8. Means of measurement
The means of measurement is understood as a technical means (or a complex thereof) intended for measurements having normalized metrological characteristics reproducing and (or) storing a unit of physical quantity, the size of which is assumed unchanged (within the established error) within a certain time interval.
8.1. Classification of measuring instruments
Measuring tools can be classified according to the following main characteristics: type, type and metrological purpose.
A type is a collection of measuring instruments that have a principally the same circuit, design, and are manufactured according to the same technical conditions.
A view is a collection of types of measuring instruments intended for measuring a single physical quantity.
According to the metrological designation, the measuring instruments are subdivided into working measuring instruments intended for measuring physical quantities; metrological means of measurement, designed to ensure the uniformity of measurements.
According to the design, the measuring instruments are divided into: measures; measuring instruments; measuring installations; measuring systems; measuring complexes.
On the level of automation - on non-automated measuring instruments; automated measuring instruments; automatic means of measurement.
By standardization level: standardized measuring instruments; non-standardized measuring instruments.
With respect to the measured physical quantity: the basic means of measurement; auxiliary means of measurement.
Measure is a measurement tool designed to reproduce a given size of a physical quantity. For example, a set of plane-parallel terminal measures of length.
Distinguish between single-valued and multi-valued measures.
A single-valued measure reproduces a physical value of the same size (for example, end measures of length, calibers, etc.).
A multivalued measure is a measure that reproduces a physical value of different sizes. For example, a ruler.
A set of measures of different sizes of the same physical quantity necessary for practical application, either individually or in various combinations, is called a set of measures.
A measuring instrument is a measuring device designed to obtain the values of a measured physical quantity within a specified range. The measuring device, as a rule, contains a device for converting the measured quantity into a signal of the measuring information and its indication in the form most accessible to perception. For example, as a display device, a scale and an arrow are used, etc.
There are the following measuring devices: indicating, analog, digital, recording, recording, printing, summing, integrating, comparisons.
The indicating meter allows only the reading of the measured value (caliper, micrometer, voltmeter, etc.). In an analog meter, the reading or output is a continuous function of the measured value (mercury thermometer).
A digital measuring device is a measuring device whose readings are presented in digital form (calipers with a numerical count).
The registering measuring device is a measuring device in which the registration of indications is provided. Registration can be in either analog or numerical form. They are divided into self-recording and printing measuring devices.
A self-recording measuring instrument is a recording device in which a record is recorded in the form of a diagram.
A printing device is a device in which digital printing is provided.
A summing measuring device is a measuring instrument whose indications are functionally related to the sum of two or several quantities supplied to it via various channels (for example, a wattmeter).
The integrating measuring device is a measuring device in which the value of the measured quantity is determined by integrating it by another value (electricity meter).
The measuring instrument of comparison is a measuring device intended for direct comparison of a measured quantity with a value whose value is known (balance of a balance, potentiometer, etc.).
A measuring device is a set of functionally combined measures, measuring devices and other devices intended for measuring one or several physical quantities and located in one place.
A measuring system is a set of functionally combined measures, measuring devices, computers and other technical equipment placed at different points in a controlled space (object) for the purpose of measuring one or more physical quantities inherent in this space (object).
All measuring instruments are divided into universal and special-purpose means.
Universal is a measurement tool designed to measure lengths, angles in a certain range of product sizes with a variety of configurations. For example, the same device with additional devices (racks, tripods, etc.) can be used to measure different sizes. This feature of universal measuring instruments promotes their wide application.
A special measurement tool is used to measure special elements for parts of a certain shape (for example, calibers, angle measuring devices, gears, etc.) or special parameters for parts, regardless of its geometric shape (devices for measurement of roughness, shape deviations, etc.).
The measuring lengths and angles depending on the physical principle that forms the basis for constructing the meter converter, is divided into the following groups: dashed (have a linear or an angular scale and vernier - Caliper, goniometers); micrometric (based on the use of a screw pair - micrometers); lever-mechanical (indicators of the watch type, lever brackets, etc.); lever-optical (optometers); optical-mechanical (projectors, instrumental microscopes, etc.); pneumatic (based on the use of compressed air); hydraulic; electric and electronic; combined (based on the use of different principles), etc.
Special purpose measuring tools are divided into the following groups: measurement of the shape and location of surfaces; measuring surface roughness parameters; measurement of thread parameters; Measuring the parameters of angles and cones; measuring the parameters of the gears.
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