Simulation begins with the formation of the subject of research - a system of concepts that reflects the essential characteristics of the object for modeling. This problem is quite complicated, which is confirmed by various interpretations in the scientific and technical literature of such fundamental concepts as system, model, modeling. Such ambiguity does not speak about the mistakenness of some and the correctness of other terms, but reflects the dependence of the subject of research (modeling) both on the object under consideration and on the objectives of the researcher. A distinctive feature of modeling complex systems is its multifunctionality and the variety of ways to use it; it becomes an integral part of the entire life cycle of the system. This is explained first of all by the manufacturability of models realized on the basis of computer facilities: a sufficiently high speed of obtaining simulation results and their relatively low cost.


At present, in the analysis and synthesis of complex (large) systems, the development of a system approach, which differs from the classical (or inductive) approach. The latter considers the system through a transition from the particular to the general and synthesizes (constructs) the system by merging its components, developed separately. In contrast, the system approach involves a sequential transition from the general to the particular, when the basis of the examination is the goal, and the object under study is released from the environment.

Modeling Object

Specialists in the design and operation of complex systems deal with control systems of various levels, possessing a common property - the desire to achieve a certain goal. This feature is taken into account in the following definitions of the system. System 5 - a purposeful set of interrelated elements of any nature. The external environment E is the set of elements of any nature existing outside the system that affect the system or are under its influence.

Depending on the purpose of the study, different relationships can be considered between the object itself 5 and the external environment E. Thus, depending on the level at which the observer is located, the object of research can be allocated differently and can there are various interactions of this object with the external environment.

With the development of science and technology, the object itself is continually becoming more complicated, and right now they speak of the object of research as a certain complex system that consists of various components interconnected with each other. Therefore, considering the system approach as a basis for building large systems and as a basis for creating a methodology for their analysis and synthesis, first of all it is necessary to define the very concept of a system approach.

The systemic approach is an element of the doctrine of the general laws of the development of nature and one of the expressions of the dialectical doctrine. It is possible to give different definitions of the system approach, but the most correct one is that which makes it possible to evaluate the cognitive essence of this approach with such a method of system research as modeling. Therefore, it is very important to distinguish the system 5 and the environment E from the objectively existing reality and the description of the system based on system-wide positions.

With a system approach to system modeling, you first need to clearly define the purpose of the simulation. Since it is impossible to completely model a really functioning system (the original system, or the first system), a model is created (the system-model, or the second system) for the problem posed. Thus, with reference to modeling issues, the goal arises from the required modeling tasks, which allows us to approach the selection of the criterion and evaluate which elements will enter the model to be created. Therefore, it is necessary to have a criterion for selecting individual elements in the model being created.

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