Estimation of economic information
As a specific product, without which the managerial process is impossible, economic information can be estimated both from the positions of its quantity and from the position of its quality.
Quantitative assessment of information is associated with its syntactic adequacy regardless of the semantic and consumer qualities. In the literature, such an approach to information evaluation is often called statistical, and it is used to calculate its volume for the purpose of transfer and storage, determining the complexity of performing management tasks and calculating the staff of executors, calculating the necessary cost characteristics associated with the transformation of information, etc.
Quantitative assessment of economic information (calculation of its quantity, volume) is largely determined by the type of its carrier and converter (paper document or technical medium, transmission medium, performer - a person or technical equipment, etc.).
For information processes in solving management tasks, including economic ones, with the active participation of an executing person, such semantic information units as indicator, document line (record) and document are applicable as units for changing the amount of information. Based on the calculation of indicators, you can calculate the complexity of computing operations, based on determining the number of records and documents processed for a certain period - the number of personnel engaged in information processes, etc.
The use of technical information and communication equipment involves the calculation of the volume of economic information at the level of symbols (signs) for determining the time of its transmission through communication channels and for storage, primarily on magnetic media. It should be emphasized that the forms and codes of information should be taken into account. Thus, units for the quantitative evaluation of information are also such specific units as bit, bit, byte, etc.
The structural approach to determining the amount of information allows you to rationalize the time of access to data, the time to create and reorganize the information base, the time of entering information, increase the reliability of input, etc.
A pragmatic measure of information determines the usefulness or value of information for making managerial decisions. This measure is a relative value and, as a rule, depends on the features of using information in a particular information environment of the object. A pragmatic approach to assessing information is directly related to the definition of its quality.
As noted above, information is the subject and product of labor in the sphere of organizational and economic management. The quality of the manager's work is largely determined by the quality of the information with which he is in contact, and consequently, the efficiency of the system as a whole also depends on the quality of information.
In a broad sense, the quality of information can be defined as a set of real characteristics that determine the possibility of using it to meet the needs of consumers of information. It should be understood that the set of parameters characterizing the quality of information is different for different subject areas. Briefly consider the consumer qualities inherent in economic information, including relevance, accuracy, reliability, relevance, timeliness, accessibility, objectivity, completeness, reliability, sustainability, content and documenting.
Relevance is the correspondence of information to the requirements of the task being solved. Sometimes this characteristic is called the appropriateness of information for taking a control action.
The accuracy of information is determined by the degree of proximity of the control parameter displayed by the information and the true value of this parameter.
Reliability of information is determined by its property to display real objects and processes with the necessary accuracy. The reliability of information is measured by the probability that the information value displayed by the information differs from the true value of this parameter within the required accuracy.
The relevance of information is determined by the degree of preservation of its usefulness for making managerial decisions at the time of its use. Quite often, the importance of this parameter is comparable to the interval of time elapsed from the moment of the appearance of this information until its use.
Timeliness, or efficiency, is the correspondence of the contents of the information received to the events or phenomena that occur. Received, analyzed and timely used information can prevent negative consequences or increase economic efficiency in the activity of the facility.
Availability information characterizes the degree of visibility and understanding of it for making managerial decisions. Availability can be enhanced by performing such technological operations on information as comparison with similar indicators, visual graphical presentation, etc.
By objectivity information is understood as its impartiality and independence from the subject creating and using it, as well as from the influence of any influences with the purpose of changing the arisen or calculated characteristics.
Completeness means that it contains a minimal but sufficient set of indicators for the decision. At the same time, incomplete and excessive information may adversely affect the development of the solution and reduce its effectiveness.
Reliability of information - is its independence from random factors, the absence of significant errors and distortions. The reliability of the initial information and the resulting (processed) information is different. Increasing the reliability of information in its processing systems is achieved both by technical and software tools.
Sustainability of information is the ability to respond to changes in the original data without affecting the accuracy required.
The content of information is determined by the specific semantic capacity, i.e. the ratio of the amount of semantic information to the total volume of data. Here the principle is: better is less, but more useful for making a decision.
Finally, under documentary economic information is understood as the need to design it in the form of a document with legal confirmation of an event or fact.The named indicators in a complex are perceived as value of information for management and as measure of quantity of information on a pragmatic level.
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