Analysis of goals and functions in complex multi-level systems
The considered techniques were developed for the formation and analysis of tree hierarchical structures of goals, which are the most convenient means of organizing management. However, when managing large enterprises, universities and other organizations in real conditions, it is impossible to build a hierarchical structure in the form of a single tree linking the centralized management apparatus with the production and workshops (or for the university - the rectorate with faculties and departments).
This fact initially caused practitioners to distrust the "target tree" method as a theory that is not acceptable for real conditions. But the study of the patterns of goal-forming and the formation of the structures of the FF allowed us to explain this fact and give practical recommendations on the formation of tree-like hierarchical structures of goals and functions. From these recommendations, in particular, it follows that one "goal tree" it is necessary to consider that part of the structure that can be formed in one language, and when changing the terminology it is necessary to form another tree & quot ;, in new terms.
In other words, in complex multidimensional multilevel systems, a stratified representation of their goals and functions is necessary.
Strata can be distinguished according to the principle of using various expressive means (various "languages") of representing goals in the process of passing the object from design to implementation: a verbal description of the concept of the enterprise being created or a new type of product; engineering and design representation of the process of its creation (for products, for example, processing, assembly, etc.); description of the technology of product creation and, finally, the actual organization of the technological process (casting, processing, assembling, testing, etc.).
This method of stratification is used at the enterprise in the development of appropriate normative and technical and regulatory documents that regulate the various stages of design and production, and is implemented in the form of various classifiers of functions of design development, technological production processes performed by workers of appropriate qualifications.
When developing normative documents that organize the prospects for the development of an enterprise, associations, organizations such as forecasts, guidelines, integrated programs for the development of enterprises (organizations), branch "trees" from each other it is more convenient to produce in accordance with the levels of the organizational hierarchy of control systems, i.e. it is recommended to allocate strata on the principle of "centralized control apparatus - production - workshop"; or "Rectorate - Faculty - Department", developing the main directions and development forecasts for these levels. With such a stratified representation of goals, there arises the problem of interaction between the structures of the goals of different levels of the organizational structure of the enterprise (organization).
Studies of this problem have shown that, in principle, the structure of goals (main directions of development) and functions on each stratum can be formed according to different logical principles (ie, using different structuring techniques) and even using different types of structures upper levels - tree hierarchies, at the bottom - a sequence of functions in the form of a network model), however, when analyzing the options for the structure of goals and functions of the enterprise (organization), it is expedient at first on all strata to construct hierarchical strings Tours using one of the methods of structuring that allows you to take a decision on the redistribution of functions between levels of organizational management system.
Such a representation of the structures of the main directions and functions is illustrated in Fig. 5.26.
This figure shows that the global goal may not be represented on the lower stratum, and, in addition, on this stratum, different branches can be formed by different divisions and not be bound at their level (horizontally), although in principle they can exist and horizontal relationships.
When conducting an expert survey on the redistribution of functions between strata, the expert group should be formed taking into account the goal initiation space, i.e. patterns of communication.
The automated interactive procedure for analyzing goals and functions (ADPACF), discussed in paragraph 5.6, allows organizing the interview within a reasonable time. For this, the list of organizational management levels should be entered as the last list, and then the indication "management levels", and when displaying the results on the display, take this feature to the upper level of the output hierarchical structures, i.e. invert the structure, which is provided in ADPATSF.
After the distribution of functions between the levels of organizational management on each of them, the structures of the FT can be changed, and in general the interaction between target structures of different levels can be displayed in a manner similar to that in Fig. 5.26.
This approach to the representation of target structures in a multi-level management system is especially relevant in conditions of redistribution of functions in order to provide greater independence to the lower levels of the management system. At the same time, when deciding on the decentralization of management, it is necessary to ensure that, by transferring a number of functions to the lower levels of government, it does not lose functions that can only be realized by centralized management bodies and, in principle, can not be carried out at lower levels. This mechanism redistribution of functions using structuring techniques and ADPACF and with an assessment of the degree (balance) of centralization - decentralization of management should become an integral part of the management system of enterprises (organizations) operating in the ever-changing conditions of a multistructure economy.
The transition to a market economy forced one more way of representing hierarchical systems - in the form of Mesarovich's echelons  (see Figure 1.10, d and Figure 1.17 in Chapter 1).
When creating self-regulating sites, workshops, factories, small enterprises, managing enterprises and organizations that are members of an association, a joint-stock company, etc., within the production associations, one should keep in mind that the organizational and legal forms of the existence of industrial and non-industrial groups in a market economy may be different. However, the echelon representation of control systems, and, correspondingly, of their goals and functions structures, allows for more flexible interaction between the components of the system being combined.
Such a view allows for different types of interaction between levels, not only in the form of direct control actions of the higher level on its subordinate but also mainly interrelations between structural units of different organizational and legal forms (horizontally and vertically) in the form of coordinating links with varying degrees of intervention in the activity of these structural units.
Such principles of interaction are realized, for example, in holding-type structures in which different organizations and firms belonging to the holding are given a different degree of independence, but the interrelations that ensure the preservation of integrity of the holding system.
When applying the stratified and echelon representations to the first stage of the generalized technique shown in Fig. 5.22, it is necessary to add a sub-step for the distribution of functions by strata or structural units of echelons, and in the implementation of phase 2, use not traditional expert assessments, but methods for organizing complex examinations, indirect quantitative assessments and information evaluation of the degree of integrity (similar to that considered in paragraph 3.2 of Chapter 3) which, as applied to target structures, is interpreted as a criterion for system controllability in the provision of freedom to subjects implementing subgoals and functions, and for echeloned structures such as a hall ding is interpreted as the degree of coordination of enterprises and organizations that are part of the holding.
In the formation of stratified and echeloned structures of the CF, it is also expedient to use the patterns of goal formation and the methodology for structuring goals.
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