where employees are anticipated to self-manage and have more responsiblities, issues with motivation have become much more complicated and strenuous. Motivating staff is indeed a difficult taks and is generally easier in theory. Presently, many organisations are motivating their employees by using extrinsic motivators such as financial bonuses. However, this is not always sufficient to keep the right degree of drive, as it only satisfies them indirectly. For this reason, employers need to also focus on intrinsic motivators, which provide to fulfill the immediate needs of the worker, and therefore encourage better performance on a particular task. Monetary incentives and other extrinsic rewards are no longer sufficient to maintain staff determination since employees are actually necessary to show more dedication and creative imagination (1). This, subsequently, would depend on deeper resources of satisfaction that are definitely more meaningful to the worker that extrinsic rewards would generally fail to offer independently. In the current work setting, intrinsic rewards have a vital part in staff motivation; included in these are emotional rewards such as acceptance and a sense of appreciation, which provide employees with a greater incentive for higher efficiency and achievement. For some, if not all employees, financial security is a strong motivator and will remain consequently for a long time, but managers must be aware that it can stop to be the only motivator at some point, and even could stop to be a motivator all together depending on an individual's circumstances and variants.

The different facets that can motivate the employee in the workplace can be expressed as needs which subsequently become motivators for higher production when they are fulfilled. Different things can motivate different people and be given different priorities. The manager must identify and then fulfill the needs for the employee, in order to form an environment in the workplace that encourages determination. The many needs and anticipations at the job can be categorised into extrinsic and intrinsic inspiration

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATORS

INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS

Salary

Sense of task and achievement

Job security

Receiving appreciation

Promotion

Positive recognition

Contract of service

Good treatment

Work environment

Growth and advancement

Social interaction

Responsibility

Health benefits

Extrinsic motivation relates to 'genuine' rewards such as salary, security, advertising, contract of service and work place; they are often outside the control of an individual manager; intrinsic inspiration pertains to 'subconscious' rewards including the sense of task and achievement, getting appreciation, positive reputation and good treatment at work; these can usually be dependant on the activities and behavior of the individual manager(4). These resources of satisfaction differ from a person to an individual and between different circumstances. They can be interlinked, and for that reason, can't be isolated from one another, but can be used as a combo of motivators within an organisation.

MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

For many ages, theorists have been trying to understand what motivates a person to behave in a certain manner in the workplace. However, this is a topic that has seen many conflicting debates as some researches believed that individuals do not lack motivation but certain bonuses that stimulate them are absent, while others argue that motivation originates from within the average person regardless of the environment and other external influences (9). Theorists have explored the subject of motivation by handling two main concepts. First is the content of motivation itself, which concerns factors within the individual and the work environment that define and shape certain motivated behaviour. Second is the process of drive, which concerns the perceptive process an indivdual has for determination in a specific setting. This has led to the development of several content and process thoeries about motivation in the workplace.

CONTENT THEORIES

In the 1940's Abraham Malsow, a psychologist, developed the idea of 'Hierarchy of Needs' (10), which later became one of the very most popular and influential theories of desire. He proposed that we now have five degrees of needs that existed in a particular order, and that all level must be satisfied in turn in order to motivate the given individual to satisfy the need at another level. His argument was based on the fact that Individuals always had the desire to have more, and then for a person to be motivated to pursue the next step, the needs at the prior level have to be fully satisfied. Therefore, certain lower-order needs needed to be fulfilled before other higher-order needs became motivators for the average person. Relating to Maslow's model, these needs are physiological needs (basics for success, e. g. food or water), safeness needs (physical and emotinal security), cultural needs (sense of love and social that belong), esteem needs (sense of recognition, admiration and value) and self-actualisation (achieving one's full potential) (11).

(rbs full)

In the context of the place of work, there are potential ways that could meet an employee's needs

Self-actualisation includes providing challenging tasks that could promote creative imagination and evolvement.

Esteem needs includes acceptance, praise, social position, self-respect, delegating responsibility and accomplishment

Social needs entails social interaction, group work and pariticipation.

Safety needs include job security, financial savings and living safe working environment.

Physiological needs include providing sufficient breaks during work and a salary that allows personnel to afford life essentials (4).

There are a number of discovered problems in applying Maslow's theory to the task place. In reality, the areas of life, beside work, can add to the individual's satisfaction, therefore the manager must also have understanding of the employee's life outside work. Also, the actual fact that individuals will vary means that they place different values on a single need; which some rewards at work can satisfy more than one need, rather than necessarily fulfill one need at a time (4). On top of that, it was criticised for having a rigid order of needs which possibly wouldn't normally apply to everyone, because priorities are likely to vary in different individuals and even for the same individual over time (11). In spite of each one of these problems, Maslow's hierarchy of needs model has been widely utilised in many organisations as a guideline for managers to make use of to motivate their employees. It provides a very important insight for professionals about the overall needs that individual employees have, and what may be used to stimulate them (12).

In 1972, Clayton Alderfer further developed Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs model by grouping different levels of needs in the hierarchy into three pieces in his ERG (Lifetime, Relatedness and Progress) theory. He located the lower-order needs, physiological and security, into 'lifestyle needs'; public and esteem needs in to the 'relatedness needs'; and finally, the self-actualisation need into 'growth needs'. Furthermore, Alderfer put forward a regression theory to go with the ERG theory, which says that when higher-order needs aren't met, the individual will work harder to fulfill the lower-order needs in order to increase their chances of fulfilling these higher needs (21). For instance, an employee who's having difficulties satisfying their sense of full potential would then probably put more effort into increasing their pay through campaign in order to increase their chances of achieving what they need.

(20)

However, corresponding to (11) a universal problem with both Maslow and Alderfer's models of inspiration is that they contain having descriptions of needs that are too obscure, particularly safe practices and esteem needs, which would essentially cause problems to managers in interpreting them and using them to provide certain opportunities for motivating their employees.

In 1961, David McClelland created the 'Attained Need Theory' which is based on three motivational needs including accomplishment, affiliation and ability. He stated that of the three needs are normally present in a person to a certain degree, but only one of them usually dominates. This

is mixture of motivational needs characterises a person's or manager's style and behaviour, both in terms of being encouraged, and in the management and drive others.

Another theorist, Elton Mayo, has made significant affects on the ideas of human relations and determination, through performing large studies of workers in an electronic company in the United States between 1924 - 1927. His studies emphasised the value of teamwork, communication and positive acceptance on staff determination. His studies have also led to the creation of the model called 'The Hawthorne Effect' which shows that the amount appealing shown by the manager has an optimistic influence with an employee's job performance (5). However his model has been criticised for positioning too much emphasis and reliance on public contacts within the business on employees' job performance (6). Nevertheless, the impact of Mayo's research was huge, as it opened doors for further research in to the subject of motivation by other theorists.

Frederick Hertzberg (1959) developed a 'two factor' theory based on findings from a report conducted in the U. S. through interviews with employees from different sectors, in which they were asked about specific things that thrilled or displeased them at their work environment. From this, Herzberg realised that there were two different pieces of factors, where one place induced satisfaction and the other one caused dissatisfaction. One set of factors, called 'hygeine' or maintenance factors are concerned with the task environment; they don't result in higher level of determination, but there lack would cause demotivation. These include extrinsic motivators such as salary, security and work place. The second set of factors will be the 'motivator' or development factors which are worried with content of the work itself; they lead to increased inspiration if present. These include intrinsic motivators such as positive reputation, challenge and a sense of achievements. His research also figured some factors overlapped both sets but got a more robust emphasis in another of them.

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The size of the bars represent the degree of concern that all of the factors is wearing job drive or dissatisfaction. The reason why the bars for achievements and pay look different is basically because they both offer short term satisfaction, as there's a continuous need to find those to lead to satisfaction.

This theory has been frequently criticised by many experts for its limited application and possibly biased methodology. However, continue from pg 266 on book

Furthermore, it has been noted the idea does not enable individual dissimilarities, such as particular personality attributes, which would influence individuals' unique replies to motivating or health factors. [4]

The theories of motivation that were put forward over fifty percent a century in the past are still noticeable and widely utilised in the current banking industry. Predicated on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs model, bankers are constantly attempting to sustain a good level of motivation amongst their staff by understanding and gratifying employees' needs. On the 'physiological and safeness needs' levels of the hierarchy, basic needs such as food, shelter, warmness and safety are provided by employed in any standard bank through paying wages and developing a protected climate to work in. In terms of sociable and esteem needs, bankers meet these by creating opportunities for employees to interact with each other and work in teams; in addition to good acceptance of achievements through praising the employee or giving a extra pay, both which are just a few methods out of several more utilized by banks to provide the employee a sense of value and appreciation. In conditions of 'self-actualisation', banks meet this need by offering promotion opportunities to the employees, and giving them the chance to improve in their professions. The motivators that lenders offer also cover the 'hygeine' and motivator factors which were put forward in Hertzberg's motivational model.

Expectancy theory is an over-all theory of determination that is dependant on the concept that individuals are inspired by the recognized results of their activities. It argues that there are a number of inter-linking factors which determine the strength of an individual's inspiration, such as the initiatives expended, the expectation that rewards will be accessible, and that these rewards will be linked to their performance. In other words, the individual's degree of motivation will rely upon their recognized expectation that it will lead to the required results. This theory has been approached by several different writers, namely Vroom, Porter and Lawler (HRM reserve). Vroom's expectancy theory is based on three factors

Valence - the identified gratification from an outcome.

Instrumentality - the degree to which an initial level (performance-related) end result, e. g. high productivity, leads to a second level (need-related) end result, e. g. campaign.

Expectancy - the bond between a decided on course of action and its own expected results.

The mixture of valence and expectancy defines the amount of an individual's drive. Vroom's theory has been further customized by Porter and Lawler, to build up which takes accounts other factors besides inspiration that could effect performance. These factors include specific skills, characteristics and role perceptions. These theories help managers to understand the nature of human behaviour and the complexness of desire in the work setting; in addition to supporting them recognise any problems with specific performance. They emphasise that managers should pay particular focus on factors such as an employee's work and performance, and use rewards whenever it is appropriate in order to maintain a good degree of motivation amongst the employees; on top of that, managers are advised to create methods of evaluating employee's performance as a way to ensure that their labor force are constantly encouraged.

The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) offers its employees a bundle called 'Total Reward' (rbs full). Besides salary, this includes flexible working hours, health and medical benefits, lifestyle benefits such as shopping vouchers, and certain financial products at special rates. In addition, it offers monetary incentives such as bonus offer payments predicated on profit-sharing and individual-performance plans; in addition to non-monetary incentives through popularity of good performance based on personal development plans, where the employee is given the chance for advertising. RBS gives the employees the opportunity to work flexibly through a number of working routines including job sharing, compressed hours and home-working. In 2004, RBS gained an award for its adaptable working-hours program in the workplace (find ref). This empowered employees to attain a work-life balance by choosing working time that fit around their personal lives, which would have a positive effect on the employee's dedication at the workplace, and subsequently leads to better efficiency. This was outlined in Elton Mayo's studies on personnel inspiration in the 1920's that demonstrated that staff tended to be more motivated and effective if they were sense comfortable and satisfied with their work place.

In 1963, John Adams developed the 'Equity theory' which can be involved with the employee's notion of fairness at work, in conditions of treatment received compared to co-workers based on inputs and final results. He argued that good treatment is highly valued by individuals, and the feeling of inequity may have a negative influence on their performance. There are a variety of factors at work that play an important role towards the sensation of collateral including pay, promotion and recognition. Employees would expect identical treatment predicated on their contributions and performance in comparison to other co-workers. This would subsequently bring about a sense of satisfaction and would strengthen their marriage with the company and the team of employees, all of which is important for their inspiration.

Edwin Locke put forward a 'Goal theory' of inspiration in the 1960's, which is dependant on the idea that individual's goals have a substantial influence on their performance. He argued that those who have specific and challenging goals set for them, to that they are committed to, would generally perform better, as they offer focus and drive for the employee on the task given. The performance of the worker is further increased if this is in conjunction with clear and constructive reviews of the results, which provides greater focus and gives the employee a greater sense of satisfaction and determination for the responsibilities set.

In the 1960's Douglas McGregor's developed 'Theory X and Theory Y', that happen to be theories define two different methods towards motivation in the workplace. Theory X implies an authoritarian management style, where in fact the staff is often thought to be relatively unambitious, lacks responsibility, will avoid work and change, and it is often in need for some kind of direction at the job in order to execute and improve. So to be able to achieve the organisation's goals, professionals would choose a stringent attitude towards the worker, in which they might often count on intimidating techniques of abuse to pressure the staff to adhere to the organisation's goals. Predicated on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs model, McGregor argued that a lot of employees in this environment would only seek to satisfy their lower needs, such as money; however, being that they are already satisfied they'll not be a sufficient motivating tool for any longer. Therefore, this type of management style would most surely produce poor ends up with terms of personnel motivation, and eventually interacting with the organisation's aims. Because of this, McGregor put forward a Theory Y, which assumes a participative management style, where in fact the employee is considered to be self-motivated, sensible, ambitious, and they really enjoy working. Matching to this theory, managers believe that employees are self-directed and motivated to execute well at the job. This creates a work environment where managers have the ability to exercise delegation, collaboration and responsibility in decision making among their workforce. In such a Theory Y environment, most employees are urged and driven to satisfy higher level of needs such as 'esteem' and 'self-actualisation', which are not totally satisfied and would therefore keep them determined for higher performance and productivity at the office.

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McGregor's model has been criticised for being too rigid and quite unrealistic in the manner it depicts management and employees to be one of either two extremes at work. Nevertheless, his theories continue to provide a guide to managers about the fundamentals of management styles, and the value of maintaining a positive attitude to staff determination, where employees feel that these are well-treated and respected within the of the company.

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