- Mr. Sagar S. Mali, Dr. R. V. Kulkarni
Expert system refers to ability of the machine to accumulate data, performing functions on that data, and offer the right and correct results. The Expert system brings the intelligence like the individuals cleverness which is inlayed into them by the computer programs. The usage of Expert system in Nephrology concerns itself with the analysis of normal kidney function, kidney problems, and the treating kidney problems by the use of IT. There is need to transformation of the human being expert knowledge to the device. In order that users of the system find the quick information about this disease in the field of Nephrology. The countless researchers want to build up the system by using the fuzzy models and neural computing. Author wants to present the exhaustive review on the role of expert system in Nephrology with special mention of kidney functions, kidney problems and kidney problem solutions through expert system.
Keywords - Expert System, Nephrology
The body is the composed of the various parts. To manage it the medical knowledge exists from a large number of years and growth of its growing tremendously. It includes the various branches like biochemistry, molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, microbiology, neuroscience, physiology, nutrition, vision research and biomedical technology etc. In the recent era the use from it for the medical technology gives the important contribution for the organized development.
The Medical Expert helps for diagnosing the medical disease that suggest to patients for about their health issues. But due to new amendments use of expert system is must. The Doctors / doctors give treatment to patients with their experience and judgment. But sometimes he/she does not treat the patient if the correct examination is not made on patient disease or credited to lacunas of expert Knowledge in the respective field. So that it is the significant problem for the junior doctors to learn new things and patients also to learn about their health issues because they can't make experiment in reality because life is the important. Another major problem would be that the experienced Doctors/ Experts cannot always educate to junior or cannot tell to specific patients about their disease due to geographical location problems. It could require lot of cost and time for doctors and patients also.
Expert system refers to the mechanism which has the ability of collecting core data, process on it, examine, make synthesis, perform businesses, and provide the correct and exact results which help to anybody or to any organization to have their finest decisions. It is the specific branch of Manufactured Intelligence.
Now days in a variety of areas the expert system is working similar to the medical, space research, security office, in banks and so on. The major use of the expert system to reduce the technical error related to business processing, logic control and data processing. Expert systems are widely used in neuro-scientific medical to diagnose the patient disease.
To take the review on the role of expert system in Nephrology with special mention of kidney functions, kidney problems and kidney problem solutions through expert system.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Laith R. Fleaih, in his newspaper "Expert system for Diagnosing kidney diseases" stated that the neural computing system made to support the medical decision process using medical imaging directories and creating the optimal systems for ministry of the health to help the medical professional to making the correct decision with high certainty also give appropriate medical device and may use for training the medical products easily. Primary goal of the suggested system is the capability to diagnose of the kidney disease by in medical center or in the specialized medical center.
Pornpimol Meemasuk and Chantana Chantrapornchai, presented paper "In the Development of Nourishment Information Systems for Kidney Disease Patients" focuses on the utilization of information system to assist kidney disease patients. There are many types of kidney diseases. Each of them requires the certain restriction of food nourishment, especially, sodium, potassium, health proteins, etc. In a few situation, the protein might need to increase while in some case the necessary protein needs to be reduced.
Sandeep Soman, Gerard Zasuwa, Jerry Yee in the newspaper "Automation, Decision support and expert system in Nephrology " presented that increasing data suggest that errors in medication arise frequently and result in substantial harm to the patient. Clinical decision support systems (cdsss) are dynamic knowledge systems that use 2 or more items of patient data to create case specific suggestions. This article represents how automation, templating, and cdss improve efficiency, patient care, and protection by reducing the frequency and consequences of medical errors in nephrology.
M. Surendra Prasad Babu, L. Sreedhar, Dr. K. Rammurthy, in the newspaper "Hematology Expert System Using Rule Based Device" mentioned The Hematology information system helps the people to know about the information about the several aspects of Hematology. The Hematology Advisory system helps the patients to get the required advices about the different diseases attacked to them because of the blood disorders. System is developed using JSP and MySQL.
Wim Vehicle Biesen, Guido Sieben, Norbert Lameire and Raymond Vanholder Within their paper stated that the patients as having glomerular or tubular disease with a higher awareness and predictive value. The rule-based system performs worse than the neural sites. The most enough results were obtained with the hybrid system. They used Kohonen map is cover able of classifying the patients.
Miroslave ivandic, walter hofmann and walter g guder, in his paper "Development and analysis of any urine protein expert system" developed expert system that identifies use of DSS for medical analysis of urine health proteins differentiation offers a standard of high and continuous quality. A graduated and translucent decision process is integrated in the cross knowledge platform that uses both production rule and geometric distance classification as complementary approach to knowledge representation.
Leonardo F. Duarte said in his research newspaper "Expert System for analysis and treatment of diabetes" that smart system gives identification and steps to follow in order to attain optimum health position for the individual.
- There is Expert system for Nephrology but all the aspects are not covered related to the nephrology.
- No fully carried out expert system is available which wide open source.
- The system is not employed by the patients only doctors or experts are employing it for identification purpose in their medical clinic or nursing homes.
- No web based full-fledged implementation.
- Expert System in Nephrology which include assortment of disease data in well from and then it will make medical diagnosis.
- Also system should provide the advice for food nourishment to the kidney patients relating to their age group.
- System will most probably source which is employed by anybody around the world.
- System provides the drugs information and exercise information to the patients also depending on their type and level of kidney disease.
Although the books presents that studies are made in neuro-scientific Nephrology but entire areas of it isn't taken into consideration for growing the expert system. So author want to propose new research in every areas of Nephrology which include diagnosis, recommendations, and food nourishment for the patients and system is developed by using wide open source platform.
 Laith R. Fleaih, Expert system for diagnosing kidney diseases, international journal of pcs & technology, Vol. 14, No. 3, Web page 5517, Dec. 2014.
 Pornpimol Meemasuk and Chantana Chantrapornchai, "Over the Development of Nourishment Information Systems for Kidney Disease Patients", International Journal of Databases Theory and Application, Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2013.
 Sandeep Soman, Gerard Zasuwa, Jerry Yee, "Automation, Decision support and expert system in Nephrology" US Country wide Library of Drugs National Institutes of Health, 15(1):42-55, Jan 2008.
 M. Surendra Prasad Babu, L. Sreedhar, Dr. K. Rammurthy, in the newspaper "Hematology Expert System Using Guideline Based Mechanism", ISSN: 2231-071 IJCSET | April 2011 | Vol 1, Concern 3, 103-106.
 Miroslave ivandic, walter hofmann and walter g guder, "Development and evaluation of your urine health proteins expert system", Clinical chemistry 42, No. 8, 1996.
 Leonardo F. Duarte said in his research paper "Expert System for analysis and treatment of diabetes", spring and coil 2003.
 http://www. kidney. nyc/kidney-disease/
 http://www. webmd. com/drugs/index-drugs. aspx
 http/en. m. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nephrology