Basic Information Technologies
For the modern society, the information industry becomes an important economic factor. The basis of this industry is basic information technology, using the achievements of various areas of the economy. Today, basic information technologies have independent scientific and applied value, providing broad opportunities for extracting, formalizing, modeling, systematizing, integrating, transporting, processing and applying information and knowledge. The field of information technologies, including basic ones, has become an important sphere of production activity, possessing all the features of industrial production with stable growth dynamics
Multimedia technologies, geoinformation technologies, information security technologies, CASE technologies, telecommunication technologies, artificial intelligence technologies are considered in the context of the fundamental principles and methods of their creation, illustrated by surveys of existing samples on the market.
Currently, multimedia technologies are a rapidly developing area of information technology. In this direction, a significant number of large and small firms, technical universities and studios (in particular IBM, Apple, Motorola, Philips, Sony, Intel, etc.) are actively working. Areas of use are extremely diverse: interactive training and information systems, CAD, entertainment, etc.
The main features of these technologies are:
• Combine a multi-component information environment (text, sound, graphics, photos, video) in a homogeneous digital representation;
• providing a reliable (no distortion during copying) and long-term storage (warranty period of storage - dozens of years) of large amounts of information;
• Simplicity of processing information (from routine to creative operations).
The achieved technological basis is based on the use of a new standard of optical DVD media (Digital Versalite/Video Disk), having a capacity of the order of units and tens of gigabytes and replacing all the previous ones: CD-ROM,
Video-CD, CD-audio. The use of DVD allowed to realize the concept of homogeneity of digital information. One device replaces the music player, video recorder, CD-ROM, drive, slider, etc. In terms of information, optical DVD media brings it closer to the level of virtual reality.
Multicomponent multimedia environment can be divided into three groups: audio, video, textual information.
The audio room can include speech, music, effects (sounds such as noise, thunder, creak, etc., combined with the WAVE designation.) The main problem with using this multislide group is the information capacity. WAVE sound of the highest quality requires memory of the order of 10 MB, so the standard CD volume (up to 640 MB) allows recording no more than an hour of WAVE, and audio compression methods are used to solve this problem.
Another direction is the use in the multispeed sounds (one-voice and many-voiced music, down to the orchestra, sound effects) MIDI (Musical Instrument Digitale Interface). In this case, the sounds of musical instruments, sound effects are synthesized by software-controlled electronic synthesizers. Correction and digital recording of MIDI sounds is performed using music editors (sequencer software). The main advantage of MIDI is the small amount of required memory - I minute of MIDI sound takes an average of 10 kb.
The video collection is characterized by a large number of elements in comparison with the audiorium. Allocate static and dynamic video sequences.
The static video sequence includes graphics (drawings, interiors, surfaces, symbols in graphical mode) and photos (photos and scanned images).
A dynamic video sequence is a sequence of static elements (frames). There are three typical groups:
• normal video (life video) - sequence of photos (about 24 frames per second);
• Quasi-video - sparse photo sequence (6-12 frames per second)
• Animation - a sequence of drawn images.
The first problem with implementation of video sequences is the resolution of the screen and the number of colors. There are three directions:
• The VGA standard gives a resolution of 640 x 480 pixels (pixels) on the screen at 16 colors or 320 x 200 pixels at 256 colors;
• SVGA (video memory 512 KB, 8 bits/pixel) gives a resolution of 640 x 480 pixels with 256 colors;
• 2 + bit video adapters (video memory 2 MB, 24 bit/pixel) allow using 16 million colors.
The second problem is the amount of memory. For static images, one full screen requires the following memory sizes:
• in 640 x 480 mode, 16 colors - 150 KB;
• in the 320 x 200 mode, 256 colors - 62.5 kb;
• in 640 x 480 mode, 256 colors - 300 KB.
Such significant volumes in the implementation of audio and video sequences determine the high requirements for the storage media, video memory and information transfer rates.
When placing textual information on a CD-ROM, there are no difficulties and limitations due to the large information volume of the optical disk.
The main directions of using multimedia technologies:
• electronic publications for the purposes of education, entertainment, etc.;
• In telecommunications with a spectrum of possible applications from viewing a custom TV program and selecting the right book to participate in multimedia conferences. Such developments are called Information Highway;
• multimedia information systems ( multimedia kiosks ) that provide visual information on demand from the user.
From the technical point of view, the market includes fully equipped multimedia computers, as well as individual components and subsystems (Multimedia Upgrade Kit), which include sound cards, CD-ROM drives, joysticks, microphones, speakers.
For PCs of the IBM PC class, a special MRS standard is approved, which defines the minimum hardware configuration for playing multimedia products. For optical CD-ROMs, an international standard has been developed (ISO 9660).
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