A technique based on the concept of a system that takes into account the environment and goal-settingThe method is based on the definition of VN Sagatovsky's system, which takes into account the notions of the target Z, medium SR and of the time interval AT, of the period of existence of the system affecting the process goal-forming:
On the basis of this definition, the basis for the methodology of the philosophical concept of the system and the features of structuring the system models used for its disclosure are justified. A technique was developed and studied by a group of scientists of Tomsk universities FI Peregudov, VN Sagatovski, V. Z. Yampolsky, L. V. Kochiev under the leadership of FI Peregudov. Therefore, it is sometimes briefly called the technique of FI Peregudov-VN Sagatovsky.
The structure of the procedure is shown in Fig. 5.7. The main steps of the methodology correspond to the levels of structuring.
Fig. 5.7. Structure of the methodology that takes into account the interaction of the system with the environment
The methodology is presented in terms and formulations of its authors, but with some additions proposed by them later.
Level 1. Generating a global system goal.
The goal is either set by the parent organization or recreated on the basis of analysis of policy documents. The goal should be focused on the final product for which a system exists or is created.
The end product can be any result of social activity: material production, new scientific result, scientific information, etc.
Level 2. Decomposition based on the end product views (VKP).
It is carried out in those cases when the system produces different types of final product. In the presence of a large number of varieties of products, the classifier by this feature can be two-level.
The types of the final product depend on what the goal structure is built for. If it is a question of production, then the end product is the output, and if the structure of the goals is built for the management apparatus, then these are plans, decisions and other normative and methodological documents that ensure the release of the corresponding type of products.
Level 3. Decomposition based on the goal initiation space (PIC).
The sub-objectives of the system under investigation, which are initiated by the requirements and needs of the environment, that are related to the production of the final product of the projected or explored system are formed.
In this case, all the systems with which the researched in the process of production of the final product interact, are divided into four classes (Figure 5.8): subsystem (HC) or higher systems ( BC), formulating the main requirements for the final product (and the needs in it); subordinate or subordinate systems (PS), whose requirements are mainly as restrictions on the properties of the final product or the needs for repair organization and other services for the material and technical base for the production of the final product, essential or current environment (AC), i.e. systems; (CC), the sub-goals of which are initiated by one's own (internal) needs, motives, programs that constantly arise in the developing system and also transform into requirements for the final product.
Fig. 5.8. PIC scheme
Note that this feature of structuring is based on the regularities of communicativeness (see, for example, [1, 19, 221).
Level 4. Decomposition based on the life cycle .
Different sub-stages are defined for obtaining final products depending on their types - from the formation or forecasting of the requirements in the product to consumption or delivery to the customer (see Figure 3.14 in Chapter 3).
Beginning with this level of decomposition, it usually becomes more convenient to operate with the term sub-goal & quot ;, and the term function and assume that the target tree as it grows into the " tree of functions".
Level 5. Decomposition on the basic elements (composition) of the system (CC), as a result of which functions are formed, arising from the needs of the basic elements of the system, which are grouped into three main groups - frames К, subject of activity PD and means of activity SD, in practice it sometimes causes difficulties, and it can be conveniently interpreted as "activity objects" (PD - main, SD and K - providing, etc.).
Level 6. The decomposition based on the Control loop, " classifier, which is proposed by the authors of the methodology, is shown in Fig. 5.7.
Level 7. Decomposition on the basis of "Delegation of authority", the classifier according to which is also shown in Fig. 5.7.
The technique was developed. In its original version, there were five levels of decomposition. Later, two more were added. Depending on the application, the sequence of attributes changed: in many applications it is more convenient to first take the sign of the "goal-initiation space", which helps to specify the "end product types". You can differentiate the life cycle system.
The methodology has found the widest application of all existing ones: it was used in the development of the "target tree" the management of the economy of the region, the formation of the structure of the functional part of the territorial automated control system of the Tomsk region, the structure of the FEC of the branch automated control system of the Ministry of Higher Education of the RSFSR, the adjustment of the organizational structure of the Ministry of Higher Education, etc. (see references in [l, 19, 22]).
The first three signs of structuring were the most widespread; signs of formation of the actual structure of the goals and especially the sign of the "goal-initiation space", which is based on the regularity of communication, dividing the complex environment into a supersystem, subordinate systems, the actual environment and the internal environment-the system itself, which is constantly changing in the developing system.
The structure of the goal and functions obtained with this technique is much more complete than when using the previous one.
An example of the structure is shown in Fig. 5.9.
Fig. 5.9. An example of the structure of goals and functions derived from a methodology that takes into account the interaction of the system with the environment
The analysis of the goal-initiation space forces attention to the need to determine effective demand for the enterprise's products (services), maintain equipment, repair, manufacture special tools and other functions PS, as well as the functions of coordination and cooperation with enterprises and organizations of the AU and the functions of the SS.
Thus, due to the greater completeness of the definition of the system given by VN Sagatovsky in comparison with the dual definition of the AI Uyomov system and the disclosure of this definition in a well-developed set of structural features and examples of classifiers on these grounds, the completeness of the analysis of the goals and functions of control systems in comparison with the previous methodology, helps to identify new functions that were not previously performed at the enterprise. The methodology is a good tool for analyzing goals and functions in a changing environment, developing an enterprise (organization), introducing and implementing various innovations, technical re-equipment and reconstruction or designing new enterprises.
In the established mode of operation of the enterprise, this technique can be superfluous. In addition, there are difficulties in identifying end product types the fourth branch (the management system proper) for structuring which the method based on the concept of activity proved to be convenient is considered below.
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