AUTOMATED INFORMATION PROCESSING: BASIC CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGY
INFORMATION AND CODING
After studying chapter 1, the student must:
• Approaches to definitions of information;
• the distinction and interconnection of the concepts signal, data, information, knowledge;
• concept and types of number systems;
• units of measurement of the amount of information;
• types of information on the presentation method;
• principles of digitization (encoding) of various data in the binary system;
be able to
• convert from decimal to binary and vice versa;
• Convert the measurement units of information;
• skills in applying character encoding tables;
• The skills of translating numbers from one number system to another and arithmetic operations with them using the Calculator program.
The term information (Latin informatio) means the presentation, clarification, information. Initially - information transmitted by people in oral, written or other ways by means of conditional signals, technical means, etc. The peculiarity of this term is that it is intuitively understandable to every person, however it has not yet been universally recognized by a strict scientific interpretation.
Information fills the life of a person, society and the state, without it education and science, production and trade, administration, public service and defense are inconceivable, financial and law enforcement activity is impossible.
The process of interaction of material bodies and fields is accompanied by the formation of signals that have a material basis. Thus, the light of the sun causes the phenomenon of photosynthesis in plants, the change in the magnetic field is recorded on the magnetic disk, the electric field changes in the semiconductor of the flash card. We live in the environment of signals that are perceived by the senses; also register them. The phenomenon of changing the properties of physical bodies when interacting with signals is called signal recording . Such changes can be observed, measured or recorded in various ways. As a result, new signals - data are generated and registered.
Thus, data are registered signals. The data carries information about events that occurred in the material world, as they are the recording of signals that have arisen as a result of these events, but they are not the same information. In order for data to become information, appropriate methods of reproduction and processing must be applied to them. For example, when reading plain text to perceive it as information, it is advisable to use several methods:
• visual method to see the text;
• method light lighting, to view the text;
• language method for reading the text;
• conceptual method to understand the text.
Only when these methods are used, the data written as text in the book becomes information. Of course, if the book is not read but felt, then other information will appear. In these cases, it is important that the method be known from the context, i. E. the data constituting the information had properties that uniquely determined the adequate (appropriate) method of obtaining this information.
Thus, data becomes information if adequate methods of reproduction and processing are applied to them. Therefore, information can be considered as a product of data interaction and applied to them adequate methods of reproduction and processing.
There are natural and technical methods of data reproduction. Natural methods are inherent in all living beings, and all methods based on sensory organs are used: sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste. As a result of the analysis of signals received by the senses, they are displayed and the formation of a certain image, which serves as information for the person. Natural methods also include methods based on logical thinking that operate on data that does not exist in nature, for example, the concepts of a point, a straight line, an integral, a derivative, etc. Methods of logical thinking are comparison, imagination, analysis, forecasting, etc. In technical methods of data reproduction and processing, hardware and software methods are distinguished. Hardware methods are based on the functioning of various devices, such as a telephone, tape recorder, microscope, X-ray machine, television, etc. Software methods are widely used in computer technology.
There are different approaches to the definition of information, depending on the specific branch of science, the field of application, the authors. As a rule, definitions of information are associated with such concepts as signal, sign, display, knowledge, communication, mental stimulus (stimulus for thinking).
One approach treats information as any message of the sender to the recipient (about an event, state or command) consisting of signals and structure. Signal is a changing physical quantity, the process of which changes in accordance with the structure of the transmitted data. The information transmitted by the message must be accurate; noise and interference are throwing the information flow, cause misunderstanding. The paths and processes that ensure the transmission of a message from a source of information to its consumer are called information communications .
In another approach , information is represented as something displayed - a mapping, representation of an object, subject or process that is perceived, interpreted by another object or subject. In this case, the accuracy or direct communication of the parties is not supposed, but the object and its representation are different and there must be someone able to understand, evaluate, comprehend the relation of the object and the display (economic or legal statistics reflect the state of the economy and society). This category also includes signs and symbols, maps, charts, diagrams, graphically displaying the landscape, organization, and table data. The representation of the object is transformed into an image, the latter is information. Such information is not necessarily created and sent via the communication channels by any "sender": there is a subject performing observation, comprehension, creating an image, interpretation, interpretation, receiving a feeling.
Others view information as an effect that leads to a transformation. The information contained in some images affects the formation or transformation of other objects without comprehension. For example, the sequence of nucleotides of DNA forms a genetic code that affects the formation and development of the organism without conscious understanding.
In a broad sense, information is a general scientific concept, including the exchange of information between people, the exchange of signals between living and non-living nature, people and devices. In the definitions of information are intertwined three concepts: information, data and message (signal), which can be summarized as follows.
Information - information about objects and environmental phenomena that reduce the degree of uncertainty, incompleteness of knowledge available to them and are provided to the recipient or evaluated by him for the purpose of performing actions, comprehending the value based on data processing and analysis.
Data - information obtained by measuring, observing, calculating; presented in a form suitable for permanent storage, transfer, processing. They can exist in various forms: number and text on paper, photographs and video recordings, facts and images in human memory.
From the standpoint of information technology, data is information presented in a formalized form (digital sequence) suitable for automated processing by computer facilities. The original analog data from their source is digitized. For the computer to work, a special kind of data and information is used-programs that contain data as commands for processing other data.
To some extent, the definition of data does not identify them with the concept of "information", it is considered as a material for processing, transmitting, interpreting and giving meaning through computer devices and programs, turning into perceived information. The concept of data It is used to distinguish binary machine-readable information in the process of processing by application programs from text human readable information. For human perception, computer data should be interpreted by hardware and software, converted into information.
The presence of meaning (meaning) distinguishes information from the digital code in the data. Information is not isolated signs, but displays. On the intelligence scale, information occupies an intermediate place between data and knowledge.
Knowledge are useful social information that can be re-used by people in their activities. In order for statements to become knowledge, they must be structured according to rules defined by reasonableness. Knowledge allows the automation of processing and receiving, provided that they represent a logically complete set of data, data or programs for solving a problem by trained specialists. Knowledge of a person (a specialist, an expert in a particular subject area) is stored in knowledge bases.
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