Technique based on the concept of activity
The concept of activity in one form or another is used in any structuring methodology developed for the mapping and analysis of organizational management systems. At the same time, there are methods in which the concept of activity is the basis for the formation of the structure of goals, i.e. is used at the top levels of the structure.
The ideas about activity and its structure evolved. Accordingly, methods based on the concept of activity, use different points of view on its structure. In the methodology proposed in the development of the main directions and problems of promising research on higher education, the concept of activity adopted in pedagogy and psychology is used.
There are two main stages in the methodology (Figure 5.10), which are divided into sub-stages, and the latter, in turn, into smaller sub-steps.
When executing stage 1 (Figure 5.11), two approaches are simultaneously used to form the initial version of the structure: target, ie. approach to the formation of the structure top (sub-step 1.1) and the approach, which is called morphological, linguistic, thesaurus, ie. the structure of the bottom (sub-step 1.2).
When sub-step 1.1 is executed, the number of levels of the hierarchy (1.1.1) is selected, which for convenience assigns different names (directions, complex problems, problems, subgoals, functions); in accordance with the concept of activity adopted in the methodology, the signs of the "scope of activity" are used; (1.1.2), activity structure and activity (1.1.3); subsequent levels are structured using the characteristics recommended for the lower levels in Fig. 5.10 (1.1.4).
In the structure of activity, goals ("outputs"), content and forms, methods, facilities, "inputs" are highlighted (Figure 5.11). Symptoms activity structure and activity can be swapped and mixed within a level.
When implementing sub-1.2 (bottom-up approach), proposals are formed in parallel: they are offered by employees of structural divisions at different levels of the management system (1.2.1) and are obtained on the basis of analysis of scientific and technical information (1.2.2), then proposals are evaluated on the completeness (1.2.3), the structures (sub-step 1.3.1), obtained with the parallel application of the approaches top and from below & quot ;, by, as it were, imposing a pre-formed structure on the list of received proposals, and a decision is made (1.3.2) on the feasibility of performing step 2.
An example of the upper levels of the goal structure obtained using the method in question is shown in Fig. 5.12.
The second branch in Fig. 5.12 can be used to refine the fourth branch of the structure shown in Fig. 5.9, for structuring which there was no means in the previous method.
Fig. 5.10. Structure of a methodology based on the concept of activity
Fig. 5.11. The structure of the first stage of the methodology based on the concept of activity
Fig. 5.12. Example of the upper levels of the goal structure obtained using the methodology in question
In Stage 2, in order to assess the structure of goals and functions by identifying the most significant components (see Figure 5.10, sub-step 2.1), it is proposed to use in parallel expert assessments (and 2.1.1) and indirect quantitative estimates (2.1. 2), which are then processed together (Section 2.1.3).
In peer review, a criteria system is used as criteria, similar to the one adopted in the PATTERN methodology, but with some modifications: it offers the following groups of criteria - relative importance, interrelatedness, economic estimates (the latter replaces the group of criteria state -term "). The idea of indirect quantitative estimates was suggested by the author of this textbook.
The possibility of their introduction follows from the analysis of hierarchical structures based on the information approach (see Section 3.3 in ), from the results of which it follows that the structured branches of the hierarchical structure determine the actual significance given to them.
As the indirect quantitative estimates, the number of units performing this function, the number of documents prepared for the function, the structure of the branch (for example, the number of topics divided by the problem), attention to the relevant sub-goals and functions in the policy documents can be used , periodical press, sources of STI, etc. When choosing indirect quantitative estimates, it is necessary to take into account the "space of initiating goals and factors", i.e. take into account the requirements and needs of the supersystem, reflected in legislative acts and policy documents, the experience of similar enterprises of the current environment, the interests of subordinate units, the initiative of structural units of its own management system.
When processing the results of the assessment, not only traditional methods of averaging are used, but also the identification of conflicting opinions followed by a meaningful analysis of these estimates.
In this case, to compare the estimates it is convenient to use graphical representations in the form of histograms, similar to those shown in Fig. 5.13. An example of an analysis of the results of the estimates presented graphically in Fig. 5.13, is given in the footnote to step 2.
Fig. 5.13. Analysis of evaluation results. Criteria:
SRT - statistical reporting, preparation of inquiries, answers to requests of higher management bodies; P - number of units requesting information for decision-making; D - number of publications in newspapers and other periodicals; E - expert assessments
Based on the results of the assessment, the original structure (see Figures 5.10, and 2 .1.4) is corrected: the components that received the least significance estimates in comparison with others and did not receive high bounds with high-valued connections, or are excluded from the structure CF, or fall to the lower levels of the hierarchy, and vice versa, the components that have received high ratings of significance, can be transferred to higher levels of the hierarchical structure. With such an adjustment, degenerate branches may arise, different versions of the new structure of goals and functions. In the latter case, go to sub-step 2.2.
The decision on the expediency of the transition to the analysis of the structure from the point of view of centralization - decentralization of management (paragraph 2.2.2) can be taken (paragraph 2.1.5) and in the case of one version of the structure to compare it with similar target structures development) of other enterprises or with the structure of the main directions of the previous period of development of the enterprise (organization).
When evaluating the structure (structural options) from the point of view of its structure and convenience for further use (sub-step 2.2), a comparison of the structure options can be made based on the requirements for the structures of the FT formulated in the implementation of sub-step 1.1.1 (paragraph 2.2. 1) and using information approach structures for comparative analysis (Section 2.2.2). In the second case, the degree of integrity is assessed, allowing to judge the manageability of the enterprise with the help of the developed goal structure, the degree of centralization-decentralization of management.
You can use both approaches to evaluate variants of structures, and then - generalize the results (then add 2.1.3). If in 1.3.2 it was decided that the sub-stage 2.2 should be performed first, a sub-step for deciding on the future course of work (paragraph 2.1.4) may be introduced.
To collect and process expert and indirect quantitative assessments and comparative information analysis of structures, a group of relevant specialists should be created. In necessary cases, a method of organizing complex examinations based on an information approach can be used.
Note to Step 2. If the estimates coincide, the components should be considered the most significant (in Figure 5.13 - problems 1.1 and 1.4). If there is a mismatch, an additional qualitative analysis should be carried out. For example, only 1.2 experts paid special attention to 1.2. there is a rare opinion, and it is advisable to conduct an additional examination, better with a discussion at the Scientific and Technical Council. On the contrary, problem 1.5 is underestimated by higher-level government bodies and one can draw their attention to the need to participate in its decision. And on the problem of 1 .3, on which there are the greatest disagreements and the least preparedness of the enterprise, it is expedient to conduct research.
For the collection and processing of expert and indirect quantitative assessments and for a comparative information analysis of structures, a group of relevant specialists should be established. In necessary cases, methods of organizing complex examinations based on the information approach can be used [1, 3, 19].
Based on the results of the assessment, the original structure is corrected, the components that received the least significance estimates in comparison with others and who received high connectivity ratings with higher values are either excluded from the structure of the FT or lowered to the lower levels of the hierarchy, and vice versa, components that have received high value judgments can be transferred to higher levels of hierarchical structure. With such an adjustment, degenerate branches may appear, different versions of the new structure. It may be necessary to change the logic of structure formation.
The result is the structure of the AIS FC, which is a collection of subsystems to be automated, and the tasks to which the subsystems are divided. Task groups can be allocated first if necessary. And as the number of subsystems increases, subsystems can be combined into directions, and if necessary, multilevel structures are formed, just as it was done on VAZ (see paragraph 5.7).
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