Basic information processes, their characteristics and models
Information technology is based on the implementation of information processes, the variety of which requires the allocation of basic information. These include the extraction, transportation, processing, storage, presentation and use of information. At the logical level, mathematical models must be constructed that ensure the parametric and criterial compatibility of information processes in the information technology system.
In the process of extracting information, the main emphasis is on the forms and methods of researching data that allow us to formalize and abstractly describe the subject area. The process of transporting information is considered within the framework of a reference seven-level model known as the OS1 model. Much attention is paid to protocols of various levels that provide the necessary level of standardization. Processes of information processing are described in the aspect of decision support with the allocation of typical components. The storage of information is presented on the one hand, as a set of models of the conceptual, logical and physical levels, on the other - as a set of methods and methods of practical implementation. Much attention is paid to ergonomic and psychological factors in the distribution of functions between a person and technical devices in the process of information representation and use.
Data sources in any subject area are objects and their properties, processes and functions, performed by these objects or for them. Any subject area is considered in the form of three views (Figure 4.1).
By analogy with the extraction of minerals, the process of extracting information is aimed at obtaining its greatest concentration. In this regard, the extraction process can be represented,
Fig. 4.1. Subject area in three views
as the passage of information through a three-layer filter, in which the syntactic value (correctness of representation), semantic (semantic) value, pragmatic (consumer) value is evaluated.
When extracting information, an important place is occupied by various forms and methods of researching data:
• Search for associations associated with binding to an event;
• Detection of sequences of events in time;
• the detection of hidden regularities in data sets, by determining the cause-effect relationships between the values of certain indirect parameters of the object under study (situation, process);
• evaluation of the importance (influence) of parameters on the development of the situation;
• classification (recognition), performed by searching for criteria by which the object (events, situations, processes) could be assigned to a category;
• clustering based on grouping objects by some characteristics;
• predicting events and situations.
It is necessary to mention the heterogeneity (heterogeneity) of information resources, characteristic for many subject areas. One of the ways to solve this problem is the object-oriented approach, the most common at the present time. Let's briefly review its main points.
Decomposition based on the object-oriented approach is based on the selection of the following basic concepts: object, class, instance.
An object is an abstraction of many real-world objects that have the same characteristics and laws of behavior. An object is a typical indefinite element of such a set. The main characteristic of an object is the composition of its attributes (properties).
Attributes are special objects by which you can define rules for describing the properties of other objects.
Instance instance is a specific element of the set. For example, the object can be the state number of the car, and an instance of this object is a specific K-number 173 PA.
Class is a set of objects in the real world, connected by a common structure and behavior. A class element is a specific element of a given set. For example, the class of vehicle registration numbers.
Summarizing these definitions, we can say that the object is a typical representative of the class, and the terms instance of the object and class element are equivalent. In Fig. 4.2 shows the relationship between classes, objects and objects in the real world.
An important feature of the object-oriented approach is related to the concept of encapsulation, which denotes the hiding of data and methods (actions with the object) as the object's own resources.
The concepts of polymorphism and inheritance determine the evolution of the object-oriented system, which implies the definition of new classes of objects based on the base.
Fig. 4.2. Relationships between classes, objects, and objects in the real world
Polymorphism is interpreted as the ability of an object to belong to more than one type.
Inheritance expresses the ability to define new classes based on existing ones, with the ability to add or redefine data and methods.
To reduce redundancy, the process of enriching information is used, for example, when storing a list of employees in an organization, it is sometimes sufficient to use the first 3-4 letters of their names.
Among the methods of enriching information are distinguished structural, statistical, semantic and pragmatic enrichment.
Structural enrichment involves changing the parameters of a message that displays information depending on the frequency spectrum of the process being researched, the speed at which information sources are served, and the accuracy required.
With statistical enrichment , the accumulation of statistical data and the processing of samples from the general collections of accumulated data.
Semantic enrichment means minimizing the logical form, calculus and utterances, highlighting and classifying concepts, information content, transition from particular concepts to more general ones. As a result of semantic enrichment, it will be possible to generalize the processed or transmitted information and eliminate the logical inconsistency in it.
Pragmatic enrichment is an important step in the use of information for decision making, in which the most valuable information is selected from the information received, meeting the goals and objectives of the user.
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