STRUCTURE OF THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING MACHINE PARTS
Structure of the manufacturing process
The process of production of parts of products, as follows from the analysis of materials considered earlier, consists of the following stages: selection and justification of the method of obtaining the billet, processing and control.
The composition and sequence of the stages of manufacturing the parts depend on many factors: service purpose, material, the required accuracy, the production program, economic factors, etc. To establish the sequence of manufacturing the part (ie the choice of manufacturing route), first of all, analysis of its design. In the most formalized, generalized form, the composition and sequence of manufacturing from the moment of obtaining the workpiece to the issuance of the finished part for assembly of the product can be represented using the schemes shown in Fig. 20.1 and 20.2.
Fig. 20.1. Scheme of connections of production workshops of the machine-building plant
Fig. 20.2. Sequence of workpiece manufacturing
As you can see from these schemes, the path of the part to the assembly shop from the molding of the workpiece to the full readiness runs through various workshops (and, consequently, different types of processing). In this case, the parts can repeatedly move between the shops, for example, from mechanical to thermal and back. When working out the route of the parts, they try to avoid unnecessary displacements.
The task of selecting the TP for manufacturing a part is characterized by the multivariate nature of possible solutions. Even for comparatively simple parts, several different TPs can be designed, which fully satisfy the requirements of the working drawing and the technical specification. The method of the subsequent comparison of efficiency and profitability finally selects one or a small number of equivalent options.
When developing the TP production of the part, the initial data are: the size and the duration of the program task, the correctly selected drawings and specifications for the manufacture and acceptance of the part, as well as the drawing and data on the initial workpiece.
Working drawings of parts must be made in accordance with ESKD (GOST 2.001-93). They must fully and correctly represent the shape of the part, contain the designation of all tolerances for all parameters of accuracy, indications of the required roughness for all surfaces to be processed, the material of the part, its hardness and heat treatment, which is necessary for the correct assignment of processing regimes.
The study of the functional purpose of the part is the first and main stage in the development of the TP of its manufacture. It must be accompanied by a critical analysis of the working drawing, TU and the requirements of the assembly technology. All the errors in the dimensioning and the tolerances determining the accuracy of the dimensions and relative rotations of the surfaces should be corrected. As a result of all the preparatory work, the task clearly formulated for the solution of which TP must be developed is clearly stated.
Determination of the number of parts manufactured per unit of time under unchanged drawings allows us to outline the organizational forms (types) of technological and production processes, and consequently, to resolve the issue of the equipment, tools, devices and methods used, and also to choose semi-finished products and methods for obtaining blanks. The choice of the technological method of obtaining blanks plays a significant role in the economics of the developed TP. The main principle of obtaining a workpiece is the approximation of its configuration to the shape of the part with minimal allowances for processing.
The data on the procurement includes: its drawing and technical specifications for manufacturing, the method of production (casting, stamping, rolling, etc.), manufacturing accuracy.
When developing the TP, in addition to the working drawing of a detail, data on the type of production, the following types of technical and economic information are used: a technological classifier of parts (production objects), a classifier for technological operations, a collection of standard technological processes and operations, a system for marking technological documents, standards ESTD and ESTPP, standards and catalogs for technological equipment, standards.
Means of technological equipment predetermine the possibility of applying a particular processing process
Means of technological equipment - is a set of tools of production, necessary for the implementation of TP.
The means of technological equipment for the manufacture of parts include: machines, technological equipment, appliances, equipment (for example, press, thermal, etc.), cutting and auxiliary tools (including measuring tools).
The technical characteristics of the equipment and equipment characterize the equipment of production and determine the quality side of the developed TP.
The information used in the development of TP, provides a system-wide approach to the use of methods and means of technological preparation of production (CCI), which is common for all enterprises, and then used in the automated control systems (ACS) of production.
The processing route is selected based on the requirements of the working drawing and the received workpiece. When starting its compilation, it is necessary first of all to outline the processing plan - the structure of operations.
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