Theories of the management of organisations have been developed and also have evolved over time: from simplistic ideas to more medical and behavioural ideas. A more traditional management theory would be likened to a machine. Where by organisations were departmentalised and workers were likely to behave and act in a predictable manor. Modern management theories tend to focus more so on the behaviours and efficiency of personnel and the operations employed in the organisation.
Classical management theories are split into two types, the classical medical and the classical administrative. With regards to the classical methodical theory, this is given birth to from to the technological behaviourism of wanting to lead to increased productivity. During the time the classical scientific theory was mostly used, theory experts would use almost machine like methods to the composition and planning of the business and labor. It was thought that methodology would help achieve goals of productivity and efficiency. The basic strategies and techniques of the traditional clinical theory include dividing work between employees equally and creating standardized options for an activity.
However, the traditional administrative theory worried its personal with ways that the management departments could be organised and prepared to increase efficiency and efficiency. Henri Fayol, who was simply a figure brain in management theory, masterminded various ideas of management geared towards production and efficiency, such as making a consolidated and cooperative frame of mind and path among managers, centralization, and self-discipline of management and organizations. His other management ideas investigated building assurance in teams, such as establishing and encouraging team work, encouraging employees to make use of their own initiative, and building equality in the work place.
From these Traditional and modern management theories different approach were developed concentrating mainly on the inspiration of the task force.
In 1943 Abraham Maslow suggested the idea of the Hierarchy of Needs. Maslows theory is dependant on the fact that within every individual there's a hierarchy of five basic needs.
He stated that these five needs are : -
Physiological needs- They are the essential needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter.
Safety needs- Security needs include physical, environmental and mental safety and security. For example- Job security, financial security, security from family pets, family security, health security, etc.
Social needs- Interpersonal needs include the need for love, affection, good care, belongingness, and companionship.
Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: interior esteem needs (do it yourself- respect, assurance, competence, achievements and liberty) and exterior esteem needs (popularity, power, status, attention and admiration).
Self-actualization need- This are the urge to be what you are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to be. It includes the need for growth and self-contentment. In addition, it includes desire for getting more knowledge, communal- service, creativeness and being visual.
According to Maslow, every individual is encouraged by needs that are not yet satisfied. That is to say that as each of an individual's needs are significantly satisfied, it energises and motivates another need in the hierarchy to emerge. The lower-order needs are constituted by physiological and the security needs. The higher-order needs are constituted by public, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
In 1960, Douglas McGregor produced X-Y Theory suggesting there are two important methods to the management of folks at work. Corresponding to McGregor, the perception of managers regarding the nature of people is based on various assumptions about the average person (Cole, 1996).
The X theory would label the management style authoritarian and managers utilizing this style would presume that worker disliked work and would have to be forced with threat of consequences or punishments to complete responsibilities.
The Y theory would label the management style more cooperative and nurturing. Theory y means that managers utilizing this style encourage employees to consider effort and self-direction and build a work environment which provides opportunities to participate in decision making within in an group and inspire teamwork.
In short you could say that McGregor's Theory X would be a more classical, armed service or autocratic design of management while McGregor's Theory Y would be a more modern, motivational and leader dispatch design of management
If we compared McGregor's Hierarchy with Maslow's X-Y theory, we could declare that Theory X is concerns the assumption that the employees main target is on the physiological needs and the safe practices needs; while Theory Y is dependant on the assumption that employees are dominate by the interpersonal needs, esteem needs and the self-actualization needs.
Matrix management is a framework of organizational management in which people with similar skills are grouped together for project tasks (Carnall, (2007). For instance on a structure site a single trade may maintain one team and report to the manager of there trade, but these same tradesman may be given to various projects and report to a different job administrator or a agreement manager while working on that job. Thus, each tradesman may need to work under several managers to get their job done.
In comparison a linear management structure would employ a more hierarchical design of management. Instructions would move from the management team in a right line right down to the tradesmen who'll complete the works.
Linear organization set ups have many advantages and disadvantages.
The mains advantages are : -
A high amount of flexabilty, whereby people can be assigned to the task then reassigned to other works transitioning back and forth is easily achieved.
The work load is simpler to estimate and manage as the range of work is usually restricted to its own field.
Lines of communication are short and well established
There is an instant reaction time to problems within the department
The main disadvantages are : -
There is no point of responsibility as the task scope moves in one department to another.
No formal lines of communication on multi-disciplined projects
Department work could take goal over project work
Advantages and drawbacks of the matrix organization: -
The task has an individual point of responsibility - the task manager
The task can draw on the entire resources of the company
Good flow of information
Teams of experts are held jointly and problem fixing can draw over a much wider knowledge base
Good training surface for task manages working in multifunctional environments
The framework is intricate and more difficult to understand
More communication links required to keep the additional number of mangers informed
Dual responsibility and authority leads to bafflement and conflict
Project integration between departments is more involved and complex
According to (Burke 2007) selecting the right organizational composition is a fragile balancing act determined by the assignments needs, the task team's needs, the stakeholder's needs and as essentially the needs of your client. When the task requires input form a number of different departments the Matrix structure offers a genuine treatment for the functional division of responsibility and specialist However if the task is a big capital project more likely to run for quite some time then establishing a far more linear framework may be the most likely organization composition.
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