Subsystem "Expert Management"
When conducting expert examinations, the management of expert activities is of great importance. This is due to the peculiarities of this activity. One of the features is that examinations can be conducted under the following conditions:
• certainty, when experts carry out regulated requirements to the object during the examination;
• Risk when there is a probability of occurrence of a certain event and its consequences, while the expert has his opinion (judgment) on how to prevent the occurrence of an event and its consequences;
• Uncertainty, when there are several alternative probabilities, the expert must decide on one of them and he does not know if this decision is optimal.
Another feature of the expert activity is that the main criteria for this evaluation are the opinions and judgments of experts that reflect the degree of their confidence that an event will occur with respect to the object of examination. In this case, an event is understood as "the emergence of a specific set of circumstances under which the phenomenon occurs" (2.8). An event can be definite or indefinite; single or multiple.
These features make it necessary to manage the expertise by creating a quality management subsystem of expertise. In this case, first of all, it is necessary to define the terms management of examinations and "quality assurance management system of expertise."
Quality management expertise - the activities of experts designed to achieve a rational outcome.
The quality management system of expertise - a collection of objects, tools and methods to achieve a certain degree.
There are different types of expertise: commodity, medical, technological, etc. In commodity management, commodity examination is considered.
Examination quality control elements
The subsystem management area is the quality management of commodity expertise is an expert evaluation of goods and processes of their circulation.
The object of quality control of commodity expertise - goods, their packaging, circulation processes, and trading services.
Subjects in charge of management, - experts as individuals, expert organizations as legal entities, as well as initiators - expert clients and other interested parties - representatives of trade and other organizations.
The said entities must possess the tools for quality management of expertise, which primarily includes documentation , including documented procedures (for example, in the organization's standards or corresponding instructions), and entries in journals, technical documents acts, orders, orders).
A number of expert organizations have developed and approved the procedure for conducting the examination in the form of the organization's standards (for example, in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry). Experts are obliged to strictly observe this procedure during the examination, it regulates the sequence of operations of expert activity, technical documents that serve as the basis for the expert evaluation or are filled in during its implementation or at the final stage.
Such documents at the preparatory stage include applications made by the initiator of the examination - the customer, the orders issued to experts after consideration of the application and the appointment of the examination, the register of applications. All these documents are internal, developed and approved by the leadership of the expert organization. The purpose of these documents is to prevent the danger of presenting incomplete, inaccurate or inaccessible information, the consequences of which may be incorrect expert opinions and the loss of the customer as a result of such an examination.
Normative documents (standards, technical regulations, rules, etc.), federal laws and technical regulations can be used at the main stage of commodity examination if one of the tasks of the expert activity includes confirmation of compliance with the established requirements of these documents. In addition, at this stage, experts may need the following technical documents: commodity-accompanying (commodity-waybills, certificates, commercial acts, etc.), temperature charts and OVS during storage of goods, test reports and other documents.
These documents serve as sources of information for experts, which they will analyze and evaluate when making expert decisions and drawing up conclusions for the examination report at the final stage. The expert's conclusion can also be an independent document.
Experts carry out samples of sampling (if necessary) during the expert evaluation, as well as record the results of identification and sorting of goods to quality grades.
At the final stage, only one document is compiled: an examination report or an expert conclusion. The procedure for its registration is regulated by the procedure for carrying out the examination and is considered in the discipline "Theoretical Foundations of Commodity Research and Expertise of Goods", therefore, it does not understand this textbook.
Along with the documentation, one of the elements of quality management expertise is the definition of the responsibility of the management of the expert organization, which finds expression in the following forms:
• approval of internal regulatory documents governing expert activities;
• making decisions on the possibility of conducting an examination after consideration of the customer's application;
• appointment of experts for specific examinations;
• providing the resources necessary for conducting the expertise;
• Instructing staff, including experts, about compliance with the organization's requirements;
• Review and approval of the examination reports after their completion;
• identification of hazards and risks in the appointment and conduct of the examination;
• establishing corrective actions;
• analysis and evaluation of the results of the expert activity of the organization.
The third element of quality management expertise is resource management. Expert organizations should have experts who are professionally competent in a certain field of knowledge (for goods expertise, these commodity experts), periodically upgrading their qualifications, and in some cases accredited in a particular system (for example, in the voluntary certification system of commodity experts or in the GOST R Certification System).
In addition, in many expert organizations, periodic in-house training of experts or their verification in outside organizations is carried out. Experts conducting an organoleptic evaluation should be tested for sensory capabilities.
Along with human resources, expert organizations should have the appropriate infrastructure: own or third-party testing laboratories, information fund of normative and other documents, registration of documents, etc.
Another element of quality management expertise is analysis of hazards , arising from the appointment and examination. When this element is actualized, it is necessary to identify what dangers are possible, how to manage them and what kind of complex management measures it is expedient to apply.
These controls are discussed in more detail below.
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