Classification of Information Technologies
Approaches to the classification of information technologies largely depend on the capabilities of software and hardware means of computers and telecommunications, the subject area of their application, the objectives of users' activities and the tasks they solve.
The aggregate of hardware (technical) facilities intended for organizing the process of processing data (information, knowledge), as well as telecommunications, designed for communication and data communication (information, knowledge) are basic information technologies .
With the advent of computers from specialists engaged in a wide variety of subject areas (banking, insurance, accounting, statistics, etc.), it became possible to use information technology to automate the solution of functional problems. In this regard, there was a need to define the concept of the traditional (inherent in one or another subject area) technology of transforming the initial information into the required resultant. Thus, the concept of object technology appeared. An ordered sequence of interrelated actions performed in a strictly defined sequence from the moment of the appearance of information to the receipt of the specified results is a technological process of information processing. object information technology is understood as a sequence of technological stages, specific to a particular subject area, from the transformation of primary information into the result. The technological process of information processing depends on the nature of the tasks being solved, the technical means used, the monitoring systems, the number of users, and so on. Subject and basic information technologies are interdependent. So, for example, the mobile capabilities of modern computer technology and telecommunications change the forms of business interaction (electronic business, electronic money, e-government, e-education, etc.). In turn, the use of modern information technologies and telecommunications also changes the forms of business interaction in the infosphere.
The classification of information technologies for the sphere of economics, business and management can be based on the following classification characteristics, which make it possible to separate from the set of possible separate groups of information technologies.
1. By purpose and nature of use , because information technologies can differ significantly in different subject areas and computer environments, two main classes of information technologies can be distinguished: providing and functional information technologies.Providing information technologies are information processing technologies that can be used as tools in different subject areas to solve a wide range of tasks with different types of information. These technologies are dependent on the type of information processed (alphanumeric, tabular, graphics, audio, video, virtual reality). These include text processing technologies, tabular data processing, work with databases, multimedia products, character recognition, telecommunications, information security and information protection, software development, etc. Providing technologies can be based on completely different hardware and software platforms. Therefore, when they are combined on the basis of subject technology, the problem arises of system integration, which consists in the need to bring various information technologies to a single standard interface. An example of this can, for example, serve office packages MS Office and Open Office, which, despite the natural differences, are largely functionally identical. Functional information technologies are technologies that implement typical information processes for solving problems in a specific subject area and based on the corresponding supporting information technologies. The purpose of functional information technologies is the automation of the production activities of specialists in the intended field. In other words, such a modification of the providing information technologies, in which any of the subject technologies is implemented, is a functional information technology.
Thus, the providing and functional technologies are interrelated, for example, providing technologies for creating text documents, analyzing data in spreadsheets, and so on. can serve as a basis for functional information technologies: financial, office, educational, industrial, etc.
2. As a classification feature, type of user interface can be used, which predetermines the user's ability to access information and computing resources while implementing information processes during the solution of user tasks. By the user interface is understood a set of instructions, rules and software and hardware that provide user interaction with the computer system. The type of user interface depends both on the type of operating system (single-program, multiprogram, multi-user, network), and on information processing technologies by the computer system. Application of this classification feature allows us to distinguish the following types of information technology.
Packet information technologies are characterized by the fact that information processes are carried out in a predetermined sequence and do not require user intervention. In this case, tasks or pre-accumulated data for certain criteria are combined into a package for subsequent automatic processing in accordance with the specified priorities. The user can not influence the progress of the tasks while the package is being processed, his functions are limited to the preparation of the initial data on the complex of tasks and transferring them to the processing center. Currently, the batch mode is implemented with respect to e-mail and reporting in a strictly formalized form.
Dialogue information technologies provide users with an unlimited opportunity to interact interactively with information resources in real time, while receiving all the necessary information for solving functional problems and decision-making. These technologies assume the absence of a rigidly fixed sequence of data conversion operations and the active participation of the user, which analyzes the intermediate results and generates control commands in the process of information processing.
If single-program operating systems (for example, MS DOS) allow organizing either batch or interactive information technology, multiprogram operating systems (for example, Windows families) can combine their application.
Network Information Technologies provide the user with access to geographically distributed information and computing resources using special communication tools. They are implemented by network (multi-user) operating systems (for example, Windows NT/2000/2003, Linux), providing both network and packet and interactive information technologies. In this case, users have the opportunity to use the data accumulated at other workplaces, redistribution of computing power between the processes of solving various functional tasks, and the possibility of joint solution of one task by several users.
3. On the way to organize networking highlight these types of information technology, the differences are laid down by the way of communication. Taking into account the generally accepted hierarchical classification, the networks are divided into three main classes, the corresponding information technologies are also invariant:
• local (LAN - Local Area Network);
• Regional (MAN - Metropoliten Area Network);
• global (WAN - Wide Area Network).
Local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering usually a relatively small area or a small group of buildings (house, office, firm, institute).
City network (or metropolitan network) MAN is not a very common type of computer network. These networks appeared relatively recently. They are designed to serve the territory of a large metropolitan city. The city network occupies an intermediate position between the local and global networks. Initially, metropolitan networks were developed only for data transmission, but now they also support services such as video conferencing and integrated voice and text transmission (see, for example, IP telephony).
WAN is a computer network that unites geographically dispersed computers that can be located in different cities and countries.
A separate case is the construction of virtual local area networks (VLANs) (Virtual LAN), which provides the integration of switch ports and end equipment into one virtual information space (second-level network). Physically, devices integrated into a VLAN can be located at a sufficient distance from each other (different floors of buildings, different buildings). Combining them into one virtual network provides the opportunity for more flexible and convenient management, the binding of equipment and workstations to a specific place disappears. Excludes the transmission of broadcast messages between networks, which reduces the load on the entire network.
There is also the concept of "corporate network", which refers to a network created to serve a group of objects related to common business interests, for example, industrial corporations, holdings, banks with their branches, etc.Information technologies based on local area networks are a system of means of transferring, storing and processing information interconnected and distributed on a limited territory, focused on the collective use of network resources - hardware, program, information. They allow you to redistribute the processing power between network users, depending on the change in their needs and the complexity of the tasks to be performed, and provide reliable and fast access of users to the information resources of the network.
Building information technology on a multi-tiered network base is in the architecture view of the created network in the form of hierarchical levels, each of which solves certain functional tasks. Such technologies are built taking into account the organizational and functional structure of the corresponding multi-level economic entity and allow to differentiate access to information and computing resources depending on the degree of importance of the tasks being solved and the management functions that are implemented at each level.
Information technologies based on distributed networks provide reliable transmission of various information between geographically remote nodes of the network using a single information infrastructure. This way of organizing network interaction is focused on the implementation of communication information links between geographically remote users and network resources.
4. Cloud computing cloud computing ) , as well as network , Is a distributed data processing technology in which computer resources and capacities are provided to the user as an Internet service.
Cloud computing is based on previously known technologies, but until the mid-2000s. The scope of their application remained limited, and the potential - undisclosed. At the present time, the early stage of development of cloud technologies is being completed, which is characterized by innovative experiments and the instability of business models.
Despite the fact that cloud computing as a term became known only in 2007, they have a rather long history. Almost all the technologies that are now part of the cloud paradigm existed before, but there were no proposals on the market that would combine promising technologies in a single commercially attractive solution. And only in the last four or five years there were public cloud services, thanks to which these technologies became, on the one hand, extremely accessible to the developer, and on the other - extremely understandable for business.
Cloud service is a special client-server technology - the use of resources by the client (CPU time, RAM, disk space, network routers, dedicated controllers, software, etc.) of a group of servers on the network that interact in such a way that :
• for the client, the entire group looks like a single virtual server;
• The client can transparently and with great flexibility change the amount of consumed resources in case of changing their needs.
In this case, the presence of several sources of resources used, on the one hand, increases the availability of the client-server system due to the possibility of scaling when the load is increased (the increase in the number of sources of this resource is proportional to the increase in the demand for it and (or) the transfer of the running virtual server to more powerful source, "live migration"), and on the other - reduces the risk of virtual server inoperability in the event of a failure of any of the servers included in the group, This server can be automatically reconnected to the resources of another (backup) server instead of the failed server.
One of the most significant technological innovations that underlie cloud computing is virtualization technologies . At the initial stage, virtualization was understood primarily as an opportunity to deploy the necessary number of virtual servers on its own equipment, then the idea of renting virtual servers on foreign hardware became prevalent - this is the essence of cloud services of the class "infrastructure as a service" (Infrastructure as a Service - IaaS). The advantages of such a lease are obvious: you do not need to buy physical equipment and provide its maintenance.
Based on the concept of cloud computing, a number of other technologies have been organized. Platform as a Service (PaaS) is the provision of an integrated platform for developing, testing, deploying and supporting web applications as a service. Today, most applications are developed in one environment, tested in a different environment, and deployed in a third. Now the entire list of operations for developing, testing and deploying Web applications can be performed in one integrated environment, thus eliminating the costs of supporting individual environments for individual phases.
Software as a Service (SaaS), another name - software on Demand (SoD) - a business model for the sale and use of software, when a vendor develops a web application and independently manages it , giving customers access to software through the Internet. The main advantage of the SaaS model for the consumer is the absence of costs associated with the installation, updating and maintenance of the equipment and the software running on it. The characteristics of this model are as follows: the application is adapted for remote use; One application is used by several customers; payment is charged either in the form of a monthly subscription fee, or on the basis of the volume of transactions; technical support of the application is included in the payment; upgrade and update the application are smooth and transparent for customers.
5. Grid computing (grid, network) is (as well as cloud) a form of distributed computing in which virtual supercomputer is presented in the form of clusters connected via a network, loosely coupled, heterogeneous computers, working together to perform a huge number of tasks (operations, works). This technology is used to solve scientific, mathematical problems that require significant computing resources. Grid computing is also used in commercial infrastructure to solve such time-consuming tasks as economic forecasting, seismic analysis, development and study of properties of new drugs. Grid in terms of network organization is a coherent, open and standardized environment that provides a flexible, secure, coordinated separation of computing resources and storage resources that are part of this environment within a single virtual organization.
The grid is a geographically distributed infrastructure that unites a multitude of resources of different types (processors, long-term and operational memory, storage and databases, networks), which the user can access from anywhere, regardless of their location. The idea of grid computing originated with the proliferation of personal computers, the development of the Internet and packet data transmission technologies based on optical fiber, as well as local area network technologies. Considering that a lot of computers connected to the global network are idle and have more resources than necessary for solving their everyday tasks, it becomes possible to use their unused resources elsewhere.
Grid computing ( grid computing ) is designed to run resource-intensive computing tasks in parallel on a large number of computers. Unlike them, in cloud computing, users themselves determine the nature of the tasks to be solved: data processing can be done both distributed and on one computer - it all depends on how the architecture of the cloud application is designed and how the "internal kitchen" is structured. specific cloud provider.
6. By type of domain information technologies are divided according to the content of the tasks to be performed: accounting and audit, banking, taxation or insurance, etc.
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