Advantages And Negatives Using Computer Networking Facility Computer Research Essay

The advantages of using computer networking service within the Smith Solicitor office

They can use intranet service for inner communication in the office

They can show resources like printing device in order to use two printers for the whole office.

Video Conference can be done rendering it easier for the company to contact with the staff. And meetings can be carried out online.

File and data writing can be done which helps them share data between your computers.

Folders can be password protected to limit usage of unauthorized users.

A single web connection in server computer allows the entire client computer to talk about internet.

The drawback of using computer networking center within the Smith Solicitor office

Skilled IT administrator should be appointed for maintenance.

Training should be given to the employer and employee to utilize the computer which in network.

Proper network security should get to the server computer.

Network maintenance should be achieved time to time.

Network Installation charges would be costly.

Networking Component like router, turn and cable television would be expensive to buy.

All the computers in an office building might become completely pointless if an individual network component fails.

If an individual computer is virus infected then the entire computer in network may soon get damaged.

Evaluate the many costs, performance, security and power values from the installation of your network design for Smith Solicitor. (P2)

The various cost, performance, security and utility values associated with the installation of the network design for Smith Solicitor

Server Computer

Brand Name: Horsepower Pro Liant DL380 G7 Rack Server

The HP Pro Liant DL380 G7 Server persists to deliver on its heritage of engineering superiority with increased flexibility and performance, enterprise-class uptime and HP Information Control manageability, 2 sockets Intel Xeon performance, and 2U denseness for a number of applications.


Intel Xeon E5620 (4 central, 2. 40 GHz, 12MB L3, 80W)

6GB PC3-10600R (DDR3-1333) Authorized DIMMs


3 years warranty


Product Description

HP Pro Liant DL380 G7


Intel Xeon E5620 (4 core, 2. 40 GHz, 12MB L3, 80W)

Form Factor

Rack-mountable - 2U

Cache Memory

12 MB L3


Intel 5520 Chipset

Hard Drive



(2) 1GbE NC382i Multifunction 2 Ports


6GB PC3-10600R (DDR3-1333) Recorded DIMMs

Storage Controller

(1) Smart Array P410i/256MB

Graphics Controller

ATI Ha sido1000



*Glass windows server 2003 will be installed as an operating-system in server computer as it is user friendly. They have different security features. (1)

Client Computer

HP Pavilion Elite HPE-490uk

Designed for processing tasks in identical good strategy, the HP Pavilion Elite HPE-490uk desktop Laptop or computer is driven by the strong quad-core Intel Central i7-870 Cpu.

General Information


Intel Main i7-870 Processor

2. 93 GHz (up to 3. 6GHz with turbo Raise)

8 MB Smart Cache


8GB installed RAM

4 DIMM slots

maximum 16GB recognized memory

Hard Drive

1. 5 TB SATA 3G Hard Disk Drive (5400 rpm)


10 x USB 2. 0 ports

Memory Cards Reader

15-in-1 memory card reader

Accessories Included

Keyboard, mouse, power cord, documentation

Windows XP will be installed in this consumer computer as its user's friendly. It has got option like "plug and play". It offers facilities like fast individual switching which affects applications that gain access to hardware or that can only tolerate one case of their request running on a machine at anybody time. We can also create multiple users and protect the users putting the security password. Networking and communication features are also very good in or windows 7. So Or windows 7 would be the best option and appropriate as a customer computer. (2)

Connectivity Device

The Network Program card (NIC)

The hub

The switch

The bridge


Wireless access points

The router

The gateway

Cable (UTP kitten 5)



The server computer and customer computer are as required from the Smith Solicitor Office. It is rather affordable and the components are very good. The full total price of the complete computer would be about 16 thousand.


The security features of home windows 2003 are as outlined below

Authentication: Most elementary level is necessitating a user identification and security password to get on some system.

Access control: Access control is employed to secure resources such as data, folders, and printers.

Encryption: Confidential data files can be encrypted using the Encrypting File System (EFS) for local data stored on NTFS volumes

Security plans: Security regulations control a variety of security options.

The security top features of or windows 7 are as detailed below

Automatic updates

Remote Assistance / Universal remote Desktop

Local Security Policy


Overall decided on hardware aspect are ideal for the selected Operating-system and the program and hardware are in affordable price.

Provide an overview of a network operating system (NOS) and demonstrate how NOS works with in computer network. (P3)

Network Operating System (NOS) helps the server computer to control Customer computer and disperse the function to the whole client computer. Therefore it helps to take care of the computers that are connected in the network.

Features of Network Operating System

It has a function to allow multiple users to gain access to shared learning resource at same time.

It provides data file, print out, web services, back-up services.

NOS distributes the function to all or any the computer in network

It really helps to manage multiple user and support for logon and logoff, remote control gain access to; system management, administration tools

Client systems contain professional software which allows them to obtain shared resources that are managed by server systems giving an answer to a client submission.

NOS supports multiple consumer accounts at the same time and enables usage of distributed resources by multiple clients at same time.

It has security features like authentication, authorization, logon restrictions and access control

I suggest glass windows operating system for smith lawyer office since it is commonly used on computers and presently, the most widely used version of the House windows family is OR WINDOWS 7 for consumer computer and WINDOWS SERVER 2003 for servers. It offers features stated below


Windows provide frequently updated security features such as firewalls, pop-up blockers, antivirus and antispyware software and even more. It has additional security and administrator tools for server.


These Operating-system offer supervision tools and security for computer networking.

Ease of Use

Windows OS are straightforward and user-friendly.

Technical Help/Support

These Operating-system performs numerous functions, above average support is necessary. Generally, Microsoft offers more support to its customer's online and also self-guided support.

Design a LAN for a Smith Solicitor or assess a preexisting network (if any) for fitness of purpose. (P4) [Learner needs to design a LAN on the newspaper for their LAN selection. ]

last. jpg

Identify the many parts (software and hardware) of any network system for Smith Lawyer and relates it to the 7- layered model. (P5)

The differing of an network system for smith lawyer which is related to 7 layeres model are

Physical Layer: This coating explains the physical properties of the various communications mass media and coordinates the function necessary to transmit Example: It clarifies the size of Ethernet coaxial cable connection, structure of pins. The physical part uses hubs and repeaters.

Data Link Layer: This level explains the logical firm of data parts transmitted on a particular medium. Example: this covering gives addressing and bank checks summing of Ethernet packets.

Network Covering: This level helps to summarize the exchanges of packets between any two nodes in a network. Ex girlfriend or boyfriend: It defines the addressing and routing structure of the web.

Transport Layer: In move layer it explains the category, quality and kind of the data shipped. This layer makes sure if and exactly how retransmissions will be utilized to ensure data delivery.

Session Layer: In such a layer the group of data sequences larger than the packets managed by lower tiers. So it is handles synchronization process. Example: It shows the details of question and reply packets are matched in a distant procedure call.

Presentation Level: This coating works to convert, encrypt and compress data. Ex girlfriend or boyfriend: this level represents how floating point quantities can be exchanged within hosts with different math formats

Application Covering: This layer offers services to the user by allowing the access to network resources Ex: this coating would implement data file system operations

Differentiate between different varieties of network, network topologies and network operating systems. (P6) [Discuss different network topologies]

The different types of network are

A geographic area network also knows as LAN is a kind of network where the networked personal computers are in a nutshell distance only. Example - a network within a building of university. LANs Usually had, controlled, and managed by a single person or corporation. They use Token engagement ring or Ethernet technology

Metropolitan area network also called MAN is a network spanning a physical area bigger than a LAN but smaller when compared to a WAN, like a city. Example - it is commonly owned by an individual body like as a government body or large company.

Wide area network also called WAN is a geographically solo collection of LANs. It generally covers wide area of computer networks. A router links different LAN to WAN. For example- largely WANs (like the Internet) aren't had by any company or group but it works under the joint or distributive ownership and management.

The different types of network topologies are

Star topology and tree topology

All devices hook up to a central device, called hub. All data transferred from one computer to some other passes through hub Popular in LAN because it's inexpensive and easy to set up. Whereas tree topology is the prolonged form of star topology which is employed in large sites. This sort of network significally reduces the traffic on cables by sending packets and then the wires of the destination host

Ring topology

In this type of topology cords are shaped in closed band or a loop form where the devices are assemble along the engagement ring. Data communication is d one in this topology by device to device around complete ring in a single direction only but if we use dual engagement ring then communication can be carried out by both route Mainly this topology is used in LAN network but additionally it is used in WAN network.

Mesh topology

In this kind of topology all computer are connected to the other person so that there surely is a fault tolerance in this type of topology. It really is expensive as well as difficult to create this type of topology. Here all the nodes are connected to the other person and forms complete network. This sort of network topology is mainly utilization in financial sector.

3. 1 Create a software network environment, for some departments in a Smith Lawyer company. (P7) [Configure Lively directory]

To configure an active directory site for smith lawyer organization following process in used.

Click start and type dcpromo and enter. A dialogue box will appear. Then we have to press next. From then on we will see a website control type wizard where we need to choose the domain controller for a new domain and choose next option. Then we have to select the domains in new forest and press next as show in picture below.

4. png

After that on the New Site Name site, in the Full DNS name for new domain name box, we have to give some domain name. For instance we can provide website name like SmithSolicitiorFirm. com. From then on we need to give name for NetBIOS website name and click next where we get to seelect the location where we would like to store and save the repository and log data. On the Shared System Quantity page, recognize the default in the Folder location package, and then click next.

On the DNS Registration Diagnostics web page, click Install and configure the DNS server upon this computer and established this computer to utilize this DNS server as its preferred DNS Server, and then click next as shown in the picture below.

C:\Users\jaikishanshrestha\Desktop\9. png

On the Permissions site, click Permissions compatible only with Home windows 2000 or Glass windows Server 2003 operating systems, and then click next. From then on on the Directory site Services Restore Setting Administrator Security password page, we have to enter a password in the Restore Setting Password box and again retype the security password to confirm it in the Confirm security password field, and then click next. Finally in last we simply need to concur that the given information are appropriate and click next so when prompted to restart the computer, click Restart now. This is actually the successful construction of active listing for smith solicitor's server computer.

3. 2 Use a little bit of network software to a server to be utilized by different selected users in a created group on Smith Lawyer Network. (P8) [configure print out server]

We can configure a print out server in smith solicitor network by the next process given below.

Installation process: First of all connect the printer to the computer. Then your computer printer will be found automatically. From then on we have to install drivers which we normally get with printing device. Else we can do it personally by the following process as shown below.

Click on Start > Adjustments > Control -panel > Computer printer and Faxes. Then Click on the Record Menu > Add printer > Next > Local Printer mounted on this computer. Then it Checks automatically detect and Install My "plug and play" Printing device. Then Click Next.

After a wizard will automatically discover any attached printing device and install the driver for it. If the system doesn't find the drivers then it'll be prompted to supply the individuals location.

After successfully setting up the printer driver, it will show new computer printer name in the Printer and Faxes in the control -panel.

Server Configurations: In the event the printer must be shared with a server computer, firstly we have to click the printing device name>properties>posting>share this computer printer. Then we need to provide name for the distributed printer which will be used by consumer computer on the network. We are able to also set the colour management, priorities, printing tastes, font s in the properties tab of the printer.

Client Computer Settings: To create printer at your client computer we can just give the command

\\computername\printername (computer printer name is the shared name of the printing device which we create while configuring server)

3. 3 Illustrate how you configure user workstations on the network? (P9) [Steps of end user configuration on Dynamic directory]

To configure user workstation on the network first of all we need to have one dynamic directory website, where we need to create a consumer account in that domains to use as an administrator consideration. Then after adding an individual to the exact security group we may use that account to add computer to domain. To configure individual on active website directory pursuing process should be completed.

C:\Users\jaikishanshrestha\Desktop\Add new user in Exchange 2003. PNG

Firstly click start and then point the cursor towards administrator Tool. Then Click Dynamic Website directory Users and Pcs to start the Active Index Users and Pcs console. After that we need to click the website name that were created, and then expand the contents. Where we have to right- click Users>New>User

Type the first name, last name, and individual logon name of the new end user, and then click Next. Where we get other wizard to type a security password and validate it by typing again and click the check package as required by consumer. Then click Next. From then on just check the details and enter to complete. Finally a fresh end user will be created under the active directory.

In case of adding some type of computer to the domain name, following the steps Log on to the computer that should be added to the area. Then right select MY Computer>Properties>Computer Name Tab>Click change. Within the computer Name change dialogue box, click Area under member of and type the website name. From then on click OK. When you are prompted, type the user name and security password of the consideration that you previously created, and then click Okay. Then a welcome message appears in a dialogue field where we have to click All right and restart.

4. 1 Write a written report on the protection under the law and tasks of the network director and the network user for Smith Solicitor (P10) [Discuss role of Network admin- individual rights, sharing etc. and network individual - security password, maintain file etc. ]

Network administrator need to create and configure all the devices, hardware, software, interconnection between the computer systems. They must be able to add an individual and delete the user as the necessity of the company or deal with the security password and access control as the requirement and ensure that there is a proper security in the network to protect it from hackers and viruses. They are simply deeply involved with ensuring the software are up to date and applications, and monitoring the performance of the network, verifying for security breaches, poor data management procedures and even more. So scheduled check up should be achieved. Administrator can manage user bill such as record access privileges and passwords. Administrator also needs to train user to utilize the network's resources and also coach users to work under the server network environment.

Administrators keep information of all users' problems and mistakes as well as the steps taken to solve the problems. This information is utilized to help solve future problems. Administrators also control individual usage of the network. The administrator must develop a firewall-a set of security actions designed to make sure that no-one can gain unauthorized access to the machine. Administrator should use Productive website directory for centralized management and control end user environment. Admin should react to the needs and question of clients involving their access to resources and create back up in various ways to recover any lost data. These are responsible to manage, assign and maintain the set of network addresses.

4. 2 Apply control mechanisms in a Smith Solicitor network for controlling users. (P11) [Discuss group insurance plan, customer authentication, authorization etc. ]

Control in a smith lawyer network for handling users can be carried out by using centralized management system in energetic directory. Active Website directory enables the administrator to centrally deal with resources also to easily find the information location. In addition, it permits to group the users in line with the users' limitation because end user group policy helps to makes different policy for an individual by the administrator. Lively directory consumer authorization secures resources from the unauthorized end user and unauthorized gain access to.

Managing Authorization and Gain access to Control

Published: November 03, 2005

The Microsoft Windows XP Professional operating system includes a volume of features that you can use to protect chosen documents, applications, and other resources from unauthorized use. These features, which include access control lists, security organizations, and Group Policy, combined with the tools that allow you to configure and take care of these features, give a powerful yet flexible access control infrastructure for your neighborhood resources and network. Understanding what these features are, why they are essential, and how they function will help you to manage protection under the law and permissions on network and local resources better.

Security principal

In OR WINDOWS 7 Professional, any entity that can be authenticated. A customer, group, computer, or service can be considered a security primary. Security principals have accounts. Local accounts are been able by the neighborhood Security Accounts Manager (SAM) on the computer. If the profile is within a Microsoft Windows 2000 or Home windows Server 2003 domain, it is been able by Active Listing. If the account is at a Microsoft Glass windows NT version 4. 0 domain, it is maintained by the SAM databases on the principal domain controller.


A system for propagating access control information down via a tree of things. In Microsoft Glass windows NT, an thing (like a document) inherits gain access to control information from its parent object (such as a folder) only when the thing is first created. In Windows XP Professional, objects inherit access control information not only once they are created, but also when the father or mother object's access control list changes.


The only security principal who has an inherent to allow or refuse permission to access an object. An object's owner can provide another security main permission to have possession. By default, the built-in Administrators group over a computer is given a individual right which allows this group to use ownership of most objects using the pc.

Security groups

Groups that can be used to organize users and domain objects, thus simplifying administration. Security groups enable you to assign the same security permissions to a huge numbers of users, such as employees in one department or within a location, ensuring that security permissions are consistent across all people of an organization.

Security descriptor

A data composition including the security information associated with a securable thing. A security descriptor recognizes an object's owner by SID. If permissions are configured for the thing, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the users and categories that are allowed or rejected gain access to. If auditing is configured for the object, its security descriptor also includes a system gain access to control list (SACL) that regulates how the security subsystem audits attempts to access the object.

Access control list (ACL)

An ordered set of access control entries (ACEs) define the permissions that connect with an object and its own properties. Each ACE identifies a security primary and specifies a couple of access protection under the law allowed, rejected, or audited for the security primary.

Security settings

Security configuration adjustments that can be applied to specific computers. These configurations can be configured locally on the computer by using the Local Security Coverage administration tool, the Microsoft Management System (MMC) Security Construction and Evaluation snap-in, or, if the computer is an associate of a dynamic Directory domains, through the Security Settings expansion to Group Coverage.

Auditing of system events

You can use the auditing feature to identify efforts to circumvent protections on resources or even to create an audit path of administrative activities on the machine. For instance, you can audit failed attempts to open a file. You can also set security plan so that failed logon efforts are saved in the security event log. If another administrator changes the auditing coverage so that failed logon makes an attempt are no longer audited, the log can record this event as well. In an Active Directory website environment, you can use Group Insurance plan to centrally control who is allowed to manage security logs on pcs became a member of to a website.

user or group is stored as part of an ACE in a DACL that is area of the object's security descriptor.

Rights and Permissions

Access control includes the configuration of protection under the law and permissions, which apply to both the items on the neighborhood computer or network and the users (including individuals, pcs, and services) of these objects.

A right is authorization to perform an operation. From an administrator's viewpoint, there are two types of protection under the law: privileges and logon protection under the law. In OR WINDOWS 7 Professional, only one end user right is inherent-the to allow or deny usage of resources that you own. All other customer protection under the law must be granted, which means that they can be withdrawn.

A permission is authorization to execute an procedure on a particular object, such as opening a record. Permissions are granted by owners. If you own an object, you can offer any end user or security group permission to do whatever you are authorized to do with it.

When permission to perform an operation is not explicitly granted, it is implicitly refused. For example, if Alice allows the Marketing group, and only the Marketing group, agreement to read her data file, users who aren't members of the Marketing group are implicitly refused access. The operating system will not allow users who aren't participants of the Marketing group to learn the record.

Permissions can even be explicitly denied. For instance, Alice may not want Bob to be able to read her data file, even though he's an associate of the Marketing group. She can exclude Bob by explicitly denying him agreement to learn the file. In fact, this is often how explicit denials are best used-to exclude a subset (such as Bob) from a more substantial group (such as Marketing) that is given authorization to take action.

Each permission an object's owner grants or loans to a particular individual or group is stored as part of an ACE in a DACL that is area of the object's security descriptor.

User-Based Authorization

Every application that a user starts goes in the security framework of that user.

When a individual logs on, an gain access to token is created. The access token is made up of key security-related information, including the user's SID, the SIDs of the teams to that your customer belongs, and other information about the user's security framework. This access token is then mounted on every process that the user runs during that logon treatment.

An application runs as an activity with threads of execution. When an application performs an procedure on a user's behalf, one of the threads executes the operation. For example, when Alice opens a Word doc, Microsoft Word, and not Alice, actually opens the file. More accurately, one of the threads of execution performs the operation.

For a thread to get access to an object such as a data file, it must identify itself to the operating system's security subsystem. Threads and applications do not have a security identity, so they need to borrow one from a security primary, such as Alice. When Alice begins a credit card applicatoin, it runs as an activity within her logon treatment. When one of the application's threads must open a record, the thread recognizes itself as Alice's agent by delivering her access token. Alice is therefore finally responsible for whatever the thread will to the file or system on her behalf.

Before allowing the thread of execution to carry on, the operating system performs an gain access to check to ascertain whether the security principal associated with the thread gets the degree of gain access to that the thread has requested. This access check involves the following steps

The security subsystem bank checks the file object's DACL, looking for ACEs that apply to the user and group SIDs referenced in the thread's gain access to token.

If a DACL does not exist, access is granted. Otherwise, the security subsystem steps through the DACL until it finds any ACEs that either allow or refuse access to the user or one of the user's groupings.

If a deny is available at the user or group level, the gain access to is rejected.

If the security subsystem comes to the end of the DACL and the thread's desired gain access to continues to be not explicitly allowed or refused, the security subsystem denies usage of the thing. Therefore, when a DACL prevails but is unfilled, gain access to is by explanation denied.

At the final outcome of this process, gain access to is either allowed and the file is exposed or access is denied, in which case the file remains sealed and an "Access Denied" meaning is made.

Creating and deleting consumer accounts and defining and using security teams are important security tasks. Determining the security restrictions or permissions that may apply to different groups of users and resources in your network will simplify the implementation and management of the permissions and limitations in your company. For example, you can create a Printing device Operators group and give it specifically delineated administrative control over a finite band of printers.

For someone to effectively control security groupings in your organization, you need to be familiar with the relationship between accounts, security groupings, and built-in security principals. It is also important that you can understand the techniques and tools designed for managing group membership.

Built-in security principals apply to any account that is using the computer in a particular way. Built-in security principals enable you to configure security predicated on the manner in which a resource has been accessed

n increasing quantity of Windows XP Professional-based systems are connected directly to the Internet and take part in home or small business networks rather than in domains. To simplify the writing and security model found in these nondomain conditions, network logons performed against unjoined Windows XP Professional-based computers are automatically mapped to the Guest accounts by default. This simplifies the showing of resources in home or small company networks by eliminating the necessity to synchronize user labels and passwords across all computers in the network. Authenticating users logging on to the network as Visitor can provide an extra way of measuring security for computer systems connected to the web by eliminating the capability to gain access to the computer remotely by using administrative qualifications.

Forcing network logons to authenticate as Guest does not have an impact on the next

Interactive logons.

In addition to console logons, this also contains remote access lessons using Terminal Services or Telnet, that happen to be essentially "remote" occurrences of interactive logon lessons.

Computers that are joined up with to a website.

This is not the default for Windows XP Professional-based computers that are joined to a area because the domains provides single sign-on capabilities for all those pcs that are in the domain name.

Outbound connections.

The authentication and gain access to control configurations of the computer that you are attempting to gain access to govern outbound contacts.

4. 3 Discuss how you will control printer queues and other types of resource consumption in the Smith Lawyer network. (P12)

Controlling in printing device queues in smith lawyer can be done by changing the printing device job setting by setting important and to notify the individual when the printing is done. Aswell as pause, cancel or job application can be done. To manage print out queue firstly, we need to go to start>adjustments>printer and faxes. Then we need to click in the default printing device or the computer printer which is active. Then it will show active printing queue. image0091145355011750. jpg

This kind of structure or picture will be show following the process where doc information on the Position of printing job, owner, webpages and the time they posted the Plus the computer end user who sent the printer demand will be show under the box as shown in picture. Example Within the above picture the person who delivered the print get is the administrator. Then the position of the print is mistake and the name of the doc is Test webpage. But deleting the print out request can be done from the computer where in fact the request was dispatched from. Then we simply need to select the print out requests that require to be erased and press delete key from the main element board.

ConfirmDeletion. JPG

Then the dialogue field as show in the picture at the right area will appear. We just need to validate by pressing fine. Then the printing queue record gets erased.

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